Table of content

Alustath

الاستاذ

ISSN: 0552 265X /25189263
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Education Ibn Rushd
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

About the magazine
Issued by the Faculty of Education, Ibn Rushd scientific journal entitled (Journal of the professor), was her first release in 1952. In the beginning. It deals with scientific research, literature and the Arab and Islamic civilization, and contributes to the professors of colleges according to their competence to define the educational community in the Arab countries and abroad.
• the name of the magazine: -Alustath( Professor)
• Produced by: - Faculty of Education / Ibn Rushd
• the international number ((ISSN)):-0552-265X/E-2518-9263
• E-mail to the magazine: - alustath.journal@ircoedu.uobaghdad.edu.iq
• Year Released: --1952
• Type of release (quarterly, semi-annual): - quarterly.

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Email : alustath.journal@ircoedu.uobaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2016 volume:2 issue:216

Article
Geographical dimensions of the high ground water levels in the city of Hit
الأبعاد الجغرافية لارتفاع مناسيب المياه الجوفية في مدينة هيت

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Abstract

We tried in this research can offer a simple explanation for the problem of high groundwater levels in the city of Hit. And its repercussions on economic, environmental, social and health aspects in the city,We were checked in the causes and dimensions and give a scientific vision in order to overcome the obstacles.We have adopted the style inductive and field survey and analysis of the questionnaire, which was distributed to a sample of homes form.The study found that the most important results of the natural world (geology and surface) that a significant impact on this phenomenon. Also it left a large, social and environmental health and economic impacts on the city and its inhabitants. We greet you see the ground and salted Rookery, ponds, swamps and pollutants .... and housing that lacks the gardens. And walls cracked by moisture and become the most residential and public buildings infected with diseases buildings and extinction and the many diseases that affect the health of urban populations and the dispersion of land use and contamination of optical and environmental hit even sources of water supply and of the Euphrates River city and provided a scientific vision for treatment, among them the work of bumpers impede the progress of the underground water and increasing the discharge Trocars the old lining

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Article
The applied methods in the western mountain region for the rains water harvest in Lebya
الأساليب المستخدمة لحصاد مياه الأمطار في ليبيا أنموذجًا لمواجهة الجفاف

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Abstract

Libya lie in the northern western part from Africa , within a region the western mountain, climate be characterized and he is dry,. So .close ground water use becuse dont the modern techniques availablity to big depths for the arrival from the land surface at last time . when began water wells in the decrease Decide constructive tanks collected the rains water in vallys at the mountains feet be named different names as phiscos & majin . And settle in the cities decide constructive these tanks in the house and the water moved to her by the cars from the tanks which building in vallys . then the matter development to. More than that . Begin the work in bind this phiscos or tanks compilation water the rains associate in the house surface from the tubes by a net and in the rains water compilation and moving conduct to these closets. The aim is this research discribtions this kind and from phiscos and samples collected from the phiscos water which building in the vallys and from phiscos water that Bound in the house surface, Then a comparison that with samples from the wells water, for a kinds best identification this water for the human activities and the recommendation to a developing possibility and a generalization this model on the arid and some arid regions .

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Article
Geographical and modern technologies
الجغرافية وتقنياتها الحديثة

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The modern geographical today have moved into the new scientific track which is known today as "geographic place" towards the application of modern technologies in the studies field, in particular the application of steps the way of scientific research, including the note any presence idea originating observation geographical phenomenon then identify the problem and to develop hypothesis and to identify information that are relevant to the subject of the study of the geographic phenomenon, then the process of gathering information from those geographical phenomenon, either through information received from the field study satellite images via satellite or aerial photographs and modern maps with modern technologies Avatar and printed sources, including the official versions of the state departments or of the Court of scientific journals . It is the modern techniques that are used in modern geographical science in scientific applications three Systems is a technology GIS Gis (Geograbhical InFormation System), sensor system technology remote R.S (Remoote Sensing), GPS system technology (Global Positioning System) These three systems contributed to the great scientific revolution in all geographic modern science and its applications, as the GIS GIS technology is a way to organize or style of geographical and non-geographical information by computer and linked to geographical their positions depending on the specific coordinates. Coordinates are therefore a way to link the geographical phenomena scattered on the surface of the ground coordinates of the system and stored in computer memory and link the metadata associated with these phenomena through a database and analyzed and reflected a specific scale, and then print them The sensor system technology remote RS and its use in modern applications in geographical science is represented a set of processes that allow access to information for some geographical characteristics of the phenomena on the surface of the earth without no direct contact between the geographical phenomenon and the sensor (capture device information). Can be arranged remote sensors on a wide variety of platforms air or space and at different heights, turning the initial information received by the sensor either to directly usable products such as photographs air or space visualizations or store this information in a private devices can refer to it when needed in the future

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Article
Future trends -Arab relations - European A Study in Political Geography
الاتجاهات المستقبلية للعلاقات العربية – الأوربية دراسة في الجغرافيا السياسية

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Abstract

The indicators of Europe returning increasing rapidly as an active part at the current time, where the French differentiation pattern towards the American situation towards Palestinian issue, also the Germany-French-Belgian differentiation pattern towards the American situation during the Military aggression on Iraq in 2003, all of that Allows multiple and diverse indicators for this role Which had declined after the end of World War II and the end of the European occupation of the Arab homeland, Europe has suffered great losses militarily, economically, lose of population and socially during the World War II, and this loss had impacted its ability to continue its old strategic role of colonizing in confronting other international poles that had become the first power over Europe account and started to impose its influence on the former colonies of Europe in the Arab region, where America has struggled to impose its full control over the Arab homeland As an alternative for the old European colonialism , where the independence of the situation of the European had declined significantly towards the Arabian issues, so, it turns to the dialogue with the Arabian governments, Which had actually embodied as (The Arabian-European dialogue), considering that a new stage has begun to rearrange the international influence in the region, Also, Europe has regained its colonial power that was lost after the World War II particularly with the decline of the Arab unity factors because of the weakness of governments and systems, and the collapse of the Soviet Union, The level of this orientation has expanded with the launch of '' Middle East" project , according to (American-Zionist) belief that Excludes the European interests, and this pushed the researcher to analyze the constant and the variable in that study towards the Arabian issues as a framework to answer the queries about the future nature of the Arabian-European relations.

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Article
Pure water production in the city wajihiya
انتاج الماء الصافي في مدينة الوجيهية

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This study tries to investigate drinking water sufficiency in the cities of Al Muqdadiya District, Diyala that includes city center, Saeida Town and Al Wajehiya town and the efficiency of this service according to the planning standards approved in this field. The study issue was investigating the reality of drinking water sufficiency in the cities of the district according to the efficiency of the service. The results have come up with the following: 1. The daily production capacity of the refineries does not fulfill the needs of these cities due to the demographic, urban, and commercial growth in them. 2. There is a flaw in spatial distribution of water refineries in the cities of the district. 3. The actual production of clean water facilities in the study area in 2013 is 1287 m3/day. Accordingly, the share of a single person is 125m3/ person/day which is the less than the approved criteria of a person's need of clean water which is 360 m3/ person/day

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Article
The Development of Emotional Suppression for adolesents and Its relation with Need trascendence
تطور القمع الانفعالي لدى المراهقين وعلاقته بالحاجة للتجاوز

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Abstract

The current research aims are identifying The Emotional Suppression among adolesents , the significance of differences in a ccordance with gender and variables , and dose the Emotional suppression develop , and a correlation exists between the Emotional suppression with Need of transcendence in adolesents . The sample of current research consists of (150) adolesents from secondry schools . The researcher measure Emotional suppression by adoptecl (Taleeb , 2013) as well as a dopted (Hafath , 2006) scale to measure Need of transcendence The results show the following : The Emotional suppression develops with age , and clear develop in age (16) this result is deal with the developmental and theoretical view , and the social gender has no effect on Emotional supperission , and an invevrse correlation between two variables of this research . In the light of these results the resar cher has presented a set of conclusion , recommendation and suggestions .

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Article
University Education Remote Concept and the Extent of their Applicability
التعليم الجامعيّ عن بعد, مفهومه، ومدى امكانية تطبيقه

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Abstract

In light of the rapid technological changes and shifts in market conditions, the education system faces a challenge regarding the need to provide additional educational opportunities without the need for additional monitoring budgets. Therefore, many educational institutions began to face this challenge, and actually began to develop programs of universities and distance education programs vinegar. The era of distance education and open education has become a reality as possible after the investigation was a distant dream for many people all over the world. The e-learning is an ideal way to help large segments of the community members who force them social and professional responsibilities to not to leave their communities or their country. Many of the participants have access to the internet from their offices and homes.

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Article
Vanity and Narcissistic Personality Disorder
الغرور وعلاقته باضطراب الشخصية النرجسية

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Abstract

Vanity and narcissistic personality disorder share common qualities make it difficult ,to some extent, to differentiate them. There are theoretical opinions which suggest that vanity is a characteristic of narcissistic personality traits. The two variables have been studied from a psychoanalytic point of view, and despite the lack of studies and literature on the variable of vanity, still there is a number of studies that have tried to find a relationship between the two variables and this is what is aimed at in the current study. In other words, the aim is to find a relationship between vanity and narcissistic personality disorder in addition to measuring both variables separately and finding the difference in each one of them on the levels of the two variables: sex and specialization. To achieve this ,vanity and narcissistic personality disorder scale has been applied on a sample of 220 female and male students from University of Baghdad . The results were that the students are characterized by vanity and there is a difference in it in favor of males and students with scientific specialization who are also well known for their narcissistic personality disorder. There was no difference between males and females,while there was a difference in favor of students of scientific specialization. A number of recommendations and proposals was presented in the light of that.

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Article
SOCIAL SECURITY AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY TO THE TEACHERS
الأمن الاجتماعي وعلاقته بالمسؤولية الاجتماعية لدى المعلمين والمعلمات

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The case of a lack of social security of the most important issues facing the Iraqi society today and that the impact of external factors was the wars short and conspiracy against it as well as the impact of the most important internal factors that affected the decomposition society's values and standards affecting the sub-systems of society such as the family. And other institution. As the teacher is part of the community and represents a large segment in the Iraqi society. He affects and is affected by what is prevalent in the social milieu of behaviors and certain trends , made him live in a state of conflict and contradiction between the aspirations and the appropriate opportunities that the check his aspiration towards social status and improve their economic status. . All this, induced researcher to carry out this study and the completion of this research. In light of what presented above , the research goals identified by: 1.Identify the social security level of teachers through a criterion adopted by the researcher had been prepared for this purpose by Tai 2006. 2. Identify the level of social responsibility among teachers through a criterion adopted by the researcher had been prepared for this purpose by Tai 2006. 3. Identify the correlation between social security and social responsibility of the teachers. Current research has been limited on a sample of six primary schools have been selected from the Second Directorate of Rusafa ,Baghdad, which fall within Almuallimeen area , Mashtal ,in Baghdad. In order to achieve the goals of current research, the researcher was depend on two criterions prepared by Tai 2006. The first criterion for Social Security and paragraphs which displayed on a group of experts to indicate the extent of the validity of its paragraphs, has been approved amounting to (35) paragraph, and also check to scale virtual honesty and extracted stability and of the degree of persistence (0.84) degree of persistence. The second criterion is the social responsibility which the virtual honesty had been provided through the presentation of its paragraphs on the group of experts, which had been of ( 40) paragraphs, and check its honesty ,the degree of stability had been extracted and amounted (0.81). The results showed that there is the relationship of correlation between the security social and the social responsibility of the teachers who they possess a social security, and that they have a high level of social responsibility towards their people and country. Through the interpretation of the results, showed that the nature of socialization in Iraqi society has gave its members( including teachers) the ability to face the stress , crises and disappointments, and adapt with them , to get the feeling in stability and social security that leads to a sense of taking the social responsibility .

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Article
The impact of teaching according to Hamdi model in the acquiring geographical concepts to students in preparatory fourth class in the general geographic
أثر التدريس على وفق أنموذج حمدي في اكتساب المفاهيم الجغرافية لطالبات الصف الرابع العام في مادة الجغرافية

Authors: أ.م.د. بشرى حسن مذكور
Pages: 217-248
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Abstract

This research aims to know the effect of model Hamdi to acquire concepts and education in teaching methods and to achieve this purpose, the researcher relied on a partial seizure and is the experimental design of the experimental group and the control group with posttest researcher and students of fourth class in the general geographic for the academic year 2013-2014 and so opted for the purpose of application of the experiment and the sample consisted of 70 students and a student. The researcher was compared students research group before starting experience in a number of variables and formulated behavioral objectives of 45 behavioral goal and researcher prepared teaching plans for the subjects to be taught either search tool has prepared a researcher test the acquisition of concepts consisting of 45 paragraph and confirmed researcher of sincerity and Psychometric properties and to process the data statistically, the researcher used t-test , which showed a statistically significant difference at the level of 0.05% for the experimental group.

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Article
Criteria for correct oral expression when students of the preparatory stage
محكات تصحيح التعبير الشفهيّ عند طلبة المرحلة الإعدادية

Authors: أ.م.د. سماء تركي داخل
Pages: 249-280
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Current research aims to know the tests the correction of oral expression at secondary school students ,researcher selected teachers sample of Arabic language in Baghdad of six directorates and researcher used descriptive survey sample was (257) with average of (10%) of the main sample search of (2572) teachers and researcher prepared a tool for his search thought an opened questionnaire to collect the previous data and literature were 20 tests for correction and after distribution to experts and arbitrators were ( 12) and necessary modified it stay( 18) test was distributed to search sample and collect and unload responses in special forms for the purpose of processed statistically using probable center and percentile weight and the results showed maintaining (15) test for correction and removing ( 3) tests and the significant results of tests that have been accepted if the percentage for high paragraph (89%) with probable center (2.77) and the lowest percentage attained was( 59.3%) with probable center ( 2.19) and the fields arranged in descending order of its percentage. . 1-( correction of letters output) this standard got the first order if probable center ( 2.77) and percentage weight was 89%)) 2- (Eloquent speech expression to get away from the dialect if possible) this standard got the second arrangement if its probable center is (2.71) and its percentage weight (87%).

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Article
Effectiveness of SWOM Model of Education and Roberts Cluster Model of Education in the development of divergent thinking and skills beyond knowledge
فاعلية أنموذجي سوم التعليميّ وروبرتس العنقوديّ التعليميّ في تنمية التفكير التباعديّ ومهارات ما وراء المعرفة

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The current research is aimed to know the effectiveness of education is typical Som SWOM Model of Educational and educational cluster Roberts Roberts Cluster Model of Education in the development of divergent thinking skills beyond knowledge.The study population was selected from first-grade students in secondary Euphrates of the General Directorate for Educational Baghdad Karkh / 1, the first experimental group taught according to (model educational Som) and The second experimental group taught according to (Roberts cluster model of education).Verified equal groups by group of variables and the two samples appeared equal in these variables.The search tool has the researcher adopted a measure of divergent thinking (Ola Rafi Hamid 2011) and also has adopted a measure (Abu Riash, 2007) to measure skills beyond knowledge, the results showed the Superiority of the first experimental group taught in accordance with the (educational model Som) in both posttest in the development of divergent thinking and in the posttest in variable skills beyond the knowledge upon the second experimental group (Roberts cluster model of education) and according to the results it has beevn reached to conclusions.

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Article
Administration enabling for secondary school head masters at Baghdad government from the she /he assistants point of view Researcher
التمكين الإداريّ لدى مديري المدارس الثانوية في محافظة بغداد من وجهة نظر المعاونين والمعاونات

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The current research aiming at recognition of : 1. Administration enabling (empower of authorizations collection work , decision making , support and enhancement ) for secondary schools head master in directorate of education Karkh/2 from the she/he assistant's 2. point of view according to the gender variables (male-female ) and the service period (less than 10 years and more ). To achieve the two objectives of the research , the researcher prepared the Administration enabling questionnaire consisted of (40 items ) measuring the Administration enabling for the secondary schools headmasters in four fields including ( empower the authorities, collective work, decision making and support and enhancement) of (10) items for every field, and after verifying the validity and reliability of the questionnaire, applied on sample of she/ assistants chosen randomly fromdirectorate of education Karkh/2 to obtain their points of view concerning the administration enabling for the secondary schools headmasters and after obtaining data from the sample they are statistically analyzed, and reaching the following results:- 1. the secondary schools headmasters have no administration enabling in the field of (empower of authorities) from the he/she assistants' points of view, where they have administration enabling in the fields (collective work, decision making, support and enhancement ) from the he/she assistants' points of view. 2. The is no statistic significant difference among the he/she assistant's points of view concerning the administration enabling for the secondary schools head masters in the fields( empower of authorities, collective work , decision making and support and enhancement) according to the variable of gender, and there is no statistic significant differenceamong the he/she assistant's points of view concerning the administration enabling for the secondary schools head masters in the fields( empower of authorities, collective work , decision making and support and enhancement) according to the variable of the service, while there is and there is statistic significant difference among the he/she assistant's points of view concerning the administration enabling for the secondary schools head masters in the fields( empower of authorities, collective work , decision making and support and enhancement) according to the variable of the service and infavor of the more service period, besides, there is no existence of interaction between the variables of gender and period of service from the he/she assistants' points of view concerning the administration enability for the secondary schools headmasters in the field( empower of authorities) while there is interaction between the variables of gender and the service period in points of view of he/she assistants concerning the administration enabling for high schools headmasters in the fields of( collective work, decision making, support and enhancement).

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The Academic, Psychological, and Social Effects of Terrorism from the Perspective of Secondary School Students in Baghdad city
الآثار الأكاديمية والنفسية والاجتماعية للإرهاب من وجهة نظر طلبة المرحلة الإعدادية في مدينة بغداد

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The current research targets to identify the Academic, psychological, and social Effects of Terrorism and order them according to their priority and importance from the perspective of secondary school students. To achieve the aim of the research a scale is build to measure these effects consists of (54) item, divided into 3 areas: academic effects which are measured by (20) item, psychological effects which are measured by (18) item and social effects which are measured by (16) item. In front of each paragraph 5 alternatives, namely, applies to me to a very large degree, applies to me to a large degree, applies to me to a medium degree, applies to me to a limited degree, applies to me to a very limited degree), and takes the (1,2,3,4,5) degrees on sequence on correction. After analyzing the paragraphs logically and statistically and verifying the standard features of the scale represented by validity and reliability, the research is applied on the research’s basic sample consisting of (370) adult male and female of secondary school students in Alrusafa/ Alowla and Alkarkhl/ Alowla directorates. The obtained data from the sample are analyzed statistically. The researcher found a set of academic, psychological, and social effects of terrorism from the perspective of the students. These effects have been arranged according to their priority and importance from highest arithmetic average to the lowest arithmetic average within each of the above mentioned areas. The items with the sequence of (2,4,5,8,9,16) got the highest arithmetic averages in the academic effects of terrorism. These items refer to the weakness of student’s motivation, the weakness of their scientific ambition, their feeling of not having energy in the academic side, having indifference towards their academic future, and not participating in classroom and extra-curricular activities. For the items with the sequence of (21,22,24,25,26,27,29,30,33,34) have got the highest arithmetic averages in the psychological effects of terrorism. These items refer to the feel of the sample individuals for being frustrated, insecure, pessimism, fear, having negative outlook for the future, as well as they feel disappointed, in danger and having anxiety, and having sleep disturbance. The items (52,43,51,50,49,39,41,48) have got the highest arithmetic averages in the social effects of terrorism. These paragraphs indicate that the sample’s individuals became isolationists, loosing the desire to perform the social duties, staying away from family while watching political programs, weakness in visiting relatives, apologizing for participating their colleagues in social activities inside and outside the school, and these resulting in poor their social relationships and avoiding the places where there are gathering.

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Article
Carol impact strategies and Assyria in the collection of Arabic grammar the students fifth grade literary
أثر استراتيجيتي كارول وأشور في تحصيل قواعد اللغة العربية لدى طالبات الصف الخامس الأدبيّ

Authors: م.د صبا حامد حسين
Pages: 365-388
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The goal of this research know the effect strategies Carol and Assyria in the collection of fifth-grade students in literary Arabic language rules And used researcher experimental approach, opting deliberate manner sample of students (fifth grade literary) (from the Anfal School for Girls in Baghdad) for the academic year (2014-2015) for the purpose of application of the experiment, has applied researcher testing on an exploratory sample consisted of 30 students from the community Find the same, as she taught the three research groups themselves, and continued the experiment, which began on Sunday 18/01/2015. On a similar sample of the research sample consisted of 100 female students from the fifth literary purpose of the data processing statistically adopted a researcher at the Pearson correlation coefficient, and the coefficient of difficulty, and the power of excellence, and Cronbach's alpha equation Inlight of this, the researcher found the following results: 1. utweigh the students first experimental group, who studied strategy Carroll on the second experimental group students who studied according to Assyria strategy in the collection of literary fifth grade students. 2.outweigh the students the first two experimental groups, who studied the strategy of Carol II, who studied the strategy according to Assyria to the control group, who studied in the traditional way in the collection of students in the fifth literary Arabic: 1.zreference strategies Carol and Assyria andsupremacy on e traditional way in the collection of fifth-grade students in literary Arabic grammar 2.The time period available for teaching the rules in general and focus on objectivity in particular requires a time more than the time available.

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The Modernlization and its Impacts on the Tribal Values Aamong College students Sosio- anthropological Research in Khalidiya District Center in Anbar province
قيم التحديث وانعكاساتها على القيم العشائرية لدى طلبة الجامعة بحث سوسيو- انثرولوجي -جامعة الانبار انموذجا-

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A- In this research the study of the implications of the modernlization on tribal values among college students and the impact of these reflections on the university and the community in the modern Iraqi society and the role of the university in the traditional society change in Iraqi society and the role of the university system in the change of Anbar province society, the research has been adopted on the initial data , As the researcher prepared a questionnaire to random stratified sample of 17items were distributed to 200 respondents from Anbar University in the college of Arts Education for Humanities students as he was used descriptive approach to achieving the aims of research which is to identify the most prominent and important values at Anbar University students in light of the variables two main variable sex (male and female) and variable grades ( first , second, third , and fourth). B- The results showed that there is loyalty by students for some of the tribal values with look at for applying the update on the cultural and political values and develop values. The study found some recommendations to increase the courses that discuss tribal values and the values of modernization at the university. And the need to adjust the prevailing negative values in the university community . And work on the formulation of educational plans based on the scientific basis for the preparation of appropriate programs for university students working to instill positive values . And the need for students urged the university law. Finally, the need to match the university culture with the culture of the community . Key words: modernlization- tribal values

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Article
The Quality of Human Education and Learning in the Intellect of Imam Jafar bin Muhammed Al- Sadiq
جودة تربية الإنسان وتعليمه في فكر الإمام جعفر بن محمد الصادق (عليه السلام)

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The research aims to shed light on the Doralamam Jlbn Mohamed Sadiq ( peace be upon him) in the field of quality assurance follow search elicitation methodology and analysis of some of the Imam( peace be upon him) and drow quality standards contained there in the research found number of results to be tovla fudge the factors and hyrot to judge the quality of the stuff each according to his nature. And mind tmizalepeshr basis for the rest of the creatures and certainty Transcends spirit find the establishment of further studies and research highlighting the role of Ahl al Bayt also recommended (peace be upon them) in the field of quality and the establishment of studies on the role of social and educational institution securing the quality of the human dircelor and make more offorts to spread quality between the community and the A lash lab the street and Husseini Mosque and culture.

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Problems of Learning Arabic from the Perspective of Fourth Grade - Secondary Stage Students Perspective in the Directorate of Education of Baghdad Governorate Al-Karkh Researcher
مشكلات تعلم اللغة العربية من وجهة نظر طلبة الصف الرابع الإعداديّ في مديرية تربية محافظة بغداد/الكرخ الثانية

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The problems of learning Arabic, which includes the general weakness in the language for the students manifested in spelling mistakes and dictions and weakness sin reading of all kinds and the poor composition and expression (writtenandoral) and the poor handwriting as well as weakness of reading liked to weakness of understanding and comprehension. All these problems and others have made the educationalist and the parents complain from weakness. A very wrong saying is being spread that ‘Arabic is difficult and boring’. There is a complaintalso that students do not made enough effort for mastering Arabic. However, the results are always below the required level. To deal with these problems, the researcher was motivated to make a scientific study aiming at detecting the problems of learning Arabic from the perspective of fourth grade students (secondary stage). The matter required the preparation of a tool which includes 8 educational learning pivots. The procedures of validity, the constancy of the tools were applied on the sample of five secondary school that were chosen randomly form the 30 schools of the Directorate of Education of Baghdad Governorate Al-Karkh II. They formed a rate of %16. That enabled students of difficulty to learn. The tool was applied on students and one of the basic findings is that the methods of evaluation and the content of the textbook as well as the administrative problems have taken the lead as the main difficulties. The researcher attributed all these to the weakness of teacher preparation and not using the modern methods of teaching and the educational means. The researcher recommends the necessity of training teachers and include hem in intensified courses to promote their teaching and evaluation and the necessity that mass media take a leading role in caring for Arabic.

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The Effect of linguistic communication strategy in achievement and reflective thinking among students of the third stage/ Mathematics Department of curriculum and methods of teaching mathematics
أثر استراتيجية التواصل اللغويّ في تحصيل مادة المناهج وطرائق تدريس الرياضيات عند طلبة الصف الثالث/ قسم الرياضيات وتفكيرهم التأمليّ

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Aim of the research to know the effect of linguistic communication strategy (listening, speaking, reading and writing) in in achievement and reflective thinking the students the third stage, the Department of Mathematics in the College of Education, Pure Sciences, in the curriculum and methods of teaching mathematics course. The research sample consisted of 83 students, the students were distributed randomly to the first two sets of experimental (39) and studied according to linguistic communication and the other is the control strategy, officer strategy includes (44) students studied in accordance with the usual way. The two groups were rewarded in the variables (chronological age and previous achievement in curriculum and methods of teaching mathematics). The preparation of the first two tests achievement by levels of Bloom (remembering, understanding, application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation). The validity and Reliability of the test has been checked.e reliability, and the other test reflective thinking and be one of the (15) paragraph, of the type (multiple choice), were confirmed sincerity constructive and reliability. Achievement test apply and test the two sets of reflective thinking on the research, the data were collected and analyzed statistically using SPSS Ready program and results showed a statistically significant differences in achievement and thinking contemplative differences in favor of the experimental group who studied according to linguistic communication strategy

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Article
Iraqi women between integration and exclusion (The need to build an effective partner for sustainable development)
المرأة العراقية بين الاندماج والاستبعاد (الحاجة إلى بناء شريك فاعل لاستدامة التنمية) دراسة ميدانية من وجهة نظر أساتذة كلية التربية للبنات/ جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The participation of women in development, one task Chiefs of sustainable human development. Empowering women need to be important in making the change that is happening in the political life and economic, social and cultura , The loss of security failure mechanisms empower women, but the opportunity still exists to correct the conditions of discrimination against women and counting on the state and on the overall development partners actors a lot to accomplish and especially the face of the culture of domination and marginalization, to promote peace and reduce violence against women. And adjust policies and laws, including given the opportunity to change the laws that perpetuate discrimination and freedom to launch public opinion to encourage debate and dialogue and to publish information and awareness campaigns to change the image of women in the media , As well as civil society organizations, which are the natural incubator to nurture women leaders and build their social status and is counting on such organizations as the defender of the interests and the rights of women on the one hand and a participant of the state and the private sector in achieving the participation component that represents one of the important Chiefs of sustainable human development . Find and included a sample of professors collectors (College of Education for Women - University of Baghdad) and number (30) respondents to identify the importance of the participation of Iraqi women in sustainable development.

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Article
Terms of reference of the metaphor in the Modern European painting (Analytical study)
مرجعيات الاستعارة في الرسم الأوربي الحديث (دراسة تحليلية)

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Abstract

The current study looks forward to understand Terms of reference of the metaphor in the Modern European painting which are represented by form and its and its indicative system which has participated in Fine Arts and the development depending on previous metaphor related to the modernization . So , accordingly , thesis has included four parts , the first chapter has included the frame of approach . To offer he problem of thesis and its importance with the objects of time and subjective one , in addition to identifying the basic idioms in thesis. Chapter Two has contained the theoretical frame which has included two main topics , the first one has dealt with employing the formative and the indicative metaphor in the Modern European painting , the second topic has concerned with studying the features and the characteristics of modernity and has meant in studying attributes of modernity between concept and meaning in modern European painting. As well as the theoretical framework indicators. And ensure that Chapter III had concerned with research procedures, which contained the research of community and the research of methodology and research of tool. Then , the researcher has analyzed (three samples) of European artists to gain access to the research results within the fourth chapter which included: 1-One important figure in modern European painting follow the kind of interpretation, through changing the offset that achieve some kind of formal and semantic employment, with the help of imagination mental process of the image. 2-The emergence of innovative forms of its predecessor without moving them directly, derived from the past and reformulate some of the characteristics of formal and semantic, of the terms of reference of knowledge, so that metaphor reference resulting from the understanding of the impact experience, on the grounds that the metaphor of creative feature technical result of a sophisticated awareness owned by the artist. The researcher has reached the conclusions of display including the following: A European artist was credited with building the technical bridge the link between the world's arts, within the first foundation stages, of the characteristics of modern composition, especially in the art of drawing, through the mechanisms adopted in the construction of forms and methods of technical Manifesting in formulations of color which, with abstract features, derived from borrowed configurations that characterized feature abstraction.

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