Table of content

al-academy

مجلة الاكاديمي

ISSN: 25232029 18195229
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Fine Arts
Language: Arabic

This journal is Open Access

About

jornal of the college of fine Arts University of baghdad

web site : jcofarts.uobaghdad.edu.iq

Loading...
Contact info

email : al.academy@cofarts.uobaghdad.edu.iq
phone number: 009647703467114
web site : jcofarts.uobaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2016 volume: issue:77

Article
Figurative Structuring Systems in the Optical Art
أنظمة التركيب الشكلي في الفن البصري

Authors: ندى عايد يوسف
Pages: 5-20
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Through the history of art movements, abstraction has been rotating between appearance and disappearance, mounting and stillness while its performances differed between reduction and simplification on the one hand and between the use of chromatographic and linear abstraction on the other. As a result, to what is mentioned, abstraction has appeared in many different artistic forms underlying the systematicity of the plastic art history. However, according to a contemporary point of view that comes up with the scientific revolution, the art of optical deceiving (illusion) appeared to find a hybrid art form that locates between the geometricity of abstraction and the scientific, visual and psychological foundations that are linked with the intellectual transformations. Consequently, modern strategies and styles appeared. Those are involved in relations with the eye physiology and mind perceptions and those contribute creating figurative changes in the map of the optical formation that by turn leads to a multiplicity of readings. Therefore, this research, ' The Figurative Structuring Systems in the Optical Art', studies the figurative systems, their relations and their founding references. This paper includes four chapters. The first chapter deals with the problem of the research and its aim that is all about uncovering the figurative structuring systems in the visual art relying on some related art works. Chapter two includes four sections deal with defining the concept of the optical art along with stating the founding references of the figurative system via studying the mathematical, physiological and physical systems. Chapter three, however, includes the analysis of the samples while the fourth chapter deals with the most important results that have been reached

Keywords


Article
Modeling of violence in a speech creativity photogrammetry Iraqi contemporary
نَمذَّجَة العنف في خِطاب الابداع التصويري العراقي المعاصر (أحداث العنف أثناء وبعد صيف 2014م)

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The latest events in Iraq and notably the fall of Mosul in the summer of 2014 have marked a turning point in The modern history of Iraq. Violent terrorist groups have overrun a vast area comprising of many towns in mid and northern Iraq causing many casualties and mass migration. Despite Iraq’s long history of pain and suffering the events of the second half of the year 2014 have been the most violent ever witnessed. From this point of view the researcher has tried to identify specifically in this time and place the effect these events have had on the Iraqi artist and to understand how the Iraqi artists depicted this violence in their works of art. The research comprises four parts; the first looked at the language used and the and procedural and substantive aspects, the second comprises of four studies the first of which presents a general look at local social values and their effect on the work of the artists, the second study identified the direct effect of the violence on Iraqi society, the third study looked into the direct effect of violence, terrorism and extremism on the Iraqi art movement. The fourth study looked at the theoretical framework this included ten indicators four of which were indicators from previous studies. The third part of the research is concerned with the methodology of the research, the social element and the cross sample chosen for the research and the reason this cross sample was -chosen. Six pieces of art were chosen and analyzed, five different artists created these six pieces, all six pieces were created after the events of the summer of 2014 and were inspired by these events. Represented the first sample (d. Balasim Muhammad) the people of Baghdad as a contemporary Iraqi art professors layer. (Motee Jumaili) city of Fallujah, which represents the artist professional practitioner. (Amal Fadel) represented the city of Ramadi & practitioner - not a professional artist layer. (Nibras Hashim) Mosul - represent young artist layer and upward. (Aqeel kharif) hobbyist layer & the reactions of Iraqi intellectual

Keywords


Article
Mechanisms for Development of Scenography Galleries Iraq Natural History Museum
آليات اشتغال السينوغرافيا في تطوير قاعات العرض (متحف التاريخ الطبيعي أنموذجا)

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

This paper deals with the problem of the mechanics of the operation of cinematography in the development of museum exhibition halls. In the first chapter, the researcher dealt with the problem and presented it to reach the goals and purpose of the research, which was represented in using and developing the methods and mechanisms of the presentation to keep pace with what is happening in the world of technology and access to the presented model to new formula and vision declares aesthetical and cognitive measure, thus the search constitutes an importance in absorbing Scenography dimensions in the theater and moved to the idea of the museum and the development of the display models and using them in drawing and representation of perceptions to a cognitive state of visual scene and convert the Panorama scene to moving images through visual and sound effects. In the second chapter, a theoretical framework, which includes the two papers, and it is the aesthetic dimension of the scenography in the art, and it has been tracking the operation system of the aesthetical dimension of scenography in technical races such as decor and theater and the formation, so from the scenography Museum, cities and architecture to scenography exhibition halls based on the optical vision of the fine art for the perceived world according to vision represent images mentally and cognitively. As well as the paper dealt with the scenography and visual display space between the museum and methods of Panorama. The second paper also dealt with visual display space between the museum and the methods of Panorama. Mechanisms scenographic operation are called in this section in the structure of museums , Panorama and its functioning and beauty. A group of works and methods used in the construction of a visual display were presented. The researcher concluded to indicators and theoretical framework, including the function of Scenographic construction which is an investment and create meanings and the temporal and spatial perceptions cross symbols and vocabulary and bodies constitute aesthetic dimensions and variety of visual formulas. The aesthetic dimension of scenography achieved through calling of raw materials and various techniques in image configuration achieved length and breadth, vertically and horizontally in space and various techniques in the image configuration achieved length and breadth, vertically and horizontally in space. The third chapter is an application of the findings of the researcher to the international experiences and then call Scenography as a aesthetic dimension where the researcher worked a group of samples within the exhibition Museum hall of Natural History and included the theme of Fish and rivers section in which spreading the anthropomorphism , the movement element , the addition and the image. The sample builds background of the place environment in Rawa where the river and along its banks palm scene, and there in the middle of the place there was Naor in materializing form connected with engine makes it in the case of slow rotation to suggest Rawa environment and its Naors, and in the river bank some three-dimensional plants that grow naturally without human intervention ; the reeds represents an embrace between drawn shape and the three –dimension shape which is an element of optical excitement and environment that allows the entry of an expression of holographic Naor, and through its movement the watcher feels the environment and place. The second sample is fish in a river environment at the Natural History Museum Hall. The work based on the simulation of river environment. Through the use of a variety of materials such as pulp , cloth and sand, as the business climate suggests rocks which is a three –dimension model for creating a state of delusion. It has been functioning background of safe animatedly using colored cloth transparent allowed to cross the light gives waves and movements of water sense ; add to this a triangle of the cloth process by invisible vicious air creates vibration and ripples with light element and the sound of water (sound recording). All of this act contributed to the granting of the museum a new perception of technical and aesthetic dimensions of the scenography , across the fish movement which is hanging with aquatic plants (of plastic). The fourth chapter the researcher found results and conclusions of the research, including the dimensions and scenography and its manifestations in the visual work, such offer museums safes interested in natural history museums or cultural or figuration for all this governed by optical format gives the viewer visual pleasure and scientific knowledge. The model in the visual presentation reflects many and varied factors affect and do shapes and contents incubating by it for reporting meanings and evidences ; also it represents investment of scenography mechanisms in display the idea of harmonization and communication between science and art, which contributes to the creation of a scientifically and aesthetically museum at the same time and investment scenography techniques in the development of modes of presentation in Iraqi museums

Keywords


Article
التشفير الدلالي لاداء الممثل في العرض المسرحي العراقي

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Alachtgalat process semantic encoding carried out by the actor inside the theater to deliver the intellectual sense, and social, as well as the aesthetic to the recipient, the fact that the code is the function is operated relationship in accordance with the prior intent to deliver the implications of a particular intent, too, and the fact that encryption is the best way to transfer messages in system theater, where should the actor that has the ability to create images (sensory) or intellectual new in human consciousness on the basis of conversion of impressions collected from reality and re technically formed inside the theater, allowing the recipient to arrange these marks to obtain the meaning that lies in them. So he came to answer the question follows: How can the representative of the performance today produces blades recipient can then decode the implications, understand and communicate with them. Search section according to the following: where identified the problem of the research and its importance and its objectives and its borders and then the investigator should define the term blades in order to correct the search, then the theoretical framework came across two sections: the first, for semantic encoding and most prominent divisions theorists of the encryption process and the relationship of the code give indications. The second section dealt engage in semantic of the blade in the work of actor and how to establish a cipher. Find out after the set indicators can be a tool for the analysis of the sample. And then came the analysis in which the researcher eating a play (Romeo and Juliet in Baghdad) Sample. analysis. After analysis of the number of search results the most important output: - (for movement and gestures actor Representative building Chwira are references to a multi-cultural, psychological and social level of the character, they also contribute to enhancing the dramatic act and push it ahead). Then a list of sources relied upon in the search and finally the title and abstract in English

Keywords


Article
Initial evaluation to the performance of the Iraqi actors playing The role of ( Mackbeth )
تقييم أداء الممثل العراقي لشخصية (ماكبث)

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

From 1979 to 1999 several theatricl groups had produced (Mackbeth) by shakespear which were directed by different director and the role being played by different actors. So the questions are: How did those a Iraqi actors approach that character by their performance? Did they interpret the character Truelly as the poet wanted to be. The researcher aims to find out the true performance by the actor who impersonate (mackbeth) as a wicked personality, who had un rational ambition. The researcher also aims to expose the style of acting fallowed by the Iraqi actors in that play. In chapter of review of literature, The researcher discusses the weaning and procedure of the actor performance which include characterization and transformation. He also discusses the three dimention of any charater in the theatre – the physical, the social, and the by chological. Chapter two includes analysis of (Mackbeth) personality according to the perspective. In chapter three of this research the researcher analyzes the sample including three production of (Mackbeth), the first was directed by Mursil ALzaidy, the second was directed by Shafik Mehdy, the third was directed by Sallah AL-Kassab. All those directors are instructors at the Department of theatre Ail- College of Fine Art, university of Baghdad. The researcher Concludes that only the first actor (Kamiran Rauof) approached the vole of (Mackbeth) quite well and had given the other two were far from the true perspective because they had not taken the three dimensions of the character in mind

Keywords


Article
Aesthetical Utilization of Sound in film of Alfred Hitchcock
التوظيف الجمالي للصوت في افلام الفريد هيتشكوك

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

This research deals with the nature of the aesthetic employment of wool in the Alfred Hitchcock films, as this director is characterized by rich his experience that dealt with the photo film days of silent film and managed efficiently in the construction of his films, as well as when the audio input The Hitchhiker employ sound aesthetic ways still emulated so far. So I rely researcher this subject and the division of research into four chapters, such as the first quarter included the methodological framework which dealt with the problem of research and the importance of research, and the goals of the research, as well as the limits of research and finally determine the terms. The second chapter includes theoretical framework and previous studies, where the researcher by dividing it into two sections dealt with the two search for a unique cinematic experiences Hitchcock as well as actors in his ways aesthetic Employment sound in all of his movies. In the end, without indications researcher discussed the results of a theoretical framework. Chapter III, action research, where the researcher will select two films of Hitchcock movies and are not birds and film rear window, and analyzed the sample is based on indicators that came out of the theoretical framework. Finally, in the fourth quarter researcher took a series of findings, conclusions and seal Find a range of sources

Keywords


Article
Narrative and dramatic television series in building
السردي والدرامي في بناء المسلسل التلفزيوني

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Represents the narrative and drama important sources in the serial drama television structure, and the advent of modern narrative techniques within the dramatic structure of the series of television directorial and processors that hired them, form a quantum leap in the level of the emergence of distinct forms of dramatic rely on narrative techniques according to the harmonic fabric is in control of making the form of art. dramatic and running events, but in order to discharge the need to adhere to the basics of drama and adapted within the mediator television capabilities, and narrative to make forms of television series to Atantzm in drift fixed because of the nature of governing structure formalism, this does not mean the existence of forms of dramatic irregular elements on the contrary, organized the elements according to building dramatic textured, and this is the narrative and drama of the most important sources in the construction of the structure of the television series

Keywords


Article
The Impact of using the strategy of shape (V) on the Achievement of the students of the Department of Artistic Education
أثر استخدام استراتيجية الشكل (v) في تحصيل طلبة قسم التربية الفنية لمادة أصول البحث العلمي

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

This research aim at finding out the impact of using the strategy of shape V on the achievement of the students of the Department of Artistic Education in the subject of "Principles of scientific Research ". This strategy is one of the cognitive strategies used in this topic . To verify the aim of the research ,the two researchers have put the following null hypothesis:- There are no significant differences on the level of 0,05 among the average degrees of the students of the experimental group in their answers on the topics of the pre and post cognitive achievement tests of the subject of "principles of scientific Research " . The two researchers have adopted the experimental approach which consists of one group . the population of the research is restricted by the students of the third stage Department of Artistic Education College of Fine Arts. The sample consists of 12 students selected randomly . To measure the impact of the strategy of shape V on the achievement of students , A cognitive achievement test for measuring the information acquired by student , has been made . the tool of the research has been submitted to the procedures of reliability and discrimination. The two researchers have used ( Wilcox on signed rank test) to show the differences among the group's students who apply to the experiment (earlier & later). Coefficient of Variation and determination is used to analyses the topics of the cognitive achievement test . In addition , Kuder-Richardson Formula 20 is adopted to state to check the consistency of measurements . The two researchers have drawn the following conclusions :- 1- - The strategy of shape V has showed an obvious positive impact on the achievement of the students of the Department of Artistic Education in the subject of (principles of scientific Research ). 2- The strategy of shape V has contributed in motivating students to participate effectively in the lecture to follow its contents . 3- Teaching with the strategy of shape V breaks boredom & inactivity , which reflects positively on the results . According to the conclusions , the two researchers have suggested the following recommendations :- 1- - Confirming on the use of the strategy of shape V in teaching the subject of (principles of scientific Research ) because of its effect on achieving the goals of the subject . 2- Adding the strategy of shape V to the methods of teaching's systems and training students on teaching it . 3- Training Arts teachers on using innovative methods especially the strategy oh shape V . The two researchers also suggest the following :- 1- - Studying the impact of the strategy of shape V on the achievement of students in other subjects. 2- -Studying the impact of the strategy of shape V on acquiring artistic concepts of student of the Department of Artistic Education.

Keywords


Article
Diversity of designs decorative hearts in the holy threshold Kadhimiya
تنوع تصاميم القلوب الزخرفية في العتبة الكاظمية المقدسة

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The plant decorative arts field full of decorative Baltnoat from diversity in the design structure of vocabulary and whether units sepals, vase Aogsnah or written and what their catalog decorative hearts in Kadhimiya holy threshold of diversity in shapes and measurements and sizes. It is during the field visit of the researcher found that there are variations in the overall appearance and internal padding and this researcher has formulated the discussion by asking the following problem: (What is the diversity of designs decorative hearts in Kadhimiya holy threshold?) The importance of research in it: Research contributes to open the horizons of knowledge for researchers and scholars concerned with the teaching of the decorative arts, as well as promote closer cultural heritage and decorative facades Kadhimiya holy threshold. The research aims to: Reveal the diversity of designs decorative hearts in Kadhimiya holy threshold. As determined search internal and external interfaces as the current 1433 e 2012. This included the theoretical framework on the following topics: History sacred threshold of Kadhimiya, and the formal organization of the decorative hearts in Islamic art in terms of the diversity of the general appearance and internal padding diversity and color treatments. The researcher followed in their procedures descriptive approach to reach the results achieved its goals and solve the problem. The sample was selected in a way that Alvsidih if numbered (3) of the total sample (85) model and design tool (Form) and presented to the experts to make sure their validity, and the achievement of the Millennium. The search found results including: Accrediting divisions cadastral asymmetric and the emergence of hearts decorative Bhaoh formality with a dual function literacy, ornamental, as well as construction decorative according two methods (omnidirectional Omzdug) and varied movements including spiral and Lhalrkh rotational flipped, and showed finishes processing color antagonism hearts decorative between form and ground

Keywords


Article
Form and content encryption with digital designs in women's contemporary fabrics
تشفير الشكل والمضمون بالتصاميم الرقمية في الاقمشة النسائية المعاصرة

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

My research to study the processes of the creation of shapes and encrypt any encryption in design forms and contents of computer technology as the creative property of definable and renewal, change and transformation process of transformative theme of shape, form and content encryption process in textile designs lets us know the meaning or substance which may be invisible to the encryption in the digital design of fabrics is a recruitment ideas modern and refined through a technique to accomplish the work of a beautiful audiences with novelty and innovation. The search includes four chapters: 1Chapter I deal with the problem of research and its current research (form and content encryption with digital designs in women's contemporary fabrics) it reproduces and innovative design language a new form and production of various new ideas by using the designer's imagination and encrypt any encryption in the shapes and contents using computer technology and asking the following: Is it possible to obtain women's contemporary fabric designs effective encryption formats and content of subjects with the possibility of implementation in accordance with digital technology? The objective is to prepare a proposed textile designs contemporary The study identified women's contemporary fabrics designs implemented in digital technology. Chapter II may combine the theoretical framework and the previous studies and the theoretical framework may include the following: Detective Section i: 1. encrypt form and content in the design. Either section II contained digital design in contemporary fabrics. Either section III contained encrypted designs fabrics according to digital technology. Chapter III procedures for research, research methodology and specified and search tool and search forms. Out in chapter IV of the findings, conclusions and recommendations and design proposals, proposals, and one of the most important result of the research: 1. built on encryption in the formal sense as in the direction of expressionist canvas. 2. the aesthetic values of textile using modern methods in composition design of form design to technical codes diverse modern digital. 4. characteristic designs of textile with utilitarian values achieved a large proportion comes from the aesthetic expression and content forms of cryptographic and expressive and symbolic consistency and harmony of forms and colors in sophisticated style with digital technology. 5. the count of shapes and design links and content codes codes and units of semantic interpretation was accurate detail to explain the meanings of the forms and content

Keywords


Article
التوجهات التصميمية للمنتج المقلد ومنافسة الأصيل

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The problem of the research represented by knowing the approaches which presented by knowing the design guides and the design styles which the imitation products enter upon it to be able to competitor the other original products . The research aim was to comparison the design approaches of the functional performance and the utilizations for the imitation and the original products , however the research limits contained study products samples of the kitchen electric equipments which available in local markets of Baghdad city for the period (2000 – 2013) . After the view of research back for the subject fundamental basics and investigating research sample to be complete to a group of results and conclusions and the most marked of her were : 1. The suitable employment for both of the plastic and stainless steel materials (which they had many specifications distinguishing it from other materials from the healthy and the employment matters) swan efficiently in original samples , and its effect was not weak in imitation samples . 2. The chromatic difference and touches for determinations of industrial product units warps with a solver from the attraction and making attention of the receiver firm , and may be the imitation products will surpass sometime the original by her shapes and its attractive colors

Keywords


Article
Technological development and its association with the formal change to devices Flatiron
التطور التكنولوجي وارتباطه بالتغير الشكلي لأجهزة المكواة

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Evolution in the modern era Which led to the rapid change in the forms of industrial products For many reasons, So put current research into question the view (What are the design requirements that define the formal change in the Iron clothes)? To reach the aim of In the design cornerstonesUnderlying the formal changethe Iron of the clothes, In the first section shed light on the development stages of systems design lists the historic stages of development and energy operator devices irons and mechanism of action and internal components, while in the second part, which was entitled (The role of technology and the factors influencing the change formality of Iron) touched on the three topics which technology modern industrial and receiver, as well as technological development and formal change and last topic is the role of the designer in the user accepts the morphological changes of industrial products, and research found that formal change subject effectively on the evolution in the field of technology

Keywords


Article
The Floors and transparent role in the design studios satellite channels
الأرضيات الشفافة ودورها في تصاميم استوديوهات القنوات الفضائية

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The search (floors and transparent role in the design studios satellite channels) and presented as a study-oriented, and the research aims to identify the role of flooring transparent spaces studios satellite channels and side performative and aesthetic, and formulas design to highlight the role floors transparent spaces studios satellite channels. And highlight the importance of research, particularly in its contribution to the clarification of the concept of the relationship between transparency and performing aesthetic treatments for floors by clarifying its role in the designs of the internal spaces of the studios, as well as his contribution to the founding of the theory of looking at the base of such concepts. To achieve the objectives of the research, the researcher based on the descriptive approach in the study, as the appropriate method to gain access to comprehensive coverage of the objectives of the research, has been selected samples is my intention, and based on the literature and studies on transparency in the internal spaces, and use the researcher is also the tool of research II (questionnaire), which included Astmartin has drawn questions from which adherents of workers in the channels and viewers of those channels, the analysis was designed questionnaire included several axes, and the most important: 1- shape and size of the internal space of the studio and achievable for the job (performance and beauty). 2 multiple layers of earth and its relationship to the extra dimension and motor insulation career and privacy. 3 color discrimination for flooring satellite channels and selected sections of the space. 4 ores and materials used in flooring studios and their impact in achieving transparency. Has resulted in the analysis process for the development of a set of conclusions and the most important: 1 that the internal floor space for studios satellite channels check in multiple career highs insulation and privacy between multiple studio spaces, and it adds a dimension to the physically and visually to the interior space of the studio. 2 that the plastic material may be used in the studio floor space and can be achieved along with the performative and aesthetic, as if the designer deal with these materials in order to serve the desired purpose in the floor space of the studios. The most important recommendations of the beneficiaries of the research that is being designed floor interior spaces for studios, satellite channels on as achieved by my performance and aesthetic vision through design verification purposes highest performance and beauty. During the design of the idea of what is required to perform advanced functionality and aesthetic expression and function of the flooring spaces studios satellite channels. The researcher suggested the study of modern electronic techniques and ways to employ them in the flooring studios satellite channels

Keywords


Article
ITEMS OF ISLAMIC DECORATION IN DECORATIVE DESIGNING OF IRAQI ALKLABIAT (GOWN) CLOTHES
مفــــردات الزخرفــــة الأسلاميــــة فــي التصاميــــم التزينيــــه لأقمشـــة الكلابيـــات العراقيـــة

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Designing women clothes is one of the application arts has rules and fundamentals and also laws connected the individual , and it is the whole thought and the decorative element for the cloth, in this way it highlighted the aesthetic and functional aspects which achieving the basic objective of existing the design, and the design has motives of designer chisel of the ability to deduct and device new systems and relations of his self sense of the components from which one could sustain the designing thought. Besides, the cultural and philosophy level to him which considered elements and motives , the researcher depending on them in designing women clothes, and the research problem is limited on the imposing the following question: Could the decorative ,plantation decorative engineering items be mobilized in the decorative designs for the Alklabiat (Gown) clothes ? And the research aims at detecting detecting decorative ,plant decorative engineering items and their role in decorating the designing Alklabiat (Gown) clothes also applying suggested designs in which decorative and the first category included / the decorative items with the decoration elements in designing Alklabiat (Gown) / 1- Details of Islamic decoration in the Abbasian age, 2- The decoration elements in designing Alklabiat (Gown) cloth, 3- Decoration and its connection with designing fasions and the second category / diversity in designing clothes and its relation with the human body as for the third category which displays implementation of the designing designs and presenting designing, decorative suggestions then followed by the research results and lastly list of references and abstract in English language

Keywords


Article
The mechanism of addition and subtraction in the industrial product and its relation to employment pressure
آلية الحذف والإضافة في المنتج الصناعي وعلاقتها بالضاغط الوظيفي

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The Significance of this research comes as a result of the development occurring in various life fields including the field of technical and technological development in the domain of industrial products which are in direct touch with the receiver, and because the study of deletion and addition mechanism didn't Find the Scientific space through researches and Studies. On this basis , the aim of this study is defining the forms of deletion and addition mechanism in designing the industrial product in a way that fits the functional presser . As to the limitations of this study, they involve examples of readymade Turkish House furniture, which is available in Iraqi local markets in Baghdad city 2013. The study included four chapters. The first chapter addressed the research significance and its need in addition to the research problem, aims and limitations, as well as terminology . As to the second chapter , it included previous studies and the theoretical frame work which in turn included three sections , the first came under the title " The Concept Of Deletion and addition in Design" , while the second section included the deletion and addition through design bases and elements , whereas the third sections included the action of functional presser in designing the industrial product . While the third chapter addressed the research procedures , Where the descriptive method was followed in analyzing the research sample till achieving the research aims, and relying on the research population which included three different examples of ready- made Turkish furniture which was selected deliberately to meet the research requirements and aims . Also, this chapter addressed the analysis of research sample according to the analysis axes defined by the researcher through the indicators revealed by the theoretical framework. Finally, the fourth chapter contained The results, conclusions , recommendations and suggestions

Keywords

Table of content: volume: issue: