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المجلة العراقية للتقانات الحياتية

ISSN: 18154794
الجامعة: جامعة بغداد
الكلية: معهد الهندسة الوراثية والتقنيات الاحيائية
اللغة: English

This journal is Open Access

حول المجلة

تاسست المجلة العراقية للتقانات الحياتية سنة2001 وصدر اول عدد منها سنة 2002، وهي مجلة علمية محكمة نصف سنوية تصدر عن معهد الهندسة الوراثية والتقنيات الإحيائية في جامعة بغداد، متخصصة في الهندسة الوراثية والتقانات الإحيائية في مجالات علوم الحياة والبيئة والعلوم الزراعية والطب البشري وطب الأسنان والصيدلة والطب البيطري والبحوث المتخصصة بموضوع المعلوماتية الحيوية Bioinformatics)).

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معلومات الاتصال

E-mail:journal@ige.uobaghdad.edu.iq
www.iqjb.net
www.ige.uobaghdad.edu.iq : موقع المعهدعلى شبكة
الإنترنت
TEL:7789300
Baghdad-AL-Jadriyah -p.o.box:12074

جدول المحتويات السنة: 2016 المجلد: 15 العدد: 2

Article
Allele Frequency of 15 Autosomal Short Tandem Repeat (STR) Loci in Al Anbar - Iraqi Population

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الخلاصة

Abstract:Allele frequencies for 15 STR loci (CSF1PO, D3S1358, D5S818, D7S820, D8S1179, D13S317,D16S539, D18S51, D21S11, FGA, TH01, TPOX, VWA, D2S1338, D19S433) included in the AmpFlSTR Identifiler kit were determined in a sample of 132 unrelated people originating From Al Anbar - Iraqi Population, samples were extracted using a Prep Filer Forensic DNA Extraction Kit. DNA concentration measured using Nano drop Simultaneous amplifications of 15 STR loci and a gender determination marker (multiplexed PCR) were done by using the AmpFlSTR® Identifiler® PCR Amplification Kitaccording to the user’s manual recommendations . The separation and detection of amplified products were conducted with the 3130 xl Genetic Analyzer 16-capillary array system following manufacturer’s protocols,A different number of alleles were observed with frequencies ranging between 0.0038 (FGA- allele 18, 19.2, 23.2, 27 and 28 - , D18S51 - allele 20 and 23, D19S433 - allele 9.2,11 and 12.2, D2S1338 – allele 27, D13S317 – allele 16, D3S1358 – allele 13 and 19 CSF1PO – allele 14, D21S11– allele 30.2 and 32 and D8S1179 - allele 9 and 17) and 0.5795 (TPOX-allele 8). The highest heterozygosity is observed for FGA (85.60 %) where the smallest heterozygosity value is obtained for TPOX (61.36 %). The loci were observed to have high discriminating power, as the power of discrimination of each loci varied from 0.812 (TPOX) to 0.973 (D2S1338). All loci but D21S11 (<0.001), D19S433 (<0.001), D5S818 0.00204 and FGA (<0.00024) met Hardy- Weinberg expectations (P > 0.05).Significant departure from Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) expectations were observed in loci D21S11 (0.001), D19S433 (0.001), D5S818 (0.002) and FGA (0.00). The results of the population genetics tests and pairwise comparisons suggest that these allele frequency databases are suitable for the purpose of identification in paternity or forensic investigations.

الكلمات الدلالية

DNA --- STR --- AL-Aanbar - Iraqi Population --- AmpFlSTRpro®ler --- Forensic identi®cation.


Article
Molecular Detection ofPandemic Influenza A(H1N1) Virus in SARI Patient inSouthIraqGovernorates using Real-Time PCR

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الخلاصة

Abstract:Human influenza virus surveillance has a pronounced seasonal cycle.Rapid and reliable detection of newly emerging influenza viruses is important to enhance our influenza reasserting in Iraq. A total of 869 samples were collected fromhospitalizedpatientswith Severe Acute Respiratory Infection (SARI)fromsix south Iraq governorates( Najaf, Qadisiyah, Maysan, Muthanna, DhiQarand Basrah ) during the year 2013. Approximately 29.34%of the cases were belong to the Influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 which predominant on the seasonal flue20.71% of all suspected SARI patients.Male patients showed higher percentage than female patients 153(59.99%)and102(39.99% respectively).The highest peak of H1N1 infection was recorded in age group > 40 years old69 (27.05%)fallowed by age group 14-19 years old which represented 52 (20.39%)in male patients. In female patient the pattern was different the highest peak was observed in age group 19-40 years old41(16.07%) fallowed by age group > 40 years old32(12.54%).Influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 activity in Iraq start increasing in winter season, particularly in January,and toward the end of February in some governorates and my extend to March in others.

الكلمات الدلالية

Seasonal influenza --- Influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 --- Real Time PCR.


Article
The Effect of Silver Nanoparticles on Cellular and Humoral Immunity of Mice in Vivo and in Vitro

المؤلفون: Rand M. Abd AL-Rhman ,ShaimR.Ibraheem, Israa AL-Ogaidi
الصفحات: 21-29
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الخلاصة

Abstract:This study investigated the immunological adjuvant effect of silver nanoparticles AgNPs which have been prepared and characterized in previous study. The silver nanoparticaleswere synthesized by biological method using green (G) and black (B) tea as reducing agent. AgNPs were 50nm and 30 nm respectively with like spherical in shape. The effect ofAgNPs as adjuvant were tested both in vitro and in vivo. The effect of the concentration2mg/kg ofAgNPs was evaluated in mice by intraperitoneal immunization. In vitro the number of both T and B cells, monocytes and neutrophils populations showed an increase in absolute cell number in 2B and 3G groups in the immunized mice compared to the control group, whereas the relative cell numbers remained constant in eosinophils and basophils between group2 and control. The levels of IL 4 and IL6 showed significant elevation (P≥ 0.05) in the serum groups (2B,3G) of animals which were (23.1 ± 0.80, 32.4 ±1.35) pg/ml for group2 (36.7 ±1.76and 50.5 ± 1.76) pg/ml for group3 compared to those that found in control (12.10 ±.23and 19.5±0.34) pg/ml respectively.So,the inoculation with AgNPs, showed no signification difference at (P ≥ 0.05) in group2B while the concentration of IgGgroup3G showed significant elevation which were (4.9±0.11 and 6.8±0.12) mg/ml respectively as compared with control group (4. ±50.11) mg/ml.Also the results showedan increase in phagocytes of treated mice's blood 36 (32%)and 95 (45%) for group2B and group3G respectively as compared with control 4 (17%). Therefore,we conclude that AgNPs have a significant adjuvant effect and the mechanism of this effect is mainly ascribed to the recruitment and activation of local leukocytes, especially lymphocytes, increase cytokines levels in mice, IgG concentration and phagocytes. The humoral and cellular immunities were significantly enhanced in immunized mice, whichcan be utilized as an effective adjuvant to improve the immunoprotection, the result is beneficial for the future applications, especially in biomedicine.

الكلمات الدلالية

Silver nanoparticles --- Adjuvant --- Antibody --- phagocytosis


Article
Detection of MDR Gene (IFITM3) and P- glycoprotein Expression in Patientswith Hodgkin's Lymphoma in AL-Ramadi Teaching Hospital

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الخلاصة

The present study aimed to shed light on the follow up of Hodgkin's lymphoma patients at initial diagnosis and after treatment, to assess the response and early relapse after chemotherapy through evaluating the gene expression level of one of the major multidrug resistance genes which is the multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1),and investigate the presence of P-glycoprotein by immunohistochemistry assay. The study was conducted on fifty Hodgkin's lymphoma patients during the period extendedfrom January 2015 to November 2015.The patients included 41(82%) males and 9(18%) females ,with ages ranged from 12 to 81 years. The study also included ten persons (7 males and 3 females ) as healthy control group . All patients were followedup by doing some laboratory test such as complete blood count before and after chemotherapy, and the tumor markers which indicate the response degree of patients to chemotherapy DNA was extracted from paraffin embedded tissue, which were collected from AL-Ramadi teaching Hospital / Histopathology unit, in order to detect the Interferon-induced trans membrane protein IFITM3 (MDR) gene using PCR technique .The results showed in the healthy individuals, there were no mutation presence in the MDR gene in patients and control. Results of immunohistochemistrystudy showed thatthe presence of (MDR1) P glycoprotein had played a great role in regulation of the cancer cells growth. Depending on theintensity of coloration, and percent of cancer cells stained , the results indicated the production of P-glycoprotein in 15(30%) case as 1+, 6(12%) case as 2+ and 10(20%)case as 3+, while other cases 19 (38%) were negative.

الكلمات الدلالية

Hodgkin's Lymphoma --- MDR gene (IFITM3) --- P- glycoprotein Expression


Article
Association of HLA Class II Alleles (DRB1 and DQB1) in Iraqi Women with Endometriosis

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الخلاصة

Endometriosis is a chronic gynecological disease manifested by the occurrence of ectopic foci of endometrial tissue in the pelvic cavity and/or ovary. Etiopathogenesis of the disease is still poorly understood but there is a growing bulk of evidence that genetic factors and immunological abnormalities play a role in this disease. This study was performed to investigate the association of human leukocyte antigens class II genotypes (HLA-DR and DQ) with the susceptibility to endometriosis. Fifty female patients with endometriosis their age range (19 – 46) years and 30 femalesas control their ages were matched with the patients were enrolled in this study. Blood was collected from patients and controls, DNA was extracted from blood samples, and then HLA-genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction-sequence specificoligonucleotide probes (PCR-SSO).The present findings showed that DRB1*0307, DRB1*0701 and DQB1*0301 alleles were found with highly significant frequencies among patients (22 %; 34% and 24 %), in comparison with healthy control (0.0%) for three alleles, (P <0.001). On the other hand, it was observed that HLA-DRB1*0323 in high frequency among healthy individuals (23.3%) rather than in the patients (0.0%); with (P <0.001). This study demonstrates that HLA- DRB1*0307, DRB1*0701 and DQB1*0301 alleles may contribute to the increased susceptibility to endometriosis, whereas HLA-DRB1*0323 allele may confer protective effects against it, suggesting HLA-based different etiopathogenesis.

الكلمات الدلالية

: Endometriosis --- HLA --- Genotyping.


Article
Effect of IL-17Single Nucleotide PolymorphismsGene on the Risk of Developing Colorectal Cancer in Iraqi Patients

المؤلفون: Haidar J. Muhammed1, Nassir N. Mohsun2,Aroub A.R. Al-Kaisi2
الصفحات: 51-58
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الخلاصة

Interleukin -17 pathway plays an important role in development of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Moreover it has been shown that this interleukin involved in anti-tumor or pro-tumor of colorectal cancer (CRC). This study determined (70) patients male to female (60% - % 40)inflicted with colorectal cancer,range aged (<16-80) years which were collected from Baghdad Teaching Hospitals/ Medical City.The patients detected for anti – IL17 by enzyme linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA)and compared with (10) individuals as a healthy control.The results showed significant differences (p<0.05). The gene encoding for the cytokine IL17 has genetically polymorphic, which has (30%) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (12out of 40) patients by single strand conformation polymorphism technique (SSCP). In conclusion, polymorphic gene IL17 has been revealed to be associated with its susceptibility of colorectal cancer by showing there was a relationship between polymorphic gene IL17and the occurrence of colorectal cancer as well as the clinical features of the disease especially in agedpatients.


Article
Improvement of BacteriocinProduction by Bacillus subtilis NK16via Elicitation with Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Microbial Cells

المؤلفون: FouadNajmAbd, KhalidJaberKadhumLuti
الصفحات: 59-73
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الخلاصة

Since microorganisms normally exist with other species in nature, they have developed complex metabolic as a result of such interspecies interactions. Our strategy for the elicitation of Bacillus subtilisNK16presented in this studyis based on utilizing some aspects of these interactions by introducing microbial cells to Bacillus subtilis NK16culture in order to enhance bacteriocin production.Elicitation experiments were carried out by introducinglive and dead cells as well as culture supernatant of live and dead cells of Staph. aureus, Bacillus sp and E. coli as prokaryotic cells and Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus niger as eukaryotic cellsseparately to the Bacillus subtilis NK16culture at zero time. Based on the results obtained in this study, Bacillus subtilis NK16increased its production of bacteriocin as a result of interaction with microbial elicitor cells. The maximum enhancement was achieved in the culture elicited with live cells of Staph. aureusat an inoculation level of 0.5% with an increase of approximately 8-folds.

الكلمات الدلالية

Bacillus subtilis --- bacteriocin --- improvement --- interspecies interaction --- elicitation.


Article
Relationship Determination betweenHeartDiseases with Endometrial Adenocarcinoma and Ovarian Carcinoma by Evaluating the HPV16 IgG , IgM and p53 in Some IraqiFemale Patients

المؤلفون: Jasim Mohammed Muhsin
الصفحات: 74-80
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الخلاصة

Heart diseases problems linked to female genitalia associated carcinomas were considered as a major issues and life threat; therefore, it was necessary to determine the relationship between heart diseases problems with HPV16 infection and P53 expression in some groups of female Iraqi patients that suffer from endometrial Adenocarcinoma (EC) and ovarian carcinoma. This study was designed as a two prospective groups. It involved ninety samples of serum were collected from the Medical City of Baghdad from the period of October 2014 to January 2015 as 45 50% of endometrial Adenocarcinoma (EC) patients group and 45 (50%) of ovarian carcinoma patients group then stored in -80°C. All samples were examined for HPV16 IgG, IgM and p53 expression by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).Highly significant difference (p <0.001) of Mutant p53 expression has been detected in 32 35.6% out of 41 45.6% patients with heart diseases history in comparing with patients without history of heart diseases. In addition to , highly significant differences (p < 0.001) of HPV16 IgM has been detected in 36 patients had previous history of heart problems as 40% out of 41 patients. In the other hand, Endometrial Adenocarcinoma (EC) cases, have been a statistically significant differences with HPV16 IgG in 35 38.9 % and HPV16 IgM in 31 34.4% positive results out of 45 cases (p < 0.05 ) with highly significant differences in the positive cases of 32 35.6% that had been detected with heart diseases problems (p < 0.001). Furthermore, the ovarian carcinoma cases have positives HPV16 IgG and HPV16 IgM levels as 24 26.7 % and 18 20% respectively with significant difference regarding to the negative results (p < 0.05 ).An interesting results has been detected recently in this study, as HPV16 infection followed by p53 inactivation may initiate heart diseases in some groups of females Iraqi patients that had been with endometrial Adenocarcinoma or ovarian carcinomas. So that, HPV16 infection plays a major role in the heart diseases progression through it E6 and E7 oncoproteins to the sabotage of the normal p53 and pRb pathways.


Article
BacterialiInfectionsiofitheiGastrointestinaliTractiin Calves

المؤلفون: RawaaiS.iJumaa
الصفحات: 81-85
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الخلاصة

Thisistudyiaimeditoiidentifyitheipathogenicicausesiofiintestinalitractincalveibyiisolationandidentificationofentericbacteriaiusingisomebiochemicaltests.iBacterialiexaminationiofifecalisamplesselectedi100diarrheicicalvesagedibetweeni(1-2iyears)ifromidifferentiareaofiBaghdadwereicarriedoutitoideterminetheibacterialcausesiassociatedwithdiarrheainicalves.iOfithei100ifecalisamplesiexamined,i78calvesiaffectediwithdifferentbacteria.Analysisiofiresultsi showed thatbacterialenteropathogensiofi100icalvesrevealedithathighestipercentagei54% ofcalvesiwereiinfectediwithProteusisp.,followedbyi26%were infected withiE.coliisp.,15% were infected withcitrobacterisp.andonlyi5%were infected with withisalmonellaisp.Theseiresultsiwereindicatedtheipresencehealthiproblemiwhichileadstoieconomicilossesandirequireditheinecessityispeedupiof implantingcontrollingiprogramonithisidisease

الكلمات الدلالية

Bacteria --- calf --- gastrointestinal tract.


Article
Validity of Serum Toll-Like Receptor-2 (TLR-2) in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

المؤلفون: Hind Hamid AL- Ammiri1
الصفحات: 86-92
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الخلاصة

The role of the Toll Like Receptor (TLR)/innate immune activation in type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) is somewhat controversial. The aims of this study were to determine the serum levels of TLR-2 in apparently healthy subjects’ sera and T1DM patients and its efficacy as a specific diagnostic marker. Thirty T1DM patients and ten apparently healthy subjects were included. Serum level of TLR-2 was detected by sandwich ELISA technique. Results demonsrate that the mean age is 40.1±16.4 and 27.2±7.5 years for T1DM cases and healthy group respectively. The data of the present study revealed a simple difference between groups regarding ages, since there was no significant differences in serum TLR-2 mean value between these groups (p=0.35); therefore this study dealt with these groups as T1DM group in general regarding serum TLR-2. The difference in the mean of serum TLR was slightly higher in T1DM group (1.46) in comparable with healthy controls (1.07). The small area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve (ROC area=0.61) which is not significantly different from the 0.5 ROC area related with an equivocal test. Between each male and female within the cases there was no obvious or statistically significant difference (p< 0.85) in mean serum TLR with 1.49, 1.42 respectively. Albeit, not significant statistically, this study demonstrated a noticeable increase in serum TLR among DM cases compared to healthy controls. One reason behind such observation is that there is a decline in count of cells that carry the TLR receptors among diabetics, which will ameliorate the increase in TLR related with the disease. Furthermore, the contrasting roles of inflammation in T1DM may thus be accounted the capacity of innate pathways to initiate the both immunity by B cell damage and immunoregulation.

الكلمات الدلالية

TLR-2 --- type 1Diabetes Mellitus --- Validity.


Article
Purification and Characterization of NattokinaseProduced byLocal Isolate of Bacillus sp. B24

المؤلفون: Sumaya Ali Hmood, Ghazi Munim Aziz
الصفحات: 93-108
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الخلاصة

The results presented in this study were based on purifying and characterizing the nattokinase produced from local isolate of Bacillus sp. B24.Nattokinase was purified by two steps including the precipitation by ammonium sulfate at 50% saturation and ion exchange chromatography using DEAE-cellulose. The final purification folds were 16.46 time with an enzyme yield of 30%. The enzyme was stable in temperatures range 25-45°C and pH values of 8.0–9.5, with maximal activity was defined at 60°C and pH value of 8.0, whereas was retained 94% of its activity at 60˚C for 20 min. The presence of KCl, CaCl2, MnCl2, NaCland MgCl2was observed to enhance enzyme activity to levels above their original activity, whereas CoCl2, HgCl2 and FeCl3decreased the enzymeactivity. Furthermore, EDTA andPMSF stronglyinhibited the enzyme activity suggesting that it is a metalloprotease and serine protease enzyme.The enzyme molecular weight as determined by gel filtration using Sephadex G-150 was found to be 63 kDa. Fibrinolytic activity of the partial purified nattokinase was studied in vitro conditions and it was found that the enzymehas degradation effect.

الكلمات الدلالية

Nattokinase --- Purification --- Characterization --- Fibrinolytic activity.


Article
Association of Exon 9 FGFR3Mutations and Cancer Grads in Patientswith Bladder Cancer

المؤلفون: Abdul Hussein M. AL-Faisal and Sabah Bresam
الصفحات: 109-118
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الخلاصة

Bladder cancer is the ninth most common cancer diagnosis worldwide, with more than 330,000 new cases each year and more than 130,000 deaths per year, with an estimated male:female ratio of 3.8:1.0. According to the most recent Iraqi cancer record (Iraqi cancer registry, 2010), bladder carcinoma is currently ranks sixth among the commonest ten cancers. Previous studies indicated that genetic alterations were involved in bladder cancer. To detect genetic alteration in exon 9 of FGFR3 gene, 50 patients with different grads of bladder cancer who admitted to Ghazi AL-Hariri Hospital in Baghdad and 25 healthy persons aged between 30 to 86 years were included in this study. DNA was extracted from blood samples from patients and healthy control. PCR was conducted using special primers. Mutations of exon 9 of the FGFR3 gene were screened by sequencing and the patients sequencing results were compared with human reference FGFR3 gene sequence (NCBI Reference Sequence: NG_012632.1). Among 50 patients included in this study, 30 (37%) patients were with mutations detected in exon 9 which include novel g.16026 del G and g.16024 sub G>C mutations. The more frequent mutation was g.16026 del G (22, 70%) followed by g.16024 sub G>C mutation (8, 30%). Moreover, the results showed that three patients were with compound mutations (with both exon 9 mutations). Exon 9 mutations (g.16024 sub G to C and g.16026 del G) showed an association with cancer initiation and metastasis since they detected in grad I and II.

الكلمات الدلالية

Bladder cancer --- FGFR3 --- Mutations --- g.16026 del G --- g.16024 sub G>C.

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