Table of content

Alustath

الاستاذ

ISSN: 0552265X 25189263
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Education Ibn Rushd
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

About the magazine
Issued by the Faculty of Education, Ibn Rushd scientific journal entitled (Journal of the professor), was her first release in 1952. In the beginning. It deals with scientific research, literature and the Arab and Islamic civilization, and contributes to the professors of colleges according to their competence to define the educational community in the Arab countries and abroad.
• the name of the magazine: -Alustath( Professor)
• Produced by: - Faculty of Education / Ibn Rushd
• the international number ((ISSN)):-0552-265X/E-2518-9263
• E-mail to the magazine: - alustath.journal@ircoedu.uobaghdad.edu.iq
• Year Released: --1952
• Type of release (quarterly, semi-annual): - quarterly.

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Email : alustath.journal@ircoedu.uobaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2016 volume:1 issue:217

Article
The music of Arabic poetry and moving beyond the prosodic measures
موسیقی الشعر العربيّ والخروج عن العروض باقر قرباني زرّین

Authors: باقر قرباني زرّین
Pages: 1-18
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Abstract

The music of poetry is one of the most prominent particularities which distinguishes the poetry from other types of speech. It also has been considered under different titles, by many literaties, just because the poetry would always need the music. A question would arise in here: is it possible to restrict the music of Arabic poetry only to prosodic rhythms and limit it to prosody, or could the poet just compose a poetry beyond the prosodic measures while still has its own music? This article tries to answer this question through inspecting some instances of poets works. These instances include: elegy or qasida_ muwashshah - zajal-band and blank verse. We can find the fact that the musical diversity can be achieved both inside and outside of the prosodic circles. It is also possible to synthesize prosodic meters with each other in an elegy to reach the purpose and experience novel meters called new-found meters. As the result of these experiences we can rely on the music of Taf’ilah (the formative basis of a verse) and by transforming the music of the poetry enrich the poetry songs. We shall notice this musical transformation in Arabic poetry which has passed through many changes from past times up to now. This is an important and necessary matter for any researcher who deals with any aspects of the poetry research and poetic cases.

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Article
1Difficulties Faced by British and Iraqi Undergraduate Students of English When Pronouncing Arabic True Geminates and English Fake Geminates
التشديد في اللغة العربية والانكليزية دراسة مقارنة

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Abstract

This paper investigates gemination which is a phonetic phenomenon in English and Arabic .It is concerned with true geminates and fake geminates phonetically ,true geminates which are found in Arabic are long segments which contrast with short ones , thus Arabic speakers have a phonemic length contrast since they treat long and short versions of the same sound as distinct categories . In contrast, fake geminates which are found in Arabic, but in English are called so because they are phonetically long but their length does not serve as a phonetic contrast .The research aims at revealing the difference in the achievement of the Arab and British undergraduate students of English when pronouncing Arabic true geminates and English fake geminates .It also aims to point out the effect of the intrinsic difference that concerns gemination in both languages . The third aim of this paper is to find out the type of English fake geminate which has more difference in the achievement of the subjects involved in this research .On the light of these aims three hypotheses were set .To carry out this research ,ten Iraqi (Arab ) undergraduate students of English from University of Anbar (4th year students ) were chosen besides ten British undergraduate students of English(4th year students ) from Essex University .The subjects involved in the study have to participate in two tests .In the first ,they have to pronounce twenty Arabic words (single and geminate),whereas in the second test ,they have to pronounce thirty words about the types of English fake geminates ,ten words were selected for each type .The study arrives at certain findings and conclusions .

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Article
Ikhwan Al-Safa beauty philosophy and theory of art.
من فلسفة الجمال ونظرية الفن عند اخوان الصفا

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Abstract

at some moment of humanity history , Ikhwan Al-Safa realized, that they should have an effective voice in life and society ,that was through letters placed by them, these letters had effect much more beyond the historical period in which these letters were set. therefore, Ikhwan Al-Safa letters had the magnificence since the last quarter of the 4th HJ century, they referred to the aim of these letters as "Disciplining the souls, Ethics reform in order to reach to the Great happiness ,Great Majesty and Perpetual stay" their method is the regularity of Greek philosophy and Shariah, in order to get perfection, because the believed "Shariah treatment of Healthy people, while philosophy is the treatment for ill people "Prophets treat patients to stop their illness from increasing, until they are recovered, but philosophers maintain the heath from being ill" . And they saw (that wisdom is to imitate the god as per human energy. which means) one's science should be real, and his made is perfect , his actions are good, his manners are beautiful,And his opinion are correct, and clean treatment , and his Overflow on others is always, and so is god" Since the need for aesthetic, general and inclusive and deeply linked to contemporary human life, due to the importance of what these letters contained of ideas and knowledge in the field of beauty and art We decided to study these ideas under Ikhwan Al Safa philosophy of art and beauty title. Our goal in this illustrating the Arabic and Islamic library that with useful and unique, because th subject is so far has not been studied independently, hoping we success in that . in order to explain a circle of the beauty concepts and its development at Arabs and Muslims, and that required research brief, followed by two themes: First: Ikhwan Al-SAFA philosophy of beauty and art . II: Ikhwan Al-Safa ' theory of art and includes principles and application. The tabulation above that research aims to expose the standards in the philosophical thought of the Ikhwan Al-SAFA

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Article
An Assessment of the Intermediate Level EFL Teachers Applied of the Techniques in Autonomy Learning
تقييم تطبيق مدرسي اللغة الانكليزية في المرحلة المتوسطة للاساليب في التعلم الذاتي

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Abstract

Autonomous learner refers to learner independence; self-access learning, self-paced learning and distant learning emphasize a shift of attention to learner-oriented approach to language learning. In this approach, learners take the responsibility of their own learning, learn at their own pace and use their own strategies. “autonomy learning indicates a number of dimensions in which learners move away from dependence on the teacher and take responsibility for their learning and work in partnership with tutors and other students and learn to learn; develop key transferable skills (e.g., study, time-management, interpersonal skills etc; actively manage their learning; seeking out learning opportunities and using appropriate learning strategies ; involve themselves in an interactive process in which they set short and long term learning objectives, reflect on and evaluate progress." In addition, autonomy for the language learners has been described as a process that enables learners to recognize and assess their own needs, to choose and apply their own learning strategies or styles eventually leading to the effective management of learning”. The present study aims at assessing EFL teachers' at intermediate level employment of the techniques in automatic learning. It hypothesized that EFL teachers at intermediate level don't employ the techniques that are related to autonomy learning. To achieve the aim of the present study a checklist in its final form has been administered twice by observer and co observer. Results obtained by statistical treatment of data have shown that, EFL teachers do not employ techniques of automatic learning. In the light of results, some recommendations and suggestions have been stated for further studies.

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Article
Türk Edebiyatında Tasavvuf ve Yunus Emrenin Rolü
م.م. عمار هملي معارج

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Abstract

Tasavvuf cereyanı Türk Edebiyetı Tarihinde büyük bir yer tutmaktadr. Bu cereyandan etkilenen ve tasavvuf ilk elerini benimseyen bir çok şair yetişmiştir. Bu şairler fiirlrninde taşavvuf konusunu işlemişlerdir. Yetiş bu şairler içinde. Büyük üne sahip olan, ve Halk tarafından benimsenen yunus Emre'dir. Bu araştırmamızda bu zatı ele alacagîz ve elimizden geldiği kadar anlatmaya çalışacağız.

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Article
قاعدة دفع الضرر المظنون وتطبيقاتها الفقهية

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Abstract

In the name of Allah the Merciful This paper deals with " pay damage the suspects and their applications jurisprudential base" To the effect " is that if the damage endured in the work of the business must pay the accession the believer " . And mind riding the damage to pay the suspects, if it does not transfer and improvement Altaqbih mental clarity confined to his rule by the owners. Advantaged and al-Qaida are suspicions wisdom before the examination should be in charge of the examination even despair, and then end up assets to the operation, according to the rule base is the truth should be the examination.The research methodology is based on dividing the four demands. The first requirement : eating Qaeda on the one hand the definition of language and terminology. The second requirement : aware and evidence-Qaeda Third requirement: Rod and base Fbh punishment without a statement on the payment of the damage the suspects base. Fourth requirement: doctrinal applications on the base. Find and we ended with a summary of the most important results, in addition to index margins.

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Article
שירת הקודש לאברהם אבן עזרא בספרד
الشعر العبري الديني لإبراهيم ابن عزرا في إسبانيا

Authors: م. نعمة جاسم محمد
Pages: 57-70
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Abstract

שירת הקודש בספרד הופיעה בה בעת עם שירת החול. קדמה לה מסורת ארוכה בת מאות שנים של שירת קודש עברית, יצירת דורות של פייטנים נערצים, שבעצם טבעה נטתה נגד שינויים קיצוניים וחידושים מופלגים. בשלביה המוקדמים אכן היתה הפייטנות הספרדית המשך נאמן לקודמתה; אך בהדרגה, ובתנופה גדולה, משלמה אבן גבירול והלאה, התעצם תהליך התחדשותה בכל תחום אפשרי – בלשון, בסוגים הליטורגיים, בתכנים, בצורות ובאיכויות האסתטיות – עד שנעשתה כעין "אסכולה" מקורית עם מאפיינים ייחודיים. פייטני ספרד דחו, כאמור, את לשונם הקשה והמעורפלת של קודמיהם ואימצו לעצמם את לשון המקרא ה"צחה". דעתם השלילית על סגנון הפייטנות הארצישראלית ושלוחותיה משתקפת בבהירות בביקורתו הקשה של אברהם אבן עזרא (בפירוש לקהלת ה, א) על יצירתו של אלעזר הקליר, המפורסם והנערץ בפייטנים הקדמונים. לאחר דורות אינספור שבה שירת הקודש העברית ל"לשון הקודש" של הספרות המקראית, לריתמוס הפנימי של מבניה, ללחני שירתה ולאמצעיה הרטוריים. תבניות לשון רבות, קטעי פסוקים ואפילו פסוקים שלמים שעיטרו את "הסגנון השיבוצי", רמזים לדמויות או למאורעות מקראיים שונים וכדומה, גררו עימם לטקסט הפיוטי החדש את זכר מקורותיהם, הפעימו אותו בהדים ובני הדים, יצרו בו רובד עשיר של הקשרים ורמזים, שנעשה מרכיב חשוב במשמעותו והעניק לו מימד של עומק. הספרדים היו בקיאים במקרא, הם התחנכו עליו והוא היה שמור בזיכרונם ושגור על לשונם. הם קלטו ברצון וזיהו בנקל את המסרים החבויים בהם.

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Article
Abu Bakr Almadhirai (258-345A.H) / (871-957A.D) his personality and his age
أبو بكر الماذرائيّ (٢٥٨-٣٤٥ه )/(٨٧١-٩٥٧م) شخصيته وعصره

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Abstract

Through this overview available we have about Abu Bakr Almadhirai we have to say about one of the important figures who served as minister and a writer and supervisor of the works of Egypt and Syria and Mtula to abscess Egypt, he went to Egypt with the God of Ahmed bin Ali Almadhirai and his brother Abu Tayeb year 272 AH / 886 AD and from here began Almadhiraiaon a reputation in Egypt and has the qualities and virtues of the money has not owned one before, but he had been confiscated his money the state of the abscess and now has enemies, but he was able to compete with them and removes their danger, and when the state Tulunid fell and the state Ikhshidid Abu Bakr continued Almadhirai minister Akhchid and his son Anujur bin Akhsheed, and died in Egypt in the month of Shawwal 345 AH / 957 AD.

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Article
Political relations in Islam
العلاقات السياسية في الإسلام

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Abstract

Political relations in Islam title careful reflects the need renewable for your kind understanding the values preached by Islam in international relations and the start of the study of logical postulate agreed upon the mind and transport and is, that this message Conclusion any: (message of Islam) came humanity for the good, and it simplified the speech of love and peace in the ground on the basis of the interests of the people, and that the origin of balance in international relations, respect and mutual interests, not strife and wars, no doubt, that does not negate the right of the nation in the face of international threats and challenges.

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Article
The impact of the religious authority in Iraq's political events (1914-1918) Study in light of the British documents
أثر المرجعية الدينية في الأحداث السياسية العراقية (1914م – 1918م) دراسة في ضوء الوثائق البريطانية

Authors: م. د. محمد هاشم خويطر
Pages: 101-118
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This research aims to the impact of the religious authority follow in the political events in Iraq during the First World War, and culminated in the position of the harbingers established a greater role in the years following the war, both those represented by the fact that a number of uprisings against occupying such as Najaf uprising British authority Najaf in 1918 or the fact that Iraq's major liberal revolution on the thirtieth of June 1920. Within this context revealed British documents is published on the seriousness of the role that the contribution of the religious authority and its men who have issued calls for jihad, and declared fatwas, which called for the lifting of arms against the British occupiers, who had wanted to tie Iraq to India, and turn it into a British colony to take advantage of its wealth and harness his people to serve the effort British military during and after the war. These British documents include documents of the Ministry of British India (India Office Records) British and documents of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Foreign Office) which were copies of which exist in the National Library in Baghdad in the years of the eighties of the twentieth century before being National Library of sabotage and arson, which affected the scientific institutions Cultural and after the 1991 and 2003 events.

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Article
John Caldwell Calhoun and his political role in United States of America (1782-1850).
جون كالدويل كالهون ودوره السياسيّ في الولايات المتحدة الامريكية (1782-1850)

Authors: م.د. حيدر شاكر خميس
Pages: 119-134
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This research deals with the political role of one of the pioneers of American policy in the nineteenth century, John Caldwell Calhoun, and his ideas and philosophy in addressing the central issues in the domestic and foreign policy of the United States of America by virtue of the important sites that filled namely: Member of the Legislative Council of the State of South Carolina between 1807-1811 , a member of the House of Representatives between 1811-1817, Secretary of the Treasury between 1817 - 1825, Vice President between 1825-1832, a member of the Senate between 1833-1850, Foreign Minister between 1844-1845.

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Article
The Establishment of the Rehabilitative School
تأسيس المدرسة الصلاحية في بيت المقدس

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The research deals with the study of establishing the rehabilitative school which was founded after freeing it by Salah Al-deen Al-Ayoubi in (583 A.H/1187 A.C) during which many schools were established among which is the above – mentioned school. The research includes many points as: naming, geographical site, the stages that preceed the establishment of the school, the school endowment, the architecture of the school, and the most important results reached.

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Article
Business Activity in Mediterranean Sea and its Impact on Crusades Emirates in Levant Country fell during the second half of seventh century(A.H.)
النشاط التجاريّ في البحر المتوسط وأثره في سقوط الامارات الصليبية في بلاد الشام خلال النصف الثاني للقرن السابع الهجري

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The commercial activity in the Mediterranean had a major impact in Emirates Crusades in Levant country fell by Al- Mamluks hand , however , the competition was at its peak between the European Emirates particularly among Italian republics marine , which influence the internal situation and there were disputes between Crusades Emirates in the levant country resulting to weakness on the other side , were bad-treatment and abuse that Crusaders showed against traders and farmers on the other hand , the alliances that had Crusades tried to contract with the Mongols Knight, the first enemy of the Mamluks of a third hand , these factors prompted the state of Al-Mamluks to undertake military operation to eradicate the Emirates country during the second half from the seventh century(A.H.).

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Article
British Captain Jffers killed in Nasiriyah and end military in Iraq after the failure of the movement of Rashid Ali in 1941
من ملفات الحركة الوطنية في الناصرية دراسة في وقائع انتفاضة مايس 1941 (مقتل جفرز) أنموذجاً

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It had a history of Iraq under British occupation with great interest by historians and authors Iraqis and foreigners broadly. And it puts a lot of literature that discussed various aspects of life in Iraq. Our study and received a personal British officer, Captain (Jffers) which shows us suddenly as sources pointed out after the failure of the movement of Rashid Ali al-Kilani I join with the British forces that came from India and landed in Basra and occupied then headed north to the city of Nasiriyah also Vaanltha. The forces that accompanied Jffers in Ur, near the city of Nasiriyah was stationed. We have adopted in this research heavily on the accounts of people who witnessed the incident or heard it from the people of the city of Nasiriyah, where we met the lawyer for Mr. Shaker Gharbaoui, one of the families known in Nasiriyah where provided us with valuable information was given another dimension is the military dimension. As we met with Mr. Hussein's lawyer Jamil, who was seconded to investigate the case of the murder when he was governor Jffers achieve in Diwaniya, where provided us with drafts of his papers own investigation conducted and maintained by more than seventy-year-old record.

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Article
(Climate Characteristics Effect in Vegetable Crops) Applied study on Ramadi Rur- Anbar Province
أثر الخصائص المناخية في زراعة محاصيل الخضراوات (دراسة تطبيقية على ريف قضاء الرمادي/ محافظة الانبار)

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Abstract

Vegetable Agriculture regard with it Various , Demand to People Needs Fromm the Food in Rur which cultivate it, moreover supply Neighbor cities people, Today become accessed Political borders for export operation, Proof that are Imports by Iraq from Neighbor country, during decade After destruction of the Agriculture with Economic, Political situation of Iraq. So that start the applied studies search to focus on Possibilities and difficulties Important with cultivate this crops Important. As study Ramadi Rur have populated with city grow in Population and human activities. Study aim to test of Climate possibilities ( Isolation, Temperature, Winds, Rain for period (1981 – 2012) on study area which consist of (31) county, with area (730651 ) It try benefit from this ) possibilities in count (Evaporation, Water palance, Agglomeration, Temperature ) to this crops, Al though most study are part of cultivate Possibilities this crops which need to set the other factors with Climate to complete the experience, then success the Agriculture areas. That resulted to increase the province Economic specially and Iraq generally. We hope this case Transfer to export after efficiently bemuse the province shares borders with Arab countries

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Article
Global warming and changing the Earth's climate
الاحتباس الحراريّ وتغير مناخ الأرض

Authors: م.د. سعد جاسم محمد
Pages: 211-232
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The increasing of temperature now a day is a world wide phenomenon. This phenomenon is known with many terms and the most familiar is the concept of " global warming " . The reasons beyond this phenomenon are many ; some says that it is due to the increasing emanation of polluted gases of the gas cover . On the top of these gases is CO2 which is due to the physical and other human factors . Especially after the industrial era .An international rapid efforts has been done especially from the United Nations organization and its institutions which started from the middle of the last century to study this phenomenon in order to find a successful way to solve this problem put in spite of these efforts the worriedness of the dangerous of this phenomenon still dominant in the world due to the industrial countries that are not obligate to find a rational way to reduce of the emanation of polluted gases , so the future point that planet of Earth will really facing environment disaster.

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Article
Analysis of the Adequacy for Education of services for primary stage at Baquba city for the period 2005-2010
تحليل كفاية الخدمة التعليمية للمرحلة الابتدائية في مدينة بعقوبة للمدة

Authors: م.د. اسراء هيثم أحمد
Pages: 233-252
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The study takes in to consideration studying the Adequacy of primary stage education at Baquba city by using Iraqi planning critters of education and Lareaing for the years 2009-2010-2019-2020 at the variables which appear by preparing the pupils and teachers studying classes schools areas undepeudens of school and building conditions to know the range of pupils getting the educational services. It was concluded that despite the spread of primary schools in all districts of the city, but it exceeded the capacity of in terms of the number of pupils in the school or division, which led to the building works at more than one school.

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Article
Information Marketing Services in University Libraries Central Library in Sana'a University (A Model)
تسويق خدمات المعلومات في المكتبات الجامعية المكتبة المركزية بجامعة صنعاء أنموذجًا

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This research aims to identify the actual reality of the science information marketing services in the university libraries: Central Library in Sana'a University a model, the fact that the science of integrated cycle of activity begins with setting the beneficiary groups and to identify their needs through the design and production of information services that meet the needs and the end of all means of announced, Through technical skills and quality in Marketing from the staff as well as to identify the development of this marketing in libraries during deviate stages of studies since the fifties even atheist and the beginning of the 21st century; In addition to identifying means of information marketing services which would at least for the rest of the goods, but they do not perish, But grow and renewed, as a result of what was information technology produced, and its role in marketing speed. Has used the historical method (documentary), relied on primary, secondary sources, and the relevant literature. Research reaches a number of conclusions and recommendations, as research noted at the end of this research to the positive aspects and shortcomings. Keywords: Marketing Science / Marketing / Information Marketing / library / Information library / university libraries/ Sana'a University.

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Article
Arab media security - indeed - the challenges
الإعلام الأمني العربيّ (الواقع والتحديات)

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Scientists said that the last century is the century of progress and modernity and scientific and technological development, in contrast is a century of wars and international ideological conflicts, but the invasion and the destruction of cultures and the bombing minds and washed, and human soft weapons any media and propaganda and psychological warfare are built to the tame peoples Instead of blood that Ahidrth military machine managed media and tools to tame the minds and dominate the destinies of peoples, he was able to finish and the abolition of borders and bring down the political systems, geo-political and buried and national sovereignty, nationalism and national cultures has resulted in high technology and its applications storm in the field of media and applications of other mass communication, and social, cultural, political transformations great to difficult and perhaps impossible to media isolation . And increasing attraction to the media as sources of knowledge in our time, which increases the needs of the media of different social segments vary due to vibration of a lot of constants and not to resolve a lot of issues and a lack of practical answers to many questions, and has become the Arab media in the global process of competition, and even the regional because, for reasons subjective and objective, does not possess the elements and accessories big change, that's what led to the isolation from the home fans after he remained isolated from reality, and this is what has increased its crisis unit and complex, especially the security challenges that gripped the system of Arab as a whole ... and build on what progress live current Arab media reality Mozuma objective and subjective reasons pushed the emergence of problematic in the Arab media relationship Bmojtmath increases this dilemma unit and complicated security challenges and will try in this research to identify and clarify the most important reasons and the factors that contributed to the emergence of the Arab media crisis in general, the security of the Arab and variable especially the aggravation. And so out of the fact that the problematic relationship between the Arab media system and society and security challenges are not only one of the manifestations of this crisis and its manifestations.

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Article
تقويم مشاريع التخرج التشكيلية في ضوء تقنيات فنون ما بعد الحداثة

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To uncover the current research on the art of post-modern trends in graduation Fine for the students of Department of Art Education / Faculty of Fine Arts / University of Baghdad 2010-2011 projects, of (10) plates research sample, have been analyzed in the light of the analysis form that has been built on as According to the literature of the theoretical framework and indicators and reported researcher from previous studies, and highlighted the findings of the research results is the following: that the graduation projects Fine characterized by substantive and technical characteristics of the directions Arts postmodernism, and that most of these works of art students were characterized by technical characteristics and technology within the direction of expressionism abstract specifically

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