Table of content

Alustath

الاستاذ

ISSN: 0552 265X /25189263
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Education Ibn Rushd
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

About the magazine
Issued by the Faculty of Education, Ibn Rushd scientific journal entitled (Journal of the professor), was her first release in 1952. In the beginning. It deals with scientific research, literature and the Arab and Islamic civilization, and contributes to the professors of colleges according to their competence to define the educational community in the Arab countries and abroad.
• the name of the magazine: -Alustath( Professor)
• Produced by: - Faculty of Education / Ibn Rushd
• the international number ((ISSN)):-0552-265X/E-2518-9263
• E-mail to the magazine: - alustath.journal@ircoedu.uobaghdad.edu.iq
• Year Released: --1952
• Type of release (quarterly, semi-annual): - quarterly.

Loading...
Contact info

Email : alustath.journal@ircoedu.uobaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2016 volume:2 issue:217

Article
The most important social problems faced by families in caring for children with autism and ways of treatment and rehabilitation
أهم المشكلات الاجتماعية التي تعاني منها الأسر في رعاية الأطفال التوحديين وسبل المعالجة وإعادة التأهيل دراسة ميدانية

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

"The most important social problems of the family in the care of Autistic children and ways of treatment and rehabilitation (Rami in a field study center for the care of autistic children and slow learners)" (Social problems, Autistic children, rehabilitation) The current research aims to identify the most important social and psychological problems experienced by families in the care of children Autistic and what are the most prominent solutions and treatments to the families of the children, especially the parents in the care of these children, and what are the most important roads in the rehabilitation and treatment provided by Rahman Institute which (Rami previously) in care autistic child and that contribute to overcome the difficulties faced by them. The most important findings of the research: 1-74% of families with autistic children suffer from difficulties in social relations. 2-92% of the sample in which the brothers suffer from psychological and social burden the existence of an autistic brother. 3-80% of the children's families in which the parents of Autistic problems and disorders family suffers. 4-70% of households Autistic children suffer injury as a result of social epilepsy or mental disability problems. 5-80% of households have resorted to international organizations to take care of the child within and outside the country. 6-78% of the families of autistic children confirms the ability of the Institute on the rehabilitation of the child in its ability to rely on himself. 7-74% of the sample confirms the auspices of medically Institute of autistic children. The most important recommendations on the family: 1. Child can be treated early bands to help him develop social and language skills. 2. The child was given an opportunity in the completion of his duties, which help him to give confidence in himself and the evolution of his senses and make it stable. The most important recommendations for the state: 1. Provide special food and medical basket autistic child. 2. Providing material support. 3. Training professional cadres in the perpetuation of how to communicate with the families of autistic children. Proposals: 1. Create a typical governmental Institute for the care of an autistic child is fully supported by the State and the training of professional cadres especially to take care of these children. Note that the current research was on the ground has been selected sample of all existing and Institute's (50) boy and girl using a comprehensive survey approach to take in all the details of vocabulary, study scientific community an objective comprehensive study.

Keywords


Article
تمييز الكلمات العربية المطبوعة باستخدام الخوارزمية الجينية
Printed Arabic Words Recognition Using Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Asst.Teach.Rasha H.Ali
Pages: 1-8
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The automatic recognition of text on scanned images has enabled many application such as searching for words in large volumes of documents, automatic sorting of postal mail, and convenient editing of previously printed documents. In this paper, a Printed Arabic word recognition system using Wavelet Transform, and Genetic Algorithms (GA) is proposed. The system consist three steps. In first step pre-processing are applied on the input image. Secondly features are extracted, which will be taken as the input to the genetic algorithm. In feature extraction stage the feature vector extracted by using 1-level linear wavelet decomposition technique and only the approximation are taken as the input to the (GA). While the third step is a classification which is carried out by GA. The proposed approaches are tested on a ten Arabic word. The recognition rate is 90%.

Keywords


Article
THE POVERTY In IRAQ BETWEEN THE REALITY AND THE POOR PLANNING
الفقر في العراق بين الواقع وضعف الخطط التنموية

Authors: Dr. Magda Jassim AL-Kozaay
Pages: 9-24
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Iraq, like many of developing and the Arab countries, is suffering imbalance in the geographical distribution of the population the dominance of agglomeration in one place, that is, in the capital and its environs, the emergence of phenomena concentration in the major cities and urban sagging and the growth of slum on the outskirts of cities and their surroundings. This reflects in the deterioration of the environment and the low level of services and management of development which, in other words, the imbalance in the distribution of the fruits of development among the population geographically which revealed statistical indicators about deprivation in Iraq. The statistics also indicate the presence of large variations between the governorates in fertility rates and infant mortality rates that clearly reflect the variation in the level of health services and the economic infrastructure as well as the lack of consistency with the needs of the population. These data indicate the need for population policy attention to the Iraqi government in the future to know the trends of urbanization and rapid urbanization and their potential impact and addressed them through the development plans and programs.

Keywords


Article
"The relationship between mental arithmetic and estimate approximate skill and solving mathematical problems among sixth grade students"
العلاقة بين مهارة الحساب الذهني والتقدير التقريبي وحل المشكلات الرياضية لدى تلاميذ الصف السادس الابتدائيّ

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The research aims to find out the relationship between mental arithmetic and estimate approximate skill and solving mathematical problems among sixth grade students in :Baghdad by answering the following questions Is there a statistically significant correlation between mental arithmetic and approximate estimate the sixth grade pupils skill? Is there a statistically significant correlation between mental arithmetic skill and solving mathematical problems among sixth graders Primary? Is there a statistically significant correlation between the rough estimate and solving mathematical problems among sixth grade students? Be the research community of the disciples of sixth grade in the city of Baghdad / Rusafa first for the academic year 2015/2016, where numbered (8710), a pupil was chosen from a random sample consisted of 302 pupils either search tool is about three tests, one of them related to the account the mental and the other approximate estimate and last sports problems and after verifying the validity and reliability of the tests were applied to the sample and the results showed the weakness of students in mental arithmetic and estimate approximate skill and solving math problems and the existence of a correlation between them. The study concluded that a number of recommendations including: Further research on an objective mental arithmetic and solving math problems, and include mathematics curriculum activities develop mental arithmetic and approximate estimate and solving math problems.

Keywords


Article
The effect of Homogeneity Learning and Heterogeneity Familiarization of the Acquisition of Literary Concepts on students at the College of Educationlbn - Rushd
أثر استراتيجيتي التعلم التماثليّ وتآلف الاشتات في اكتساب المفاهيم الادبية لدى طلبة كلية التربية ـ ابن رشد.

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

This research aims at identifyingthe effect of Homogeneity Learning and Heterogeneity Familiarization of the Acquisition of Literary Concepts on students at the College of Education lbn – Rushd. The Sample of the Study consists of( 90) Students . it is distributed as follows : (30) Students in the First experimental group which is taught according to(Homogeneity Learning Strategy، (30) Students in the second experimental group which is taught according to (Heterogeneity Familiarization)Strategy، and (30) Students in the control group which is taught according to the traditional way of teaching . The three groups are matched in terms of the following variables : the studentsage (in months), their intelligence، their Parents academic level of education، their achievement The researcher has constructed an achievement test which includes (20) items . The items of the test are multiple choice items . the validity of this test has been ascertained and also reliability is obtained by using Pearson Correlltion Formula which yields (0.82) Coefficient Afteranalyzing the results statisticallyit has revealed a statistically significant differences in favor to the experimental groups, the First and the second, in achievement and retention tests .

Keywords


Article
The impact of Instruction Scaffolding strategy in the development of thinking skills beyond the cognitive and decision-making to the students of the first grade average in the material history of ancient civilizations
أثر استراتيجية الدعائم التعليمية في تنمية مهارات التفكير ما وراء المعرفيّ واتخاذ القرار لدى طالبات الصف الأول متوسط في مادة تاريخ الحضارات القديمة.

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

This research aims at showing the effect of teaching abut ment strategy in developing beyond- cognitive thinking skills and decision-making to girl students of the first secondary school at History. As such, This research is limited to a group of first secondary stage girl students of governmental schools in Baquba and to the first three chapters of history in accordance to the syllabus of the ministry of education. The researcher had used the exprimental programme of the partial control and the exprimental and control groups in the pre-test and post –test as they suit this research and accomplish its aims. The researcher also measured some variables like intelligence test, lifetime of girl students measured in months, the academic background of students' fathers and mothers, decision-making test and the test of beyond-cognitive thinking skil.

Keywords


Article
Cultural pollution among students of the College of Education for Girls
التلوث الثقافي لدى طالبات كلية التربية للبنات

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The cultural pollution problem era because girls universities are more influenced by what is happening in their communities Baattabarhn most receptive to what surrounds them of the threats and dangers of the girls while they may not have the decision-making authority Oahdat change and then exposed to the crisis of identity, where they find themselves dispersions between the need to Alemtemashi with fashion and compliance with, and the propensity to independence and self-fulfillment as one of the demands of growth in young adulthood, and confined current research on the students of the College of Education for Girls Baghdad University in the 2014-2015 academic Alerbahlam stages. The research aims to identify the cultural level of pollution to the students of the College of Education for Girls. After. Analysis of the results statistically afternoon Anmistoy cultural pollution among students of the College of Education and Bntan average rate of (66%), and in the light of these results and put some appropriate recommendations and proposals.

Keywords


Article
الأصـالة وأبعادها الفلسفية في التصميم الداخليّ الإسلاميّ المعاصر

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Since originality is a historic movement deeply rooted and is seeking to return to the past to stay in it for modernization and for the renewal as the authentic work is the work that stems from their original position to continue his career, and has a significant impact on the reality of human and social in all fields, including the interior spaces of contemporary Islamic . So researcher found it necessary to identify the originality values in the internal spaces of contemporary Islamic For this vestige has a question about the impact of originality values on interior design and this is something that the form has a problem so that the researcher which aims to detect the basics of originality on the part of philosophical values through design structure relationships procedure, so select and researcher in the title of his research (detection of the basics of originality on the part of philosophical values and through interior design structure of relationships. The study included four chapters consisted the first chapter on the problem and the importance and the goals and limits of research as well as identifying terminology The second chapter was dedicated framework theoretical lost his themes were distributed Mbgesan..alaol ensure the philosophical concept of authenticity, while the second section dealt with topics of design thought and its relationship design system of internal spaces of the Islamic and ended the researcher this chapter indicators of the theoretical framework and adopted as a standard for analysis. As third chapter researcher reviewed the methodology and stylistic research community and the ways in which the collection of the information as well as discuss the research community and specimens to illustrate the size of the community as well as the tools used to collect information and sincerity Stability and forms prepared for analysis with the observation own form of the reality of the event each sample as well as selected samples were analyzed in the light of Mhaoralthalil. With regard to the last chapter has included findings, conclusions and recommendations as well as the proposed future research by the researcher was the most important findings of the researcher.

Keywords


Article
Training Teachers Environmental problems and their relevance to their environmental awareness
المشكلات البيئية لدى الطلبة المعلمين وعلاقتها بوعيهم البيئيّ

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The current research aims to identify environmental problems in the students of preparation of teachers institutes, and their relevance to promote environmental awareness. The research community is consist of students of institutes Baghdad Karkh and Rusafa . Two researcher is used the descriptive approach.The researchers prepare test of environmental problems consisted of (20) items of multiple choice where find reliability and validity identified. The researchers used a prepared measure of environmental awareness consisted of (30) items. The Results of Search showed that Training Teachers have understanding of environmental problems with average degree and very good in environmental awareness, and it is a statistically significant relevance between the understanding of environmental problems and the environmental awareness.The researchers conclude a number of recommendations and educational proposals that have to do with Training Teachers.

Keywords


Article
Job Involvement and its Relationship with the self-confidence by Educational Counselors
الانغماس الوظيفيّ وعلاقته بالثقة بالنفس لدى المرشدين التربويين

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The aim of current research to identify the level of involvement function and the trust in self by education counselors, the sample of research has reached ( 300 ) and guide .about (150 ) and an educational guide (150 ) educational staff of the General Directorate for Educational Baghdad to guide the academic year ( 2014-2015 ) The researcher has two tools to prepare the study, and the results yielded enjoy by involvement and trust, as well as the availability of significant relationship between involvement and self-trust.

Keywords


Article
The Submission Emotional Among The Students Of The Preparatory
الخضوع العاطفيّ لدى طلبة الإعدادية

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Back to sentiments to antiquity , but the person who the submission emotional cant adjust the positive and negative emotions also fails to choose a profession and also provokes simply especially in preparatory. . Based on the above objectives of the research are as follows : 1. Measure the submission emotional among the students of the preparatory . 2. The identify on differences in the submission emotional among the students of the preparatory according to sex (male – female ) . 3. The identify on differences in the submission emotional among the students of the preparatory according to the variable specialization ( scientific – humanitarian ) . Included community search students the preparatory in azizia wasit province from fourth , fifth and sixth scientific and literary classes , and sample search of (400) students were selected stratified randomly , and with respect to a device search has been building submission emotional scale , verify virtual honesty and reliability calculation and paragraph three moths , be finalized the scale of (35) paragraph , and then the scale is applied to a sample of applied research , and the results were as follows : 1. found that students the preparatory suffering from submission emotional . 2. appeared that female from students the preparatory more submission emotional from males . 3. There were no statistically significant differences in submission emotional between specialization scientific and humanitarian for students the preparatory . Based on the results, the researcher recommended offer television programs on the experts to uncover the extent of saturation submission emotional , and suggested a comparative study in submission emotional between students the preparatory and high students.

Keywords


Article
Measurement Level of Social Marginalization of Working Woman Relation with Some Variables
قياس مستوى التهميش الاجتماعيّ لدى المرأة العاملة وعلاقته ببعض المتغيرات

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The research aims at : 1 –Measuring of of measurement level of social marginalization of working woman 2 - Realizing the statistical differences signify differences in measurement level of social marginalization of working woman according to following variables (career, marital status, years of service). To achieve the aim of this study, the researcher had built a tool of the study, the researcher has built a tool of the study, which is the scale social marginalization of working woman, where the sample consists of (210) female employees (Lecturers and representing by the scale of psychological Health among Lecturers and the Employees) of the academic year 2014 -2015, Where the data have analyzed by SPPS. The results were as the following: - working woman doesn’t suffer from social marginalization -There are statistical significant differences according to (career) variable for employs. -There are statistical significant differences according to the variable (marital status, years of service). The study concludes with discussion of results and presentation of some recommendation

Keywords


Article
Globalization and Its Effect on Vocational Human Relations for Arab Woman
العولمة وتأثيرها في العلاقات الانسانية المهنية للمرأة العربية

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

This research aims to study and analysis the concept of globalization and its effect in the economic field and what will lead to of mixing powers and parties unqualified in their capabilities and abilities also their values and traditions and their negative effects on the vocational human relations that Arab woman and what reflects on her role in the economic development that passed it a long way to fill her status in work with his brother the man and contribute in the movement of building and development in her country, consequently, there were duties and responsibilities to face this mixing and inference that world witnessed and working on limiting its negative effects on building and structuring Arab Homeland economically which provide Arab Woman with enough opportunities and suitable climate for development. Inductive Methodology and Explanative Methodology have been used for studying reality and concept of globalization and its effect on human relations in the work of Arab Woman by review globalization concept, globalization and labor opportunities, concept of vocational human relations, Arab Woman role in the economic activity , then analyzing concept of globalization and its effect on vocational human relations for Arab woman by depending on latest publishing on this field of researchers and studies , the researcher reached to number of conclusions most important are: 1. Changing in vocational human relations in field of globalization will lead to decline role of Arab woman in the economic development. 2. Preference for material profit will be on account of moral side for Arab woman. 3. Instability the system of values and confusions in human relations between individuals and groups in formal and informal working. 4. Decreasing income level of woman because of decreasing labor opportunities and dividing labor on basis of sex for man as psychological, natural and social character.

Keywords


Article
Educational curricula in the Maghreb A paper presented by
المناهج التعليمية في بلاد المغرب العربيّ

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Education is linked to Morocco since the first Islamic conquests or what is also called the Koranic schools or Islamic education or authentic education. This school has to teach science for transport, such as science legitimate linguistic and literary science and knowledge, dulling their mental and cosmic science. These schools have contributed to the spread of Islam, and to make it in all parts of Morocco, also contributed in providing frameworks qualified scientific competence, which took teaching assignments, and fatwas, and the Imamate, and rhetoric, and notarization, and the judiciary, and arithmetic, and the Administration, and counseling Bowl. As a graduate of this, many scientists, thinkers and intellectuals schools and a lot of pundits Mosusien in-depth knowledge of all the arts. Has been notorious in the Muslim world Maghreb and bright, but graduated some sultans of the Kingdom of Morocco and its founders, the son of a slave of God Yassin stationed leader, and Ahmad al-Mansur Sultan State Saadia. These scientists also worked on the education of boys and girls and students establish a Quranic school, mosques, schools and colleges, to teach these learners the principles of Islamic law and the rules of the Arabic language, and the adoption of Islamic studies to keep the faith Muhammadiyah, and the protection of the Arabic language, dialects and local dialects. These scientists also contributed to the preservation of the Maliki school.

Keywords


Article
The effect of mathematical modeling in solving practical problems method The second grade average students in mathematics
أثر أسلوب النمذجة الرياضية في حل المشكلات التطبيقية لدى طلاب الصف الثاني المتوسط في الرياضيات

Authors: م.د. صباح سعيد حمادي
Pages: 305-338
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The research know the effect the manner of mathematical modeling in solving practical problems with the second grade average students in math, and achieve the objectives of research adopted researcher experimental method, and use the experimental design The experimental and control groups a post test. And put the null hypothesis of the following: "There is no statistically significant difference at the level of significance (0.05) between the average scores of students who are studying the manner in accordance with the mathematical modeling and studying the normal way according to the solution of practical problems in mathematics."... Having been to identify the research community, which represents a middle school located within the geographical area of the province of Baghdad / Karkh/ 1, chosen sample of( 62) students from the second grade average students was chosen purposely, the sample was divided into two experimental one consisted of( 32) students studied according to the manner of mathematical modeling and the other officer consisted of (30) students studied in accordance with the normal way. Was a parity between the two sets of search variables (chronological age, previous achievement in mathematics, the level of intelligence). For the purpose of collecting data for the experiment was built Achtbarahl problems in Applied Mathematics, and may be in its final form (10) paragraphs experimental type and pans in which they can measure to solve problems in applied mathematics at the research sample. And conducted the appropriate statistical analyzes to calculate the coefficient of difficulty and discrimination of the test items, and make sure Alsekoumtria properties by ensuring honesty and consistency. After using statistical tools to analyze the results of the application of the test, such as Alachtbaraltaúa for two independent samples and the coefficient of correlation Pearson equation Spearman - Brown equation alpha Kronbach.ohart results that have been reached to a difference statistically significant at the level of significance (0.05) between the mean scores of students who are studying on according to the manner of mathematical modeling and studying the normal way according to the solution of problems in Applied Mathematics and in favor of students who are studying the manner in accordance with the mathematical modeling.

Keywords


Article
The effect of Thelin model in the collection of material Biology and retention of first year students Average
أثر أنموذج ثيلين في تحصيل مادة علم الأحياء واستبقائه لدى طلاب الصف الأول متوسط

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The search aimed to know the effect of Thelin model in the collection of material Biology and retention with the average first-grade students. Researcher intentionally chose the first grade average and the number of respondents (61) students about randomly divided into two groups: the experimental includes 31 students, and the control of (30) students. Rewarded researchers in research between the two sets of variables students (chronological age, and educational attainment of the parents and biology degrees in the first chapter). Researchers prepared lesson plans for the topics scheduled taught to two groups, and also to a promising researchers achievement test author of it (25) paragraph of the type (test of multi-) (understanding of knowledge-based) application and use of the researcher the following statistical methods: (samples t test for two independent samples and the Pearson correlation coefficient and equation Spearman _ Brown and square Kay and difficult equation paragraph and the strength of excellence). The researchers to the result is higher than the experimental group that studied Thelin model (collective investigation) to the control group in biology in the collection, and the superiority of the experimental group to the control group in biology in retention.

Keywords


Article
Contemporary Educational Supervision Competencies among Jordanian Supervisors in Mafraq Governorate
كفايات الإشراف التربوي المعاصر لدى المشرفين التربويين في محافظة المفرق

Authors: د. خلف عايد الطعجان
Pages: 365-384
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The purpose of this study is to investigate the most important Contemporary Educational supervision Competencies of educational supervisors. Moreover, exploring the availability degree of those competencies among male and female supervisors in Jordan and if there are differences according to certain variables. A random sample was chosen from the population of the study totaling (32) male and female supervisors (23 males, 9) females. To achieve the aims of this study the researcher administrated a questionnaire consisted of (40) items distributed on the following domains: personal Characteristics, public relations, communication, administrative competencies, leadership competencies, technical competencies, professional development competencies. The findings of the study showed that the technical competencies came first while the professional development competencies came in the last rank. Moreover the finding showed that there were no significant difference at the level of (α=0.05) attributed to gender effect, there were no significant difference the level of (α=0.05) attributed to scientific qualification effect and there were no significant statistical differences at the level of (α=0.05) attributed to experience effect. Based on the finding of the study the researcher presented several recommendations.

Keywords


Article
Beyond cognitive thinking and its relationship to cognitive flexibility among university students
التفكير ماوراء المعرفي وعلاقته بالمرونة المعرفية لدى طلبة الجامعة

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The goal of current research to know: degree thinking beyond the knowledge with university students - 1-differences in the degree of thinking beyond the knowledge with university students depending on the variables of sex (male-female) and specialization (human, scientific3. The degree of cognitive flexibility among students Gamah.4-differences in the degree of cognitive flexibility among university students depending on the variables of sex (male-female) and specialization (human, scientific) 0.5-relationship between thinking beyond the cognitive and cognitive flexibility, research sample consisted of (400) students by 172 males and 228 females and 180 for scientific specialization and (220) to specialize humanitarian randomly selected from the research community, and for the purpose of verification of the aim of the research, the researcher to adopt and Obina first two tools adopt Altvkiralamoraoualmarafa to Cherau scale and Densen ((Schraw and Dennison, 1994, and the second building cognitive flexibility scale and Obad application tools, data collection and statistical analysis researcher concluded that Baghdad University students enjoy a degree of Altvkiralamoraoualmarafa higher from the middle, as the results showed a statistically significant differences in Altvkiralamoraoualmarafa differences according to gender and in favor of females, whereas differences emerged in the Altvkiralamoraoualmarafa the humanitarian specialization. In Almronhalmarafah results Vozart that Baghdad University students enjoy the flexibility of knowledge and good results revealed statistically significant differences in Almronhalmarafah differences according to gender and in favor of males, whereas differences emerged in the Almronhalmarafah the scientific specialization and came These results as a result of their ability to cope with different tasks and positions, while the results showed a positive correlation relationship between function and Almronhalmarafah Altvkiralamoraoualmarafa and through researcher results came out a number of recommendations and proposals

Keywords


Article
Effect of Information Method in attainment and Development The Critical Thinking for Fourth Literary Class Female Students During Teaching History Material
أثر الطريقة الإثرائية في تحصيل مادة التاريخ وتنمية التفكير الناقد لدى طالبات الصف الرابع الأدبيّ

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The research aims to know effect of information method in attainment and development the critical thinking for Fourth Literary class students during teaching History Material, the researcher put four hypotheses and in order to verify them , the experiment continued to whole scholastic term and previously , tried to prepare requirements of experiment. The researcher choose randomly symbol of research and their number (64) female students , (32) for experimental group and ( 32) for the controlled group , then researcher compared variations of (intelligence, Pre- critical thinking test ) . The researcher prepared an attainment test included subjective items from various choosing included (40) items, the researcher also depended on test ( Abdul Wahid, 2013) for ( pre and post – critical thinking for calculating development of critical thinking . and researcher concluded to the following results : 1. Superiority the experimental group on controlled in test of obtaining. 2. Development critical thinking for experimental group after using information method. 3. Superiority experimental group in choosing pre and post- critical thinking . 4. There was no remarkable development in development the critical thinking for controlled group female students in the post test that teaching by traditional method. At the end of her research, the researcher mentioned many conclusions, recommendations and proposals .

Keywords


Article
Libyan- American relation 1969-2011
الــعــلاقــات الليبية – الامريــكيـــة 1969-2011

Authors: أ.م.د منى حسين عبيد
Pages: 433-450
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Libya has acquired a great importance in the strategy of the United States of America on different levels. USA has sought through its relations with Libya to achieve different political and economic goals. According to the importance of Libya, the United States has managed to make pacts and agreement with it and even installing military basis there. In Spite of the cooperation and alliances between the two parts, the relations has deteriorated since the revolution of 1969,because of the policy of the new revolutionary regime which tried to enhance the national attitudes in achieving the Arab unity and the de- installing of the British and American basis and the nationalization of the oil companies. The relations has deteriorated to the point that Libya was put in the list of states sponsoring terrorism especially after 9/11, but Libya managed to change its foreign policy and tried to cooperate with the united states in deterring terrorism. But after the so called Arab spring the relations had deteriorated badly after the United States intervention to over through Moamer Qadaphi. In spite of the nature of the Libyan system and its authoritarian policy which pushed the united states to get rid of him ,but even so it used the allegation of human rights violations as a pretext to get rid of him.

Keywords

Table of content: volume: issue: