جدول المحتويات

مجلة العلوم الزراعية العراقية

ISSN: ISSN:00750530 / EISSN:24100862
الجامعة: جامعة بغداد
الكلية: الزراعة
اللغة: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

حول المجلة

تأسست مجلة العلوم الزراعية العراقية في كلية الزراعة جامعة بغداد عام 1966. كانت المجلة تصدر بعددين في العام فقط. بدأت المجلة عام 2000 باصدار ستة اعداد في السنة لكل مجلد, وهي الان في عام 2016 بالمجلد (47). تشمل ابحاث المجلة كافة العلوم الزراعية المرتبطة بالعلوم النباتية والحيوانية فضلاً عن المكننة الزراعية والاقتصاد الزراعي والارشاد الزراعي والعلوم الداعمة للعلوم الزراعية مثل الكيمياء والفيزياء لاسيما المرتبطة بالضوء والالحرارة والرياح وغيرها. يتضمن المجلد الواحد حالياً اكثر من 75 بحثأ حيث يتضمن العدد الواحد بين 20-25 بحثاً بحسب عدد الابحاث المقبولة في كل عدد

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معلومات الاتصال

tijasub@yahoo.com
tel :
009647804541817
009647512748875
address:
college of Agric. / Univ. of Baghdad
Al Jadreah, Baghdad, Iraq

جدول المحتويات السنة: 2016 المجلد: 47 العدد: 3

Article
EFFECTS OF FOLIAR APPLICATION OF ORGANIC AND GROWTH PROMOTER BIOZYME ON GROWTH OF WOLLY PEACH "RED JUNE" 1- VEGETATIVE GROWTH
تأثير الرش بالسماد العضوي ومحفز النمو Biozyme في نمو الخوخ الصوفي Red June 1- الصفات الخضرية

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الخلاصة

A Field experiment was conducted using Factorial within Randomized Complete Block Design during 2014 and 2015 on the wolly peach seedlings cv Red June, which grafted on the seeded apricot, at the Dept. of Horticulture – Coll. Of Agric. – Univ. of Baghdad. The objective of this experiment was to study the effect of foliar application on organic fertilizer and growth promoter biozyme on growth of wolly peach. The tveatments were organic Fertilizer (Botryfun) (F) with 0, 3, 4 , 5 ( Ml.ltr -1) and biozyme (G) 0 , 2 , 4 ( Ml.ltr -1). The results revealed that the plants foliared by organic fertilizer F4 produced significantly highest values for all the studied traits. Plant hight iricveased 17.6, 35.5 cm, new branches lenyht 56.0, 14.4 cm. no. of vegetative branches 11.5, 29.2, diameter of main stem increased 0.85, 1.13cm, single leaf area 42.0, 39.8 cm2 , no of leaves 517.3, 771.7, leaves dry matter % , 36.8, 41.6, for two years respectively. The biozyme G2 increased plant height 15.8 and 35.6 cm, new vegetative branches 53.9, 62.8 cm, new vegetative branches 10.1, 31.6, stem diameter 0.78, 1.14 cm, single leaf area 37.3, 41.0 cm2 , no. of leaves 431.9, 825.0, leaves dry matter % 37.2, 41.3, for two years, respectively.


Article
EFFECTS OF FOLIAR APPLICATION OF ORGANIC AND GROWTH PROMOTER BIOZYME ON GROWTH OF WOLLY PEACH "RED JUNE"
تأثير الرش بالسماد العضوي ومحفز النمو Biozyme في نمو الخوخ الصوفي Red June 2- تركيز الأوراق من العناصر الغذائية

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الخلاصة

A Factorial experiment within Randomized Complete Block Design was coducted during 2014, 2015 on wolly peach seedlings C.V Red June, which grafted on the seeded apricot , at the Dept. of Horticulture – Coll. Of Agric. – Univ. of Baghdad. The objective of this experiment was to study the effect of foliar application The seedlings were sprayed with four levels of organic fertilizer Botryfun is 0, 3, 4 and 5( Ml.ltr-1) for each level by the symbol F0, F1, F2 and F3 respectively, growth prpmoter Biozyme three levels are 0, 2 and 4(Ml.ltr-1) are indicated G which is G0, G1 and G2 respectively, recorded most of the treatment were significant differences for the control, were the highest values of organic fertilizer in the treatment of F3 to all the elements reaching nitrogen 1.10 and 1.57 %, phosphorus 0.37 and 0.64%, potassium 2.16 and 2.66 %, iron 244.89 and 245.11 ppm, manganese 64.60 and 73.67 ppm, and zinc 105.33 and 128.67 ppm for two seasons respectively. And gave a growth promoter at the third focus G2 highest rates in the stock content from the elements, as it gave the nitrogen 1.10 and 1.54%, phosphorus 0.37 and 0.49%, potassium 2.01 and 2.57%, manganese 61.33 and 72.67 ppm, and zinc 100.00 and 127.67 ppm, except iron of both seasons. When overlap outperformed many treatment morally for the control were treated overlap G2F3 with the highest value for all nutrients studied, which amounted to 1.12 and 1.70% nitrogen, 0.43 and 0.50.% Phosphorus, 2.22 and 2.78% potassium, 241.67 and 242.00 ppm iron , 68.00 and 86.67 ppm, manganese 121.67 and 132.00 ppm zinc. while the control recorded lower values and all the nutrients studied.


Article
INFLUENCE OF LIGHT SPECTRUM AND NAPHTHALENE ACETIC ACID ON ROOTING OF SHOOTS FOR TWO VARIETIES OF GERBERA JAMESONII IN VITRO
تأثير الطيف الضوئي نفثالين حامض الخليك في تجذير أفرع صنفين من الجيربرا خارج الجسم الحي

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الخلاصة

This research was conducted at the plant tissue culture Lab. College of Agriclture, University of Baghdad from February to October 2015. The aim of the study was investigate the influence of light quality and Naphthalene Acetic Acid(NAA) on some properties of roots for two varieties Martinque and Yanara shoots of Gerbera jamesonii, cultured on MS medium supplemented with 0.3 mg.L -1 Spermidine. The results indicated that 1/2 MS medium with free auxin NAA gave the highest percentage of rooting (75 %) Which differed significantly from the other concentrations of NAA. White light gave the hightest percentage of rooting (89 %), that was not significantly different from the red light (78%) . While the treatment of Martinque variety under White light gave the highest percentage of rooting (100%), that was not significantly different from Yanara variety that gave (78%). MS medium with free auxin NAA gave the highest number of roots (7.5 % root/shoot ) that was significantly different on all the other concentrations of NAA. MS medium with free auxin NAA under White light of roots (6.6 root/shoot) at Martinque variety . While MS medium with free auxin NAA under blue light gave the highest number of roots (10.10 roots/shoot) that was not different significantly from red light it gave (8.9 root/shoot) Martinque variety gave the highest rate of root length ( 1.62 cm) Which not differend significantly from Yanara variety it gave (1.49 cm) While The treatment of Martinque variety under White light with NAA- free medium gave the highest rate of root length (3.40 cm) and was significantly different on all the other interactions


Article
INFLUENCE OF LIGHT SPECTRUM AND BENZYLAMINO PURINE ON SOME VEGETATIVE AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SHOOTS ON TWO VARIETIES OF GERBERA JAMESONII IN VITRO
تأثير الطيف الضوئي والبنزل أدنين في بعض الصفات الخضرية والكيميائية لأفرع صنفين من الجيربرا خارج الجسم الحي

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الخلاصة

This research was conducted at the plant tissue culture Lab.College of Agriclture, University of Baghdad from February to October 2015. The aims of the study were investigate the influence of light quality and Benzylamino purine ( BA) on some vegetative and chemical properties of shoots for two varieties Martinque and Yanara of Gerbera jamesonii . cultured on MS medium supplemented with 0.3 mg.L-1 NAA, 0.4 mg.L-1 Kinetin, 0.3 mg.L-1 Spermidine ,100 mg.L-1 Adenine sulphate. The highest number of shoots/explant ( 6.14 ) were When MS medium supplemented with 3 mg/L-1 of BA grown under red light with Martinque variety Which did not significantly differ than explants under White light ( 6 shoots/ explant ). The interaction between variety and kind of light indicated that on MS free medium gave the highest length of shoots (7.33 , 6.70 cm) for Martinque and Yanara respectively .Total Chlorophyll content of shoots was highest ( 33.37 SPAD) in cultures for Martinque variety illuminated with White light . The results showed that ( 36.36 SPAD) of total Chlorophyll content were achieved with MS medium modified with 3 mg/L-1 BA under White light conditions. The highest values of shoot fresh weight ( 776.4 mg) was reconded on explants illuminated with White light on the medium supplemented with 1.5 mg/L-1 BA for Yanara variety . While the MS medium supplemented with 3 mg/L-1 BA under White light gave the greatest dry weight ( 64.7 mg) for the Martinque variety which did not differ significantly from the Yanara variety (64.1mg). Higher percentage of Carbohydrates (24 %) was recorded under red light on (BA)-free medium for Martinque variety .


Article
RESPONSE OF COWPEA TO THE SPRAYING OF BORON AND CARBO LIZER ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF GREEN PODS
استجابة اللوبيا للرش بالبورون والكاربوليزر في نمو وحاصل القرنات الخضراء

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الخلاصة

An experiment was carried out at the vegetable fields of Horticulture and Landscaping Design Dept. , College of Agriculture / university of Baghdad / Abu Ghraib at season (2014) to study the effect of spraying boron and Carbo lizer on growth and yield of cowpea. (Ramshorn C.v.) Seeds are sown at two dates; Spring and summer date. The experiment also included the use of four concentrations of Boron (B), which were; (0, 50, 100 and 200) mg. L-1 and three concentrations of Carbo lizer; (c) (0, 1,25 and 2,5) cm3.L-1 sprayed at three times; (30, 45 and 60) days after sowing. The experiment analysis is carried out in accordance to the experimental design RCBD and it is adopted in three replacements, and it is compared with at least L.S.D. significant probability level at 0.05.The treatment B1 show a significant increase in leaves number (27.4 leaf.plant-1), leaf area (212.3dm2.plant-1), dry weight for the total vagitative (43.0 g.plant-1 ), day number to flower 50% plants(47.3 days), pod number ( 42.56 pod.Plant-1), yield of green pods (127.5 gm.plant-1), total yield of green pods (6.800 ton.ha-1 ) respectively in spring season, While The treatment B3 show a significant increase in leaves number (38.6 leaf.plant-1), leaf area (252.9 dcm2.plant-1), dry Weight for the total vagitative (113.9 g.plant-1 ), day number to flower 50% plants(56.8 days), pod number (100.54 pod.Plant-1), yield of green pods (300.9 g .plant-1), total yield of green pods (16.084 Ton.ha-1 ) respectively in summer season , While The treatment C1 show a significant increase in number (37.5,28.1 leaf.plant-1), leaf area (240.1,218.2 dcm2.plant-1), pod number (98.39,40.66 pod.Plant-1), yield of green pods (287.0,122.2 g.plant-1), total yield of green pods (15.304,6.519 Ton.ha-1 ) for both seasons respectively The interaction treatment B1C1(50 mg.L-1 Boron +1.25 cm3 Carbo lizer) in spring season, and B3C1 (200mg L-1 Boron+1.25 cm3 Carbo lizer) in summer season show a significant increase of leaves number (30.7,40.3)leaf.plant-1, leaf area (265.5, 258.4) dcm2.plant-1, dry weight for the total vegetative (47.7, 122.1) g.plant-1, day number to flower 50% plants(47.0,53.7)days, pod number ( 55.43,113.03) pod.Plant-1, yield of green pods (161.9, 316.3) g.plant-1, total yield of green pods (8.632, 16.871) Ton.ha-1 respectively, this is in comparison with the control plant which gave(20.0,28.3 leaf.plant-1),(143.9,182.1 dcm2.plant-1), (32,4, 80.4 g.plant-1),(48.7,59.3 days) (27.17, 70,83 pod.Plant-1), (82.2, 210.3 g.plant-1), (4.385, 11.216 Ton.ha-1) respectively and for both dates respectively.


Article
THE EFFECT OF SPRAYING OF BORON AND CARBO LIZER ON THE PRODUCTIVITY AND QUALITY OF DRY COWPEA SEEDS
تأثير رش البورون والكاربوليزر في انتاجية ونوعية بذور اللوبيا الجافة

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الخلاصة

An experiment was carried out at the vegetable fields of Horticulture and Landscaping Design Dep. / College of Agriculture / university of Baghdad / Abu Ghraib on season 2014 to study the effect of spraying boron and Carbo lizer on the productivity and quality of cowpea seeds. Ramshorn c.v. Seeds are sowed on two dates; Spring and summer date. The experiment also includes the use of four concentrations of Boron: 0, 50, 100 and 200 mg. L-1 Which Symbolized B1,B2,B3 and B4 and three concentrations of Carbo lizer; 0, 1.25 and 2.5 cm3.L-1 Which Symbolized C1,C2 and C3. The experiment analysis is carried out in accordance to the experimental with in Randomized complete block design (RCBD) and it is adopted in three replacements, and it is compared with L.S.D. at 0.05 probability level. The results showed superiority of treatment B1 in yield of dry seeds 46.2 g.plant-1, percentage of carbohydrates 64.52% and the treatment B2 showed a significant increase in the bulk density of the seeds 0.669 g.cm3 , percentage of protein in the seeds 22.76% in the spring date while treatment B3 show a significant increase in the number of Seeds in pods 8.86 seed.pod-1, yield of dry seeds 99.8 g.plant-1, specific density 1.068 g.cm3 ,bulk density 0.698 g.cm3 and percentage of protein in the dry seeds 22:56% in the summer date, and excelled treatment of Carbo lizer C1 show a significant increase in yield of dry seeds 45.1 , 90.9 g.plant-1 for both dates respectivelly, The interaction treatment B1C1 show a significant increase in the number of seeds in pod 9.87 seed.pod-1 and yield of dry seeds g.plant-1 59.7 g.plant-1 in the spring date, while the interaction treatment was significantly B3C2 showed a significant increase in the number of seeds in pod 9.27 seed.pod-1 and percentage of protein 22.73% and The interaction treatment B3C1 show a significant increase yield of dry seeds 109.7 g.plant-1 bulk density 0.703 g.cm3 in the summer date, The interaction treatment B1C0 show a significant increase in percentage of carbohydrates 64.70 and 64.80% for both dates respectively.


Article
INFLUNCE OF GROWTH REGULATORS ON CALLUS INDUCTION OF CITRUS VOLKAMERIANA IN VITRO
تأثير منظمات النمو في إستحثاث الكالس لأصل الحمضيات الفولكاماريانا خارج الجسم الحي

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الخلاصة

This research was conducted in the plant tissue culture Lab. College of Agriculture / University of Baghdad from February to October 2015. The aim of the study was investigating the influences of combinations of Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) , Thidiazuron (TDZ) Spermidine (Spd. ) and 2,4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) , Benzyl adenine (BA) on callus induction and adventitous shoot regeneration originated from cotyledon of Citrus volkameriana seeds. Seeds were disinfested with 0.1 % of HgCl2 for 15 minutes. The MS medium supplemented with (0.0,1.5 , 3.0 ) mg L-1 NAA in combination with (0.0, 0.05, 0.1) mg L-1 TDZ and (0.0, 0.5 ,1.0) mg L-1 Spd. and MS medium supplemented with (0.0, 1.5 , 3.0) mg L-1 2,4-D in combination with (0.0 ,1.0 , 2.0 ) mg L-1 BA and (0.0 ,0.5 , 1.0) mg L-1 Spd. the interaction between 1.5 mg L-1 NAA and (0.05 , 0.1) mg L-1 TDZ and the interaction between 3.0 mg L-1 NAA and (0.05 ,0.1) mg L-1 TDZ with all concentrations of Spd. gave the highest percentage of callus induction 100 % . While the MS medium supplemented with 3 mg L-1 of 2,4-D in combination with all concentrations of BA and spd. gave the highest percentage 100 % of callus induction. Results showed that MS medium supplemented with 1.5 mg L-1 NAA in combination with 0.1 mg L-1 TDZ and 1.0 mg L-1 spd. gave the highest values of fresh and dry weight of callus (668.8, 44.59 ) mg respectively . While the MS medium supplemented with 3 mg L-1 2,4-D in combination with 1.0 mg L-1 spd. And 0.0 mg L-1 BA gave the highest values of fresh and dry weight of callus (709.2 , 47.28 ) mg respectively.


Article
INFLUNCE OF AUXIN AND POLYAMINEES ON ROOTING OF SHOOTS OF CITRUS VOLKAMERIANA ROOTSTOCK IN VITRO
تأثير الاوكسين ومتعدد الامين في تجذير الأفرع لأصل الحمضيات الفولكاماريانا خارج الجسم الحي

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الخلاصة

This research was conducted in the plant tissue culture Lab. College of Agriculture / University of Baghdad from February to October 2015. The aim of the study was investigating the influence of combinations of Indole butyric acid (IBA) , Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and polyamine Spermidine (Spd.) on rooting of shoots of citrus volkameriana rootstock cultured on 12 MS medium. The Results indicated that 1/2 MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg L-1 (IBA) gave the highest percentage of rooting (67 %) which differed significantly from the MS medium with free auxin IBA that gave (22%) while the MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg L-1 spermidine gave the highest percentage of rooting (63%) that was not significantly different than other concentrations of Spd . MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg L-1 IBA and 0.5 mg L-1 Spd. gave the highest percentage of rooting (83%) and the highest root number / shoot (3.17) and highest length of root (3.15 cm) while the MS medium with free auxin IBA and spd. did not give percentage of rooting (0%) for citrus volkameriana rootstock plantlets . The MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg L-1 NAA gave the highest percentage of rooting (56%) which differed significantly from MS medium with free auxin NAA that gave (22%) while MS medium supplemented with 0.5mg L-1 spd. gave the highest percentage of rooting (50%) that was not significantly different from other concentration of Spd . MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg L-1 NAA and 0.5 mg L-1 Spd. gave the highest percentage of rooting (68%) and the highest root number /shoot (2.5) and highest length of root (2.65 cm) while the MS medium with free auxin NAA and Spd. did not gave percentage of rooting (0%) .


Article
THE ROLE OF SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE ON THE GROWTH AND YIELD OF EGGPLANT
دور الزراعة المستدامة في نمو وحاصل الباذنجان

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الخلاصة

A field experiment was carried out in the vegetable field of Horticulture Department and Landscape Gardening, College of Agriculture, Abu-Ghraib In the spring season 2014 to study the Role of Sustainable agriculture in the growth and yield of Eggplant, were studied of Two factors the first factor represent two treatment, first is shading with plastic nets (50% light) and the second without shading, each of these treatment contained three replicates and distributed randomly these eight treatments (without adding, Endospor Dry Mix, Biohealth, Amino Alexin, interacion between Endospor Dry Mix and Biohealth interaction between Endospor Dry Mix and Amino Alexin interaction between Biohealth and Amino Alexin triple interaction between Endospor Dry Mix and Biohealth and Amino Alexin and symbolized by (Control, A, B, O, AB, AO, BO and ABO). The experiment carried out within (Nested Design), and analyzed according to test least significant difference ( LSD) and at the probability level of 5%, Results showed the treatment A gavr a significant increase at height of the plant (98.5 cm), and the number of leaves (135.0 leaf.plant-1), and the dry weight of vegetative (125.8 g), and the length of the main root (51.17 cm), and the dry weight of roots (17.82 g), and the length of the fruit (11.64 cm), and the diameter of the fruit (6.40 cm), and the number of fruits (13.45 fruit), and the plant yield (2.30kg.plant-1). It excelled treatment using biostimulative ABO significantly in (leaf content of N 3.045%), and ( leaf contant P 0.684%), and (leaf content K 2.878%). The treatment of shading significantly in the plant height (97.6 cm), and the number of leaves (117.4 leaf.plant-1), and the dry weight of vegetative (108.5 g), and the length of the main root (47.54 cm) and the dry weight of the roots (12.91 g) and the length of the fruit (11.14 cm) and the fruit diameter (6.71 cm) and the weight of the fruit (169.6 g) and the number of fruits (11.21 fruit.plant-1) and the plant yield (1.91 kg.plant-1). The interaction between treatment A and shading significantly in the number of leaves (150.0 leaf.plant-1), and the dry weight of vegetative (136.7 g) and the length of the main root (53.0 cm), and the dry weight of roots (21.38 g) and the length of the fruit (12.80 cm) and the number of fruits (14.37 fruit. plant -1) and the plant yield (2.47 kg.plant-1). The interaction between the treatment AO and the shading significantly in the plant height (122.7 cm), and the length of the main root (53.00 cm) and the diameter of the fruit (7.10 cm).


Article
EFFECT OF FOLIAR APPLICATION OF ORGANIC EXTRACT AND HAMIC ACID APPLICATION ON STRAWBERY PRODACTION
تأثير الرش بالمستخلص العضوي و أضافة حامض الهيوميك في حاصل نبات الشليك

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الخلاصة

This study was carried out in greenhouse Date to palm Research units, College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad ( Abu Ghraib ) , seasons 2013 and 2014 to investigate the effect of foliar application organic matter extract and humic acid and their interactions on yield of strawberry plants . The study include 12 treatments , to spray strawberry's plant with four levels of organic matter spray included distilled water only (T0) , (1) volume of organic matter extract to volume of distilled water ( 1:1) (T1) , (2) volume of organic matter extract to volume of distilled water (2:1 ) (T2 ) and (3) volume of organic matter extract volume of distilled water (3:1) (T3), the second factor was three concentrations of humifert-ultra , 0( H0 ) , 2.5 ml.L-1 ( H2.5) and 5 ml.L-1 ( H5 ) to the soil . Factorial Experiment carried out according to RCBD with three replications , averages compared by LSD test at the level of 5% probability. Results that have been obtained is that spraying plants extract organic matter led to a significant increase in the number of flowers and the percentage of the contract and the number of fruits and had no significant effect on yield of plant. addition of humic acid led to a significant increase in the number of flowers and the percentage of fruit set and the number of fruits and fruit weight and yield of plant .


Article
THE KNOWLEDGE OF AGRICULTURE EXTENSION MANAGERS ON THE STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT IN THE PROVINCES OF THE MIDDLE REGION OF IRAQ.
معرفة مدراء الارشاد الزراعي بالإدارة الاستراتيجية في محافظات المنظفة الوسطى من العراق

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الخلاصة

The objective of this research to determine the knowledge level of the agriculture extension managers in the strategic management, To achieve the aims of this study we used a questionnaire included with a quadrant scale and consists of 75 paragraph for the managers of the middle zone and the executive directors, distributed in 12 sectors ( Concept, the importance, aims, types of strategies, level of strategies, Vision Characteristics, Mission Characteristics , strategic analysis, strategy formulation, strategy application, adjustment of the strategy, role and duties of the strategic manger). A random samples of 50 managers and vice managers have been taken from the middle zone of Iraq (Baghdad, Babylon, Najaf, Karbalaa, Wasit, Dyala). Moreover, another random samples represents 40% of each of the directors and executive management categories of 80 employees to be a total sample size 130 Director. The results of the study showed the average level of knowledge was 143,46 degree for the managers of the middle zone, and 135,88 degree for the executive directors on a knowledge scale ranges from to 225 degree and consists of 75 paragraph. 48% of the managers of the middle zone and 55% of the executive directors has a medium level of knowledge, accordingly this study recommend the importance of qualifying the agriculture extension managers and to develop their capabilities and skills in the field of the strategic management through specialized training programs. Moreover, the Ministry of Agriculture should take in account the importance of the strategic management and its role in achieving the agriculture development and should work to enhance its application.


Article
COMMUNICATIONAL SOURCES USED BY THE AGRICULTURAL AGENT TO TRANSFER AGRICULTURAL INFROMATION FOR RICE FARMERS IN AL-ABBASSIA / NAJAF Al-ASHRAF GOVERNORATE
مصادر الاتصال المستخدمة من قبل المرشد الزراعي في نقل المعلومات الزراعية لزراع الشلب في ناحية العباسية بمحافظة النجف الاشرف

المؤلفون: A. T. Hd. Al-Salhi أحمد ثويني هدوم الصالحي
الصفحات: 765-771
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الخلاصة

The research aimed to know the communicational sources used by agricultural Agent to transfer agricultural information for rice farmers in AL- Abbbassia of Najaf Al- Ashraf province and determine the most important extension means and method used by the agent in his contact with farmers. A questionnaire is designed to collect data included three scales to measure communicational sources (personal methods , collective methods, and mass media methoda ), The research community was farmers associations in AL-Abbassia cultivation section (11) association, The sample was farmers associations (36%) which were ( AL-Sadr, Iraq, Murtatha, and mohamed massage ), then another proportional random classical sample was taken (15%) of farmers of the mentioned associations (709) which was (106) farmers ,The research results showed that the communicational sources play a very important role in transfer of agricultural information to rice farmers, as well as the collective methods were most methods the used by extension agent to transfer the information, There were also some differences in the used sources which means that all methods were important. The research recommended to take care and attention to rice crop as a strategically crops, cooperation with general corporation of the agricultural research department of rice growing development , Inaddition it can recommended to support the research extension agents and rice farmers by training courses according to their communicational need.


Article
COMMUNICATIONAL SOURCES USED BY THE AGRICULTURAL AGENT TO TRANSFER AGRICULTURAL INFROMATION FOR RICE FARMERS IN AL-ABBASSIA / NAJAF Al-ASHRAF GOVERNORATE
مصادر الاتصال المستخدمة من قبل المرشد الزراعي في نقل المعلومات الزراعية لزراع الشلب في ناحية العباسية بمحافظة النجف الاشرف

المؤلفون: A. T. Hd. Al-Salhi أحمد ثويني هدوم الصالحي
الصفحات: 765-771
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الخلاصة

The research aimed to know the communicational sources used by agricultural Agent to transfer agricultural information for rice farmers in AL- Abbbassia of Najaf Al- Ashraf province and determine the most important extension means and method used by the agent in his contact with farmers. A questionnaire is designed to collect data included three scales to measure communicational sources (personal methods , collective methods, and mass media methoda ), The research community was farmers associations in AL-Abbassia cultivation section (11) association, The sample was farmers associations (36%) which were ( AL-Sadr, Iraq, Murtatha, and mohamed massage ), then another proportional random classical sample was taken (15%) of farmers of the mentioned associations (709) which was (106) farmers ,The research results showed that the communicational sources play a very important role in transfer of agricultural information to rice farmers, as well as the collective methods were most methods the used by extension agent to transfer the information, There were also some differences in the used sources which means that all methods were important. The research recommended to take care and attention to rice crop as a strategically crops, cooperation with general corporation of the agricultural research department of rice growing development , Inaddition it can recommended to support the research extension agents and rice farmers by training courses according to their communicational need.


Article
PROPOSED ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE FOR AGRICULTURAL INITIATIVE MEDIA IN IRAQ
هيكل تنظيمي مقترح لإعلام المبادرة الزراعية في العراق

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الخلاصة

The current paper aims at building Proposed Organizational Structure For Agricultural Initiative Media in Iraq for observing the opinions of the employees working in the Agricultural initiative and those working in the media and agricultural sector on three levels as to measure suitability of Proposed informational Organizational Structure . In order to carry out goals of the research, a questionnaire has been prepared andincluded fifth scale consisting of 115 items distributed on 6 space and 22 axils. The research has been carried out on cluster random sample with 50% of all offirst. Iraqi governorates of southern, middle and northern (15) except Kurdistan governorates, withKirkuk governorate assign for the north (the area of the research) while Baghdad, Diyala, Karbala, Al-Najaf for the middle, and Basra,Maysan and The Qar for the south. Seconed.employees agriculturedistributedon three levels, the first level includes the supreme committee of agriculture initiative in the center and branch committees in the governorates, the second level includes informational department employees in directorates of agriculture and informational sector in agricultural training and instructions , while the third level includes agricultural employees working in the centers and agricultural departments . Through having the scale of informational organizational structure offered to the sample of the research , it has finally reached to items of building proposed organizational structure by using the following scale: the item within the finished form for building the structure has been obtained a larger average than the proposed average amounted (3 degree) ; the result was to remain all items in the final form for building the proposed informational organizational structure in all three levels of the research sample. Then, it has been reached to build the finished form of the proposed informational organizational structure of agricultural initiative Media. The researcher has recommended tonecessarily provide necessities to succeed this proposed informational organizational structure of agricultural initiative Media since being considered as a basic element for succeeding the High Committee of Agricultural Initiative.


Article
THE TRAINING KNOWELDGE NEEDS FOR BARLEY GROWERS TO MANAGE THEIR CROP AT AL-SHIHIMIYA TOWNSHIP – ALSWIRA TOWN –WASIT GOVERNORATE
الحاجات التدريبية المعرفية لزراع الشعير في مجال ادارة المحصول في ناحية الشحيمية التابعة لقضاء الصويرة في محافظة واسط

المؤلفون: A. R. Hassuny احسان راضي حسوني
الصفحات: 784-790
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الخلاصة

This research aimed to determine the level of training knowledge needed for barley growers to manage their crop at Al-shihimiya Township –Alswira Town -Wasit Governorate.The training knowledge needed aimed to cover all crop management axes which included land preparation, date of seeding fertilizer and pesticides application, irrigation and harvest, to recognize the most important problems faced by barley growers during growing period. To archive that goal a randomized sample was taken 5% from the growers' population 2126 (i.e. the sample size was 106 growers). The statistical analysis covered 100 growers and data collected through questionnaires sheet .This sheet included two parts: 1st one aimed to test the training knowledge needed for barley growers to manage their crop at the field through 47 paragraphs distributed to 6 axises which included land preparation ,date of seeding fertilizer and pesticides application ,irrigation and harvest. The 2nd part included 12 suggested problems facing barley growers during crop management. Results indicated that 51% of the questioned growers had high training qualifications and this represent 117.49 grade on the scale of 0-141 for training knowledge needed .The most problems facing the growers is the delay in receiving their money dues with an important grade of 3. The 2nd faced problem growers faced was the import of barley crop by the government which had 1.89 grades. Therefore, it can be con concluded that Ministry of Agriculture (MOA) have to activate the role of agriculture extension through their personals available at the ministry directorates and extension centers through training programs and extension activities related mainly to strategic crop in general and barley crop in particular and encourage growers to join such this activities .Furthermore, MOA should provide agricultural chemicals and agricultural equipments as a part of the subsidizing program Iraqi government have and help farmers to collect their grains and make sure to pay for it at the right time from the MAO and the Ministry of Trade (MOT) due to the dependence of those growers on this income for their life support


Article
EVALUATION THE PERFORMANCE AND STABILITY OF COWPEA SELECTED GENERATIONS UNDER DROUGHT TOLERANCE
تقويم أداء وثبات أجيال منتخبة من اللوبياء لتحمل الجفاف

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الخلاصة

A field experiment was conducted at research station of College of Agriculture University of Baghdad in Abu-Griab. The aim was to study early generation of cowpea under water stress regime. The purpose was to diagnose which genotypes have high yield and stability under water deficit. The experiment consisted of two levels of water deficit (50 and 75%) and three genotypes selected and original genotype. Randomized complete block design (RCBD) within split plots arrangement with three replicates in two seasons of 2014 were used. The results revealed that S5 gave highest mean in chlorophyll index and dry matter per induvial plant were 74.66 , 68.44 SPAD. in spring and autumn season respectively. In addition to , S5 had a short period to reproductive phase. S5 gave highest mean seed yield per hectare and water use efficiency were 1246.23 and 2211.84 Kg.ha-1 , 0.19 and 0.51 in spring and autuman seasons, respectively. S4 gave less days to 50% flower were 56.17 and 40.33 in spring and autumn season, respectively. PCV and GCV were so dose in peroxide (13.0 ,12.13%) and (5.70 , 4.68%) in spring and autumn seasons, respectively. Stability values were high in peroxidase , proline , water use efficiency and seed yield (87, 94.3%),( 99.87 , 99.82%), (93.22, 92.33%), (86.5,93.46%) in spring and autumn , respectively. It can be concluded the significant dependance on certain triats in diagnosing the genotypes that tolerated to drought . Therefore S5 was tolerant of drought because of superiority in relative water content. . It is important to use S5 in genotypic and environmental interactions for many years and locations to determine its stability. It can be rationled much quentity of water by following irrigation at 75% . Water deficit which reduced number of irrigation to ten in autumn season, leading to increase of water use efficienly to 0.37 .


Article
EFFECT OF GROWTH REGULATORS ON SEED YIELD AND ITS COMPONENTS OF TWO ALFALFA CULTIVARS
تأثير منظمات النمو في حاصل البذور ومكوناته لصنفين من الجت

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الخلاصة

A field study was conducted at the experimental farm, College of Agriculture, Abu-Ghraib, Baghdad, Iraq during the period from mid. of March 2012 to mid. of July 2014 to investigate the effects of plant growth regulators and foliar application stages on seed yield and it’s components of two alfalfa cultivars. Layout of the experiment was R.C.B.D. arranged in split-split plot with three replications. Cultivars (local and hamedan) were assigned as a main plot and foliar application stages (vegetative growth, flower buds emergence, 50% flowering and 80% flowering) were assigned as sub-plots, while growth regulators (Alar, Ethephon, Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and control treatment) were assigned in the sub-sub-plots. Result showed that there were no significant differences between local cult. and c.v Hamadan in seed yield and it’s components except 1000 seed weight. Foliar application of growth regulators at flower buds emergence significantly increased No. of racemes per stem and No. of seed per pod, therefore it produced highest seed yield (450 kg/ha) as a mean of two seasons. In 1st seed crop, there were significant interaction between cultivars and foliar application stages on seed yield since local cult. gave highest seed yield (479.6 Kg/ha) when it spraying at flower buds emergence stage with an increasment 14.5% compare with hamedan C.V. foliar application alar significantly increased No. of seeds per pod and seed yield in both season , but it was not significantly different than NAA. Since, increasment in seed yield compare with ethephon and control treatment reach (25.4, 18.3), (18.8, 17.7) in 1st and 2nd seed crop respectively. as average for two seasons, higher seed yield (565 Kg/ha) can be obtained from sowing local cultivar and foliar application of alar when the stand reaches at flower buds emergence stage.


Article
INFLUENCE OF GROWTH REGULATORS ON OVULES ABORTION, SEED SET AND ITS GERMENATION OF TWO ALFALFA CULTIVARS
تأثير منظمات النمو في أجهاض البويضات وعقد البذور وانباتها لصنفين من الجت

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الخلاصة

A field experiment was conducted at the experimental farm, College of Agriculture, Abu-Ghraib, Baghdad, Iraq during the period from mid. of March 2012 to mid. of July 2014 to investigate the effects of plant growth regulators and foliar application stages on ovules abortion, seed set and its germination of two alfalfa cultivars. Layout of the experiment was R.C.B.D. arranged in split-split plot with three replications. Cultivars (local and hamedan) were assigned as a main plot and foliar application stages (vegetative growth, flower buds emergence, 50% flowering and 80% flowering) were assigned as sub-plots, while growth regulators (Alar, Ethephon, Naphthalene acetic acid(NAA) and control treatment) were assigned in the sub-sub-plots. Result showed that there were no significant differences between cultivars in all traits. Foliar application of NAA increased No. of ovules per floret (9.11) compare with other treatments, but it was not significantly different compare with Alar. In 1st and 2nd seed crop, plants sprayed with Alar at flower buds emergence stage gave highest seed set (5.17, 6.93) respectively. Percentage of ovules abortion significantly influenced by growth regulaters, folair application stages and their interaction. Since, foliar application of Alar at beginning of flower buds emergence reduce % of ovules abortion (30.89). In general, plants sprayed at vegetation growth stage increased % of seed germination. It was clear from this study that more than 40% of ovules were aborted, this may be one of the reasons for reduction of seed yield in alfalfa, therefore, we recommended to do more researches in this field in order to know the causes of ovules abortion.


Article
MARKETING EFFICIENCY OF MILK COWS LOCALLY PRODUCED IN BAGHDAD FOR SEASON 2014
الكفاءة التسويقية لحليب الابقار المنتج محلياً في بغداد قضاء ابي غريب للموسم2014

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الخلاصة

Abstract: The study focused on the reality of the production and marketing of milk cows in the Abu Ghraib area, located in the western part of Baghdad, as it collected a sample of (127) product milk cows, and the sample was selected at random. Find targets of production and marketing costs and estimate the index marketing efficiency, while the total costs for the pro-duction of one kg of the study in small, medium and large fields amounted to about (272.62, 235.48, 209.70) dinars respectively. With regard to total marketing costs by producers in the three fields on the market about (15.17, 6.39, 4.74) dinars kg respectively, finally came the marketing efficiency index of one kg in the three fields towards (69.68, 68.19, 65.96%) respec-tively. Conclusions of the study it has been shown that the high prices of raw materials, which is the price of the herd and feed led to the weakening profitability of milk from the herd, thereby hindering the entry of new investors. The recommendations that came in the study it has been shown that the state should concern producers and provide the necessary support in the provision of raw materials at a reasonable price and that contribute to the establishment of such projects.


Article
MARKETING EFFICIENCY OF MILK COWS LOCALLY PRODUCED IN BAGHDAD FOR SEASON 2014
الكفاءة التسويقية لحليب الابقار المنتج محلياً في بغداد قضاء ابي غريب للموسم2014

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الخلاصة

Abstract: The study focused on the reality of the production and marketing of milk cows in the Abu Ghraib area, located in the western part of Baghdad, as it collected a sample of (127) product milk cows, and the sample was selected at random. Find targets of production and marketing costs and estimate the index marketing efficiency, while the total costs for the pro-duction of one kg of the study in small, medium and large fields amounted to about (272.62, 235.48, 209.70) dinars respectively. With regard to total marketing costs by producers in the three fields on the market about (15.17, 6.39, 4.74) dinars kg respectively, finally came the marketing efficiency index of one kg in the three fields towards (69.68, 68.19, 65.96%) respec-tively. Conclusions of the study it has been shown that the high prices of raw materials, which is the price of the herd and feed led to the weakening profitability of milk from the herd, thereby hindering the entry of new investors. The recommendations that came in the study it has been shown that the state should concern producers and provide the necessary support in the provision of raw materials at a reasonable price and that contribute to the establishment of such projects.


Article
THE STUDY OF TEMPORAL CHANGES ON LAND COVER/LAND USE PREVAILING IN BAGHDAD GOVERNORATE USING RS & GIS
دراسة حالة التغاير الزمني للاغطية الارضية السائدة في محافظة بغداد باستخدام وسائل التحسس النائي و نظم المعلومات الجغرافية

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الخلاصة

This study was carried out in order to identify and mapping the temporal changes for land covers in Baghdad province using Remote Sensing and GIS. Three images were used of land sate taken in 1976, 2000 and 2014 the study area. Suppervised classification and SAVI Index were used to identify land cover classes dominated in the study area. The results of supper classification indicated the presence of five land cover classes including water bodies, bare land, urban, low dense vegetation, and dense vegetation classes. There were four classes of land cover when was used SAVI index: water, no vegetation (bare land and urban), low dense vegetation, and dense vegetation. The results showed that Remote Sensing is a very active and useful tool that can be used to detect land core types. The results showed a decline in class of water bodies from 2.8% to 1.5% for 1976 to 1990 while in 2014 increased to 2.1%. class Urban areas increased continuously with time and accounted for 17.6% , 23.5% and 28.2 % for years of study, indicating the existence of the phenomenon of urban encroachment. Bare land areas accounted for 29.3% , 26.8% and 33.5% of stady years, respectively. The class of low dense vegetation decreased from 44.8% to 31.7% and 29.4% for 1976, 1990 and 2014 respectively, while the class-Dense vegetation increased at 1976-1990 from 5.5% to 16.4% and decreased in 2014 to 6.8%. The SAVI had a role in the detection of agriculture and gave results same to the results of super classification. Results indicated that urban land and salinization process can be consider as the most phenomenon which negatively affected on agriculture area.


Article
EFFECT OF FEEDING TREATMENT WITH SOME EXTRACTS OF BLACK PEPPER ON SOME BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF COTTON LEAF WORM
تأثير معاملة الغذاء ببعض مستخلصات الفلفل الأسود على بعض الجوانب الحياتية لدودة ورق القطن

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الخلاصة

This research was conducted to study the effect of food treatment leaves of Malva sylvestris with ethanol ,ethyl acetate, hexane and oil extract of black pepper fruits Piper nigrum on some biological aspects of cotton leaf worm Spodoptera littoralis by using the concentrations of 1.25, 2.5 and 5% of each extract, The results of feeding treatments of second larvae instar showed an increase in mortality percentages which reached 100% at the all extracts when using 5% concentrate. used in the test, while the highest mortality reached to 26.7% when using ethanol extract at 5% concentrate for sixth larvae instar fed on treated leaves for 24 hrs., it was also found that the period of larvae growth and pupae were prolonged by ethanol extract which reached to 33 days at the conc. 2.5% for the second larvae instar while reached 25 days in control, and pupae growth reached to 14 days at the same conc. while reached 10.3 days in control.


Article
STUDY OF THE FUNCTIONAL AND NUTRITIONAL PROPERTIES OF DEFATTED OKRA POWDER AND OKRA PROTEIN ISOLATE AND CONCENTRATE .
دراسة الصفات الوظيفية والتغذوية لمسحوق بذور الباميا مزالة الدهن ومركز ومعزول بروتين الباميا

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الخلاصة

The present study aimed to study the functional and nutritional properties of Defatted Okra Powder DOP and Okra Protein Concentrate OPC and Okra Protein Isolate OPI product from okra seeds (Abelmoschus esculentus), Essential amino acids 39.64, 40.93, 42.04% to DOP, OPC and OPI respectively, the theoretical biological value (BV) 66.12, 68.3, 69.94 for DOP, OPC and OPI respectively, the degree amino acid score (AAS) 104.01, 106.73, 109.23 respectively for the same groups and the same order, mineral ratio for phosphorus 1750, 2430, 110 mg/kg-1 of the three groups respectively, water absorption 1.82, 2.81, 3.36, fat absorption 2.03, 2.62, 3.03, foam capacity 58.1 0.64, 76.6%, and emulsion activity 50.23, 59, 60.38 m2/g-1.


Article
STUDY THE EFFECT OF DRAWBAR AND FIELD EFFICIENCY USING OF ACOMBINE IMPLEMENT USED IN THE INSTALLATION OF SUBSURFACE IRRIGATION PIPES AND DRIP IRRIGATION UNDER DIFFERENT DISCHARGE
دراسة تاثير قدرة السحب والكفاءة الحقلية باستخدام الآلة المركبة والمستخدمة في تنصيب أنابيب الري تحت السطحي والري بالتنقيط تحت تصاريف مختلفة

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الخلاصة

An experiment was conducted in the field of the University of Baghdad in 2015 In loamy sand soil to study the effect drawbar and field efficiency using of a combine implement used for installation subsurface irrigation pipes and drip irrigation under different discharges. Subsurface irrigation system and drip irrigation system with three levels of discharge included 2.5,3.0 and3.5 Lhr-1 were used in this experiment. Field efficiency, drawbar, soil moisture content and soil bulk density were measured in this stdy. Nasted design under randomized complete block design(CRBD) with three replications were used in this experiment. Least significant differences (L.S.D) at 0.05 levels were used to compare the mean of treatments. The results were showed the follows: Subsurface irrigation got 12.7 kw drawbar and 29.45% moisture content and 1.43g/cm3 bulk density g/cm3 and 84% field efficiency.While Drip irrigation system got 9.73kw drawbar and 25.19% moisture content and 1.47g/cm3 bulk density and 89% field efficiency. The successful of using combine implement to install subsurface irrigation pipes with tillage at the same time.


Article
STUDY THE AFFORD OF STOCKS OF ALMOND KORSCHINSKII AND ORIENTALIS TO SOME PHYSIOLOGICAL TRAITS
دراسة تحمل أصلي اللوز كورشينسكي والشرقي لبعض الصفات الفيزيولوجية

المؤلفون: M. S. Al-Hasan محمد سعيد الحسن
الصفحات: 881-891
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الخلاصة

The study was conducted in order to know the ability of Korschinskii and Orientalis Almonds to tolerance of the drought stress using several levels of water irrigation (100, 75, 50 and 25%) from the field capacity, with several indicators (number of leaves, the thickness of the leaves, root growth). The results obtained not affected by the stock in the KorschinskiiAlmonds drought stress (255, 242, 220, 198 leaves), while the number of leaves that accompany the burning edges under the influence of droughtstress inOrientalis Almonds (250, 130, 60, 12 leaves) at levels of irrigation water (100, 75, 50, 25%) of field capacity respectively. Korschinskii Almond superiority in terms of morale in the thickness of the leaves (0.022, 0.026, 0.026, 0.028 cm) compared with Orientalis Almond (0.024, 0.025, 0.026, 0.026 cm) at levels of irrigation water (100, 75, 50 and 25%) from the field capacity arrangement, which played an important role in tolerance drought stress, and the results obtained showed the superiority of the Korschinskii Almonds length on the main roots (41.15, 43.13, 45.12, 50.1 cm) while of Orientalis Almond (39.5, 40.66, 41.13, 43.16 cm) of irrigation water (100, 75, 50 and 25%) from the field capacity arrangement, which reflected positively on the ability to withstand drought stress.


Article
EFFECT OF VITAMIN E AND COD LIVER OIL SUPPLEMENT WITH BIVALENT OIL BASED VACCINE OF NEWCASTLE DISEASE AND INFECTIOUS BRONCHITIS DISEASE ON IMMUNE RESPONSE OF THE BROILERS.
تاثير اضافة فيتامين E و زيت كبد سمك القد للقاح ثنائي زيتي ضد مرضي نيوكاسل والتهاب القصبات المعدي في الاستجابة المناعية لدجاج اللحم

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الخلاصة

This study was aimed to enhance the immune response of the broilers by vitamin E and Cod liver oil supplement with locally inactivated bivalent vaccine of Newcastle disease and Infectious bronchitis viruses. One hundred and twenty broiler chicks Ross 308 were divided to four groups at 30 chicks of each group. The 2nd group was vaccinated with 0.5ml/chick of locally inactivated ND-IB vaccine at 5 days old. The 3rd group was vaccinated with 0.5ml locally ND-IB vaccine and 0.1 ml/chick of VE. The 4th group was vaccinated with 0.5ml of locally ND-IB vaccine and 0.1ml/chick of Cod liver oil, while the first group was left without vaccination as a control group. All groups were vaccinated with attenuated ND-IB at 3 days old and attenuated IBD at 14 days old. The results of ELISA test revealed that the 3rd and 4th groups showed significantly increased (P≤0.05) in Ab titers against ND virus at aged 35 days, also, the 4th group showed significantly (P≤0.05) increased in Ab titers against IB virus at day 35 of age as compared with the other groups. The 4th group showed a significant (P≤0.05) increased in bursal index as compared with the other groups. The results of challenge test revealed that vaccinated groups resist the velogenic ND and IB viruses with relatively high productive range particularly the 4th group as compared with other groups. In conclusion, the VE and Cod liver oil supplement with local bivalent oil based vaccine of ND and IBV may enhance the immune response of the broilers particularly the 4th group which vaccinated with 0.5 ml of local bivalent oil based vaccine of ND-IB vaccine and 0.1 ml Cod liver oil.

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