Table of content

Alustath

الاستاذ

ISSN: 0552265X 25189263
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Education Ibn Rushd
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

About the magazine
Issued by the Faculty of Education, Ibn Rushd scientific journal entitled (Journal of the professor), was her first release in 1952. In the beginning. It deals with scientific research, literature and the Arab and Islamic civilization, and contributes to the professors of colleges according to their competence to define the educational community in the Arab countries and abroad.
• the name of the magazine: -Alustath( Professor)
• Produced by: - Faculty of Education / Ibn Rushd
• the international number ((ISSN)):-0552-265X/E-2518-9263
• E-mail to the magazine: - alustath.journal@ircoedu.uobaghdad.edu.iq
• Year Released: --1952
• Type of release (quarterly, semi-annual): - quarterly.

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Email : alustath.journal@ircoedu.uobaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2016 volume:1 issue:218

Article
Text and impact of standards in a poem my nation of Omar Abu Risha
المعايير النصية وأثرها في ترابط قصيدة (أُمَّتي) لعمر أبي ريشة

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Abstract

This research is marked aims (Text and impact of standards in a poem my nation of Omar Abu Risha) thread, to study the associated text scripts standards in a poem (my nation), which includes a standard Cohesion Besnver grammar bonding which is achieved by means of assignment, and substitution, deletions, and affection, bonding lexical detective Boselta redundancy and convergence, and the standard of Coherence which is achieved by means of relations (relationship of aggregate and detail, and general and particular, and contrast, cause and effect), and other means about the subject of the speech, and Alngarb, and time, and includes a search as well as standards related to product text and receiving in a poem (my nation), and include standard Intentionality and Acceptability, and standards associated with the conditions of text production and received, as fall beneath Informativity standards, and the context of the situation, and Intertextuality, relying on the descriptive and statistical applied in the development of such standards and their impact on theinterdependence of parts of the text to each other. The research found that the poem (my nation) Tnmaz conjunction and cohesion, consistency between parts, and the efficiency of text where high; the availability of all scripts standards and Taaorha in conjunction with each other text modules.

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Article
Enhancing Efl college students’ Language proficiency Through Sociolinguistic Competence:A termpaper Submitted
تعزيز الكفاءة اللغوية لدى طلبة الكلية دارسي اللغة الانكليزية لغة اجنبية من خلال اتمام الكفاية اللغوية اجتماعية

Authors: Dr. Sundus A. kamil
Pages: 1-16
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Abstract

Sociolinguistic Competence can be defined simply as: knowing and understanding how to speak given the circumstances you are in. Elaborately, when we speak our native language, we never think about who we are talking to, or how we should say something. Our words typically flash and come naturally, and we don’t even realize all the complexities that go into the process. Although we often do not actively think about this process, it is a essential part of effective communication. Second language learners must learn how to perform and comprehend language in various sociolinguistic contexts, considering factors such as the status of participants, the purposes behind interactions, and the norms or conventions of interactions.” That is what language learners must be taught and given opportunities to practice in real situations. This mainly includes, but not limitedly: expressing attitude or emotion, understanding formal vs. informal, and knowing/recognizing common slang or idiomatic expressions. The study of sociolinguistics involves the interaction of both language and society, in acquiring a new language, second language (L2) learners, in addition to learning structural, functional, and discourse rules, have to internalize sociolinguistic rules that can guide them in the choice of appropriate forms. Research has vividly shown that even advanced learners’ communicative behavior, due to a lack of sociolinguistic competence, may often deviate from L2 conventions so as to cause many cross-cultural misunderstandings. The aim of this study is to shed the light on sociolinguistic competence and to identify the EFL college students knowledge of it in a way to support their target language proficiency. This research is a descriptive one where a sample of (30) students at the college of Education /IbnRushd, University of Baghdad for the academic year 2014-2015 are randomly chosen from fourth year classes to respond to the questionnaire constructed by the researcher to identify the college students’ knowledge of sociolinguistic competence. The questionnaire was validated by being reviewed and adjusted according to the remarks provided by a number of experts in the field. The students’ responses have been statistically analyzed and rejected positively the null hypothesis to capture the importance of students’ knowledge of sociolinguistic competence in favour of better language proficiency on the students part.

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Article
A Cognitive Stylistic study of poetic discourse
دراسة أسلوبية ادراكية للخطاب الشعريّ

Pages: 17-34
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Abstract

One of the key challenges for cognitive stylistics researchers in contemporary stylistics is to explain how readers interpret literary texts by bridging the gap between their own world and the author's world. Werth (1999) seeks to account for the conceptual space that links the different worlds of discourse to the author reader levels of interpretation. This process provides an important new ways of conceptualizing the writing and reading process. Cognitive stylistics goes beyond stylistic accounting for literary interpretation via linguistic models to investigate the commonalities and the idiosyncrasies in reading experiences based on cognitive scientific insights into the relationship between the mind, language and the world. The study is concerned with the investigation of cognitive stylistic in the selected poem written by Emily Dickinson in order to show the effect of different cognitive stylistic devices especially the use of mental spaces on the interpretation of meaning. These mental spaces can help construct grammars that conceptualize the poet's world view. They are interacted and used not only in creation conceptual integration but also used to model dynamic mapping in the thought and language. The analysis has shown that cognitive stylistics is used as a device to provide a systematic and scientific approach to discourse authors and readers understanding of the world and explain how these interpretations are reflected in discourse organization. It tries to explain the way the cognitive processes are involved in meaning constructions. Furthermore, mental spaces can help construct grammars that conceptualize the poet's world view. Dickinson use of self-anaphor has created a world of possibilities, a world in which things can happen and be made to happen through the agencies of the self. Finally, metaphor is used as a scheme by which people conceptualize their experience to transfer, modify or blend mental constructs especially in the way by which one mental representation is mapped onto another when we read a text.

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Article
Evaluating the Reality of Iraqi EFL In-service Teacher Training Courses from the Perspective of Trainees
تقويم واقع الدورات التدريبية في أثناء الخدمة لمدرسي اللغة الانكليزية في العراق من وجهة نظر المتدربين

Authors: Inst. Fakhir Muhi Mahmood Ph.D.
Pages: 35-56
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Abstract

The current research intends to evaluate the reality of Iraqi EFL teachers' in-service teacher training courses from the perspective of trainees. Forty nine English teachers working in the secondary schools of the General Directorate of Education in Baghdad- Al-Karkh/1 who had attended the training courses during the academic year 2014-2015 were the subject of the research. Data were collected through a questionnaire that consists of three domains. The responses were analyzed by using the proper statistics. The research findings indicate that although the trainees’ attitudes are positive towards the courses they attended in general, but in terms of improving the basic English knowledge as the most important aspect for teaching new English curriculum still not effective yet, as well as the courses have limitations especially in terms of their planning, evaluation phases, and their impact on teachers’ practices. Finally, some recommendations and suggestions are presented by the researcher to enhance the training process in Iraq.

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Article
Prophet Essa . related quranic speech : rhetorical approach in the light of pragmatic theory
الخطاب القرآنيّ المتعلق بالنبي عيسى --u مقاربة بلاغية في ضوء النظرية التداولية

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Abstract

The current study atlempts at spotlightinga set of pragmatic phenomena included in the quranic verses related to prophet essa. This is done by rnetorical analysis of these verses making use of the modern view of pragmatics . the study seeks to uncover certain phenomena starting with the defintion of pragmatics , moving toits origin and formation . the study also discusses topics such as the functional content of pragmatics and rhetoric , verbal verbs theory ‘ Arabic rhetoric‘ and pragmatics in the old Arabic heritage . the study then shifts to the practical phase as it studies the techniqnes of affermation , interogation, command , and negativecommand ‘the latter includes topics as diversion from past to future‘‘apostrophe ‘anastrophe‘ ‘elision ‘ circumlocution ‘ wholeanddetail ‘ and epanodos . simile , metaphor‘ and Metonymy and innuendo

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Article
Analisis personal del dictador en la novela la fiesta del Chivo
تحليل شخصية الدكتاتور في رواية (حفلة التيس)

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Abstract

La Fiesta del Chivo is a story novel that portrays the Trujillo dictatorship in the Dominican Republic . Dictatorships have unfortunately been a constant feature in our continent This phenomenon also called Latin American caudillo has permeated the history of blood and violation of human rights . Usually of a dictatorship it is usually the result of a process of profound social upheaval and typically occurs through a military move against the power structures previously established movement that takes the form of coup. Terror and fascination of all Dominicans Trujillo and the facade of legality which is constructed to maintain an image of "democracy" against other states are observed in the novel , which is closely related to the question of the " crisis of sovereignty."

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Article
The Effect of structural Difference in the Lexical Meaning Diversity As A Phenomenon In The Employment of Qunanic Readings In the Arabic lexicans A research in the lexicon of lisan al-arab
من مظاهر توظيف القراءات القرآنية في المعاجم العربية أثر اختلاف البنى في تعدد المعاني المعجمية - بحث في معجم لسان العرب

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Abstract

The Holy Quran was, and is still, the core of various studies and the base for the start of many Islamic and Arabic sciences. Lisan AL-Arab is such a famous lexicon in the 7 th century For higar written to save the origin of language and to regulate its structure as it is the path of the Holy Quran and the prophetic Sunnah. This Lexicon is distinguisheol by its dependence on the Quranic Readings as it shows various linguistic denotations, syntactic rules and eloquence of expression. This research aims at eliminating the quranic studies and how they occur as a witness in the various possibilities of expressions and the extent to which language gets benefit from the various quranic studies as these readings add new meanings and expressions to enrich thinking and enlarge the abundance of language.

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Article
Middle Voice in English and Arabic
ما بين المعلوم والمجهول في اللغتين الإنكليزية والعربية

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This paper is about middle voice in English and Arabic. Middle voice does not exist in all languages of the world, but there are languages that express middle voice; a voice that can be described as active and as passive at the same time as it has the characteristics of both of them. The paper compares middle voice in English and Arabic focusing on the verbs that are used in this voice in both languages to show areas of similarity and difference in the kind of the verb used to express this voice in the two languages under study.

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Article
The Americanization of Film Subtitles: A Sociocultural Linguistic Perspective to Subtitling Translation in the Arab World
أمركة ترجمة الافلام : دراسة لغوية- اجتماعية لترجمة الافلام في العالم العربي

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The amount and diversity of mass media that our age witnesses have created a great deal of challenge to the process of translation all over the globe. As an autonomous discipline of translation, the audio visual translation (AVT) has been flourishing due to the thousands satellite channels which are in a continuous pursuit of new subtitled programs. Subtitling translation, accordingly, has exceeded its previous limited scope of films to include various types of reality TV shows, sport, documentaries, fashion programs etc. Consequently, the need for professional expert subtitlers has become one of the hallmarks of our modern age of globalization. One inevitable technique used by translators is to draw the author’s modes of thinking towards that of the reader as close as possible without paying much attention to the various aspects of meaning associated. This domestication technique has been criticized by Venuti (1995) for its denial of the visible role of the translator in his/her translated text. As a substitute, a translator might foreignize the reader’s modes of thinking and introduce him to that of the author. In parallel, a film subtitler is doomed to choose one of these preferences either to satisfy the target language audiences linguistically and culturally, or to impose on them the source language foreign structures and modes of thinking. The translator’s preference between these two techniques is not as clear cut as Venuti suggests. Factors such as the language distance between the SL and the TL, the translated text’s subject matter, the language dominancy, and the translator’s level of acquaintance with the various cultural facets of both the TL and the SL should also be taken into consideration in such preference. This paper is an attempt to investigate the subtitling translation of the American films in the Arab world in terms of Venuti's dichotomy of domestication and foreignization. It is based on a case study which examined the Arabic subtitle of two American films; “The Aviator” and “The Departed”, and the English subtitle of the Egyptian Arabic film “Hassan wa Murkis”.

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Article
The Naming Strategy in the Extremists' Discourse
استراتيجية التسمية في خطاب المتطرفين مقاربة لسانية تداولية

Authors: م.د. مرتضى جبار كاظم
Pages: 91-102
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This study aims to trace the naming act in the extremists' discourse as a misleading linguistic procedure and a discoursal maneuver trying to dominate and permeate the other by provoking the past representations and the present influences. At the same time, the study tries to make use of the facts of semiotics to undermine this strategy relying on whether the significations of the misleading discourse are compatible with reality or not.

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Article
Posting women spend her money in Islamic jurisprudence
ضوابط إنفاق المرأة مالها في الفقه الإسلاميّ

Authors: د. ياسر صائب خورشيد
Pages: 103-112
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Abstract

The approach of Islam balanced approach is no contradiction between its parts, is the approach to achieve justice in the most accurate sense, and in a wider range, and a comprehensive approach does not leave an order in which Salah only against him, was dearest Islam woman and make her high position in light of this true religion and gave all material rights and moral, Women have related to their financial rights, has necessitated the Islamic law women the right to alimony her whether a daughter or a wife or a mother, and make her Islam full capacity as men, independent of the financial disclosure, Vothbtaat Islamic law, women's right to full ownership, and really working and doing business and investment, and the freedom to dispose of its money within the legitimate controls so called general controls which agreed controls include men and women, as in the full ownership and spend money in the face of the project, and not extravagant in spending money and not to damage the non-ownership (individuals and society). And the various controls, a private women, Ka_i_arh Guardian, the scholars differed and Rjehna view of the majority of scholars who say that there should be consultation guardian at the disposition of the doomed if taken into account the general controls spending. A special controls (consult the pair to spend her money), and also scholars differed in this officer, and Rjehna doctrine forehand Maalikis who says the entry into force behavior of women in the doomed if mosquitoes such as selling and leasing, either in the event of non-Awad Calebh and donate do not have the right to act only with the knowledge and consent of the husband To his knowledge, rather than financial matters to their advantage, and considering the fact that the husband and wife financial disclosure and to support one of love and intimacy and documentation of the marital relationship between them.

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Article
Right of Asylum and its Provisions in the Three Monotheistic Religions Comparative Study
حق طلب اللجوء وأحكامه في الأديان السماوية الثلاثة دراسة مقارنة

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In the Name of Allah, the Merciful, the Most Merciful, Praise be to Allah, Lord of the Worlds and peace and blessings be upon the master of messengers Muhammad the Messenger and his faitful family and his selected companions . I do not reveal the secret that wars, disasters, genocides, sectarian revenge , poverty, starvation are direct causes in the growing number of migrants (refugees) seeking for safe place Which obliges us to shed light on the problem statement of motivation, provisions in the three monotheistic religions, It is worth mentioning that the term of «asylum» do not mentioned explicitly in the three monotheistic religions, but it mentioned words ,its meaning correspond the asylum word and leas to its concept , And to solve the problem, researcher chose the topic of the right of asylum provisions in the three monotheistic religions, leading to a statement on the legislative side, related with asylum ,its provisions in the three monotheistic religions, and compare it to this problem and the provisions It is known for the reason of systematic rooting to identify of an appropriate approach ,fit with search, so I followed the comparative approach to examine the data, and findings , and to put it the comparison among the three monotheistic religions. Research plan, divided into an introduction, three topics, followed by the conclusion of the most outcome, as follow: Topic one : which dealt with human rights in the three monotheistic religions divided on three demands: Topic two : talked about the motives of the asylum in the three monotheistic religions, and its provisions divided to three demands Topic three: I explained the balance between the three monotheistic religions in human rights, and the motives of the asylum, and its provisions divided into two demands In conclusion I highlighted this research content, and its results, the most important of the three monotheistic religions approved for immigration and asylum when fear, whether on the body, or money, or honor ,but it only differ in the particulars and details contained in the search.

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Article
The Pre T ½ Spaces (The New Further Results)
النتائج المستقبلية الجديدة للفضاء التبولوجيّ Pre T ½

Authors: Dr. Abdul Salaam .W.Alkhazraji
Pages: 119-128
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We give the equivalence between pre T ½ space and some types of mappings. The aim of this paper is to discuss and investigate some characterizations for pre T ½ spaces. Also, the implication of this notion among themselves and with the well-known axioms such as : pre-T0, pre-T1 and pre-T2 are introduced. Furthermore we introduce and study the definition of preTD and pre-symmetric spaces and some of their properties are discussed.

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Article
Abstract Expressionism Techniques in John Ashbery’s "Self-Portrait in a Convex Mirror"
تقنيات التعبيرية التجريدية في جون آشبيري (لــ(بورتريه ذاتي في مرآة محدبة

Authors: Dr. Aseel Abdul-Lateef Taha,
Pages: 129-146
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John Ashbery (1927-) is one of the most prominent postmodern poets in America who is known for his innovative techniques. He continues to be the most controversial poet, as he disregards the laws of logic in picturing reality. Ashbery’s style is deeply influenced by the experimental methods of modern painting. He has been mostly associated with Abstract Expressionism that signifies the great progress in the European avant-garde visual art. The Abstract expressionists often choose to present subjects in graceful distortion, rather than attempt to record life with absolute accuracy. Ashbery’s “Self-Portrait in a Convex Mirror” is typical of ekphrastic poetry. It is inspired by a painting which has the same title by the sixteenth-century Italian painter, Francesco Mazzola. The painting is not a realistic portrait of the painter, for it is deliberately distorted as it would be in a convex reflection. Ashbery unfolds the essence of postmodern poetry which illustrates the inability of the forms of language to capture the reality beyond the mental image. Like the Abstract Expressionists, he makes of his poems a depiction of the real workings of the mind which is liberated from all the constraints. Furthermore, the poem is a verbal depiction of the painting; it assumes and transforms the inner voice of the portrait.

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Article
Reality of the situation and the divisions when
حقيقةُ الوضعِ وأقسامهُ عندَ الأُصوليّين

Authors: د. مسلم كاظم عيدان
Pages: 143-158
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Display search interest fundamentalists cause of the situation, and searched, and the importance of the status of the connection with other semantic issues, Kalhakiqh and metaphor, subscribe verbal, and others, as it was based on fundamentalists to the situation in determining their significance, the situation when the fundamentalists: (making the word evidence of meaning), as knowledge of the situation tells us to know the true meaning of the word, and it holds a special link between the pronunciation and meaning, so if you understand I understand the second. Scientists have disagreed on the statements, in their answers about the relationship between word and meaning, you are naturally suitable relationship, or if the asset in linking the word in the sense put setter; Vtkon significance as a result of terminology, and do inserter is God, or one of the humans, or a group of them ? There were many answers to this question on the five hypotheses. And it appeared to us that the situation of three theories : First theory : a course attendant . The second theory : consideration ( the pledge) . The third theory : ( Certainly century).

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Article
The Essentials of Classroom Management
أساسيات إدارة الصف

Authors: Lecturer: EMAN JABUR JINAM
Pages: 147-156
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Abstract: The management of class is a difficult task and how to establish a good relation between the teacher and his students is more difficult. Hence, it is the purpose of this paper to facilitate such difficulties through presenting some strategies which are believed as being essential tools that should be familiar to all teachers. Many graduate students and post doctorates want to learn how to teach, but they may not have the opportunity to do so while enrolled in graduate school or while working in their post doctorates position. So, it is the aim of this paper to provide support for all graduate students and post doctorates who are interested in learning the concept 0f teaching, engaging students, and creating learning environments. Key words: Learning environment- Classroom Management -Tools for Effective Teaching –Responsive Classroom-Partnering with Parents-Strategies

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Article
The Use of Active and Passive Voice in the News Language
استخدام المبني للمعلوم والمبني للمجهول في لغة الاخبار

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Active and passive verbs are a problematic style faces the journalist of news reports ,because sometimes he tries to make agency invisible and he may change the role of participants in the constructions of texts, when the actions come to negative situation or related to political parties or politicians. The current study aims at : 1- exploring the active and passive forms in written media language and their grammatical structures 2- showing the role and uses of passive forms as one of the techniques used by the journalists . The study has put two hypotheses:

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Article
The Sanossi - French War in the Sahara 1837-1913
الحرب السنوسية – الفرنسية في الصحراء الكبرى (1837- 1913)

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Why did I choose this subject to search it, while there are many studies have been put in a jihad Sanossi in Libya? Yes, that's true, but not much written about Alsanossin Jihad in Algeria or in South Desert of Africa, such as Mali and Niger, Chad and parts of the French resistance to the invasion, and therefore our chosen theme for this search. The Sanossi strategy the first to stir the Algerian tribes and mobilized against the French occupation introduced support for the revolution of Sheikh Mohammed bin Abdullah and Sheikh Bo -Eamama revolution, and when he found that the discrepancy between the military balance of power between the rebel tribes and the forces of the French occupation has made the war between the two parties usually ends in favor occupier, and therefore resorted to change its strategy to transfer the confrontation with the occupier of the areas north of the desert to the areas to the south to prolong supplying lines, and the style of war changed from offense to hard defense through the establishment of angles Sanossi and published on the progress of the occupation forces in sub-Saharan lines,Beer Alaly angle have been recorded in Chad's first line of defense of the movement Sanossi and proved a remarkable capacity to withstand and respond to the creeping colonization of French West and Central Africa for two continuous years of war.

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Article
Orientalist Emilio Gomez and its impact on the deployment of the Andalusian heritage
المستشرق اميليو غومث وأثره في نشر التراث الأندلسيّ

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This research deals with all Orientalism because of its importance to researchers in the study of Islamic history in general and Andalusian particularly from another standpoint. This study has made a translation of an orientalism chapter who has an impact in Andalusian studies, the Orientalist (Emilio Gomez). This research was divided into four sections, The First section is about Orientalism, its linguistic and idiomatic definitions, and in which the definition of Orientalism idioms and its development were presented. The second section: The life of (Emilio Gomez) his name, his birth, his time until his death. The third section: the scientific life of (Emilio Gomez), which dealt with the scientific upbringing, his most prominent teachers, the certificates and scientific positions that he has got. The fourth section is the role of (Emilio Gomez) in the dissemination of Andalusian heritage through presenting his achievement in translation, Authorship and delivering scientific lectures. Finally, this research ends with a conclusion and then the margins .

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Article
الازمات الاقليمية والدولية وأثرها في العلاقات الامريكية التركية (1957- 1964)

Authors: م.د. علاء جابر موسى
Pages: 209-226
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It was clear that the US-Turkish relations were of a distinctive privacy, which obliged it to decide about the options of dispute between them. If it were true for the independence of Turkey's foreign policy in its regional area might contradict with the US and its interests, then it might push it to force it to do otherwise through using some pressure files on Turkey. The US pushed Turkey to move using several means; it exaggerated the (Communist danger) to Turkey, describing it as it was awaiting the appropriate moment to strike Turkey, in addition to the western media's continious talks about such a danger so as to create a suitable condition for the Turks to make then enter into the US strategy. The US realized the importance of the Turkish role in the Middle East. This strategic importance is for seversl reasons, including Turkey's geopolitical location (among three continents; Europe, Asia and Africa) connecting Turkey to many areas of US interest. Turkey is connected to the areas of the Middle East, Balkan, Caucas, Black Sea and Middle Asia by economic, cultural, and historical links. It also controls the sea passages which are of top priority for the US economic, political and military interests.

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