Table of content

Albahir journal

مجلة الباهر

ISSN: 23125721
Publisher: AL-Abbas Holy Shrine
Faculty: AL-Ameed International Center for Research and Studies
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

It is a quarterly scientific peer reviewed journal, sponsored by the Holy Al-Abbas Shrine, with two volumes a year and each cuddles two issues, deals with research and studies rendering the pure and engineering sciences, theoretical and practical, into being a field of its interest. What is to mention, a research study should be in line with the terms and conditions of the scientific research methodology and the scientific data, then the peer reviewed blind processes trigger an objective evaluation and assessment at the hand of an constellation of qualified experts with distinguished scientific history in their field of specific majors.
In time, it runs with the standards of the scientific peer reviewed journals as approved by the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research in the Republic of Iraq, and embraces the natural and engineering sciences to provide scholars with future opportunity, to serve the scientific research movement and to pave the way to appropriate atmosphere for researchers, scholars and those who pay much heed to such targets.

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Tel: +964 032 310059
Mobile: +964 760 235 5555
http://albahir.alkafeel.net
Email: albahir@alkafeel.net

Table of content: 2015 volume:2 issue:3,4

Article
Effect of Mid Plane Layer on Flexural Properties of Plies Under Transverse Loading
تاثير الطبقة الوسطية على متانة الانحناء للطبقات تحت الاجهاد المستعرض

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Abstract

Abstract The effect of mid layer on flexural strength and young modulus were studied using Instron testing machine. E-glass/epoxy composites were manufactured using hand lay-up technique. The laminated composites were prepared with dimension (4x10x80) mm, Epoxy composites were reinforced with multidirectional layer of woven glass fiber and random glass fiber of stacking sequence [M]16, [R]16, [M/R//M1/M1//R/M]s, [//M/R//]s, and [R/M//R1/R1//M/R]s. The effect of transverse loading on flexural strength and young modulus was investigated for specimens subjected to Three-point bending test. The results show that the mid layer (M1/M1) which had (homogeneous distribution) has higher flexural strength value and young modulus than mid layer (M1/R1) and (R1/R1).ﺍﳋﻼﺻﺔ ﺗﻢ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻄﻴﺔ ﻋﲆ ﻣﺘﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﻻﻧﺤﻨﺎﺀ ﻭﻣﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻳﻮﻧﻚ. ﺗﻢ ﲢﻀﲑ ﻣﱰﺍﻛﺒﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﻳﺒﻮﻛﴘ- ﺍﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﺯﺟﺎﺟﻴﺔ .ﺳﻠﺤﺖ ﺍﳌﱰﺍﻛﺒﺎﺕ ﺑﻄﺒﻘﺎﺕ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﺯﺟﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﻋﺸﻮﺍﺋﻴﺔ ﻭﺣﺼﲑﺓ.ﺗﻢ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﻬﺎﺩ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﻋﲆ Eﻧﻮﻉ –ﻣﺘﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﻻﻧﺤﻨﺎﺀ ﻭﻣﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻳﻮﻧﻚ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻓﺤﺺ ﺍﻻﻧﺤﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﻲ. ﺍﻇﻬﺮﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻄﻴﺔ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺣﺼﲑﺓ ﺣﺼﲑﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﲤﻠﻚ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﻣﺘﺠﺎﻧﺲ ﺍﻇﻬﺮﺕ ﻣﺘﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﻻﻧﺤﻨﺎﺀ ﻭﻣﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻳﻮﻧﻚ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﲔ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻋﲆ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺼﲑﺓ -ﻋﺸﻮﺍﺋﻲ ﻋﺸﻮﺍﺋﻲ


Article
The protective role of Zinc in boron detoxification under the presence or absence of auxin as function of rooting response of mung bean (Vigna ratiata L. Wilczek)
الدور الوقائي للزنك في إزالة سمية البورون بوجود غياب الأوكسين بدلالة استجابة التجذير في عقل الماش

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Abstract

Abstract The role of Zinc in alleviating B-toxicity in terms of adventitious root formation (ARF) in cuttings of mung bean was studied. The toxic level of B in addition, to the promotory conc. of Znsalt was determined. Two of Zn-salts were tested (sulphate, and chloride), auxin was supplied as inductive treatment to enhance rooting response. 1. The toxic level of boron was 150 (µg/ml), this reduced growth parameters in terms of rooting response to 50% compared to control. 2. Zinc sulfate at conc. 1 (ppm) and Zinc chloride at 5 (ppm) developed the highest rooting response in mung bean cuttings. 3. For Boron detoxification, Zn-(sulphate and chloride) were supplied as pre-treatment, posttreatment or simultaneously with toxic-B. The best treatment for boron detoxification occurred completely by supplying Zinc sulphate and chloride prior to toxic-B treatment (pre-treatment), but after supplying auxin inductive treatment. 4. The protective role of Zinc-sulphate and chloride significantly enhanced the average of root number/cutting to its highest level in control treatment.اﳋلاﺻة ﺇﻥ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺰﻧﻚ ﰲ ﲣﻔﻴﺾ ﺳﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻮﺭﻭﻥ ﺑﺪﻻﻟﺔ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﳉﺬﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺿﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻋﻘﻞ ﺍﳌﺎﺵ ﻗﺪ ﺩﺭﺱ ﺑﻌﺪ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﱰﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻮﺭﻭﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﱰﺍﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﳌﺤﻔﺰﺓ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻛﱪﻳﺘﺎﺕ ﻭﻛﻠﻮﺭﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻧﻚ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺟﻬﺰ ﺍﻻﻭﻛﺴﲔ ﻛﻤﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺜﺎﺛﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﻔﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺬﻳﺮ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺑﻴﻨﺖ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻵﰐ: ( ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﺧﺘﺰﻝ ﻣﺆﴍ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺍﳌﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﺑﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﳉﺬﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺿﻴﺔ  .1 1- )ﻣﺎﻳﻜﺮﻭﻏﺮﺍﻡ. ﻣﻞ150ﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﱰﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻮﺭﻭﻥ ﺍﳌﺘﻜﺸﻔﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻞ ﺍﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻒ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﻌﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻄﺮﺓ. ﺃﻋﲆ ﺍﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ ﻟﺘﺠﺬﻳﺮ ﻋﻘﻞ ﺍﳌﺎﺵ.  .2 (ppm) 5 ﻳﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻛﻠﻮﺭﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻧﻚ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﱰﻛﻴﺰ (ppm) 1ﺣﻘﻘﺖ ﻛﱪﻳﺘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺰﻧﻚ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﱰﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻭﲠﺪﻑ ﲣﻔﻴﻒ ﺳﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻮﺭﻭﻥ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺟﻬﺰﺕ ﻛﱪﻳﺘﺎﺕ ﻭﻛﻠﻮﺭﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻧﻚ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻭﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﻟﻠﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻮﺭﻭﻥ ﻭﺳﻮﻳﺔ  .3 ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﻓﻀﻞ ﰲ ﺍﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺳﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻮﺭﻭﻥ ﻋﻨﺪ ﲡﻬﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻳﺘﺎﺕ ﺍﻭﻛﻠﻮﺭﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻧﻚ ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻻﻭﻛﺴﲔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﻟﻠﱰﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻡ ﺣﻴﺚ ﲤﺖ ﺍﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺳﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻮﺭﻭﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻟﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﲡﻬﻴﺰﻫﺎ ﻻﺣﻘﺎﹰ ﺑﺎﻻﻭﻛﺴﲔ. ﹰ  .4 ﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻠﻜﱪﻳﺘﺎﺕ ﻭﻛﻠﻮﺭﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻧﻚ ﲢﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺠﻴﻊ ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻮﻱ ﳌﻌﺪﻝ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﳉﺬﻭﺭ ﺍﳌﺘﻜﺸﻔﺔ ﻭﺻﻮﻻ ﺍﱃ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﺍﻫﺎ ﰲ ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻄﺮﺓ.


Article
Protecting User’s Information Based on Clustering Method in Data Mining
حماية معلومات المستخدم بالاعتماد على طريقة التجمع في استخلاص البيانات

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Abstract

ABSTRACT Privacy preserving data mining is a latest research area in the field of data mining. It is defined as “protecting user’s information”. Protection of privacy has become important in data mining research because of the increasing ability to store personal data about users and the development of data mining algorithms to infer this information. The main goal in privacy preserving data mining is to develop a system for modifying the original data in some way, so that the private data and knowledge remain private even after the mining process. In this paper we propos a system that used PAM (partitioning around medoid) clustering algorithm in health datasets in order to generate set of clusters, then we suggest protecting the sensitive attributes in each cluster in order to increasing the privacy of users information. Protecting the sensitive attributes is done by using privacy techniques through modifying the data values (attributes) in the dataset. We suggest using randomization techniqueData copying (which is a new suggested technique in this paper) to prevent attacker from concluding users privacy information. After modification, the same clustering algorithm is applied to modified data set to verify whether the sensitive attributes are hidden or not. Experimental results on these proposed techniques prove that the PAM algorithm is efficient for clustering in all data sets and the selected clusters are protected efficiently by using Data Copying technique. This technique is applied to Wisconsin breast cancer and diabetes data set. Finally the results of the proposed system prove that the distortion of data can be reduced when the privacy ratio was increased. These are important issues in PPDM, therefore the proposed system is highly successful in achieving the protection of privacy.ﺍﳋﻼﺻﺔ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ”ﺍﳊﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﲆ ﺧﺼﻮﺻﻴﺔ ﺗﻨﻘﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻫﻮ ﺃﺣﺪﺙ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺑﺤﻮﺙ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺐ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ. ﻭﺗﻌﺮﻑ ﺑﺄﳖﺎ . ﺃﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﳋﺼﻮﺻﻴﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﻮﺙ ﻭﺗﻨﻘﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﻋﲆ ﲣﺰﻳﻦ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ “ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﲔ، ﻭﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺧﻮﺍﺭﺯﻣﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺐ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ ﻋﲆ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ. ﺍﳍﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺲ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﲆ ﺧﺼﻮﺻﻴﺔ ﺗﻨﻘﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻫﻮ ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻴﺔ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻣﺎ، ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﰲ PAMﻭﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺗﺒﻘﻰ ﴎﻳﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻦ.ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻗﱰﺣﻨﺎ ﻧﻈﺎﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺧﻮﺍﺭﺯﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﻤﻊ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻃﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﻐﺮﺽ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﻗﻴﺪ ، ﺛﻢ ﺃﻗﱰﺣﻨﺎ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﺴﺎﺳﺔ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﻛﺘﻠﻪ ﻟﻐﺮﺽ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﴎﻳﺔ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﲔ.ﺃﻥ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﺴﺎﺳﻪ ﺗﺘﻢ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻌﲈﻝ ﺗﻘﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﴪﻳﺔ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﻗﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ )ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺎﺕ( ﰲ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ. ﺛﻢ ﺃﻗﱰﺣﻨﺎ ﺃﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺗﻘﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺜﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﻮﺍﺋﻴﺔ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ )ﻭﻫﻲ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻣﻘﱰﺣﺔ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ( ﳌﻨﻊ ﺍﳌﻬﺎﲨﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ. ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺧﻮﺍﺭﺯﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﻤﻊ ﺗﻄﺒﻖ ﻋﲆ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺤﺪﺛﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﺴﺎﺳﺔ ﳐﻔﻴﺔ ﺃﻡ ﻻ. ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺮﻳﺒﻴﺔ ﻋﲆ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻘﱰﺣﺔ ﺃﺛﺒﺘﺖ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳋﻮﺍﺭﺯﻣﻴﺔ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﰲ ﲨﻴﻊ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﺤﺪﺩﺓ ﺗﻢ ﲪﺎﻳﺘﻬﺎ ﺑﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺗﻘﻨﻴﺎﺕ )ﻧﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ(. PAM ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﺗﻢ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﻬﺎ ﻋﲆ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﴎﻃﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﺪﻱ، ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺮﻱ. ﺃﺧﲑﺍ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﻘﱰﺡ ﺃﺛﺒﺘﺖ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺸﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﳜﻔﺾ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﳋﺼﻮﺻﻴﺔ ﺗﺰﺩﺍﺩ. ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﻣﻬﻤﻪ ﰲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﳋﺼﻮﺻﻴﺔ )ﺍﻟﴪﻳﺔ( ﰲ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ، ﻟﺬﺍ ﻓﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﻘﱰﺡ ﻧﺎﺟﺢ ﺟﺪﺍ ﰲ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﴪﻳﺔ.


Article
Study the effect of the conic on Cassegrain Telescopes
دراسة تأثير مقدار اللاتكورعلى التلسكوب الكاسكريني

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Abstract

Abstract In this research study the effect of (conic) on some of the parameters that control the visual quality of the image formed by Cassegrain telescope for the purpose of evaluate the performance of this telescope that study Root Mean Square (RMS). The form of the distribution of the rays Encircled Energy (Enc) and A spherical Aberration is one of the most important factors affecting the composition of the image in the telescope and by which they can evaluate the work of the telescope. have been studying these parameters through the use of program Zemax where the results show that an decrease in conic lead to decrease A spherical Aberration in the image or visual system also leads at the same time to decrease the area of the bright spot (RMS). The Encircled Energy decrease with conic decrease this is evidence optical design quality for the case study of this topic telescope Cassegrain.اﳋلاﺻة ( ﻋﲆ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﲈﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﴫﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺠﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ conic)ﺗﻢ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺗﺄﺛﲑ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻼﺗﻜﻮﺭ RMS)ﺍﳌﺘﻜﻮﻧﺔ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﺴﻜﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺳﻜﺮﻳﻨﻲ ﻟﻐﺮﺽ ﺗﻘﻴﻢ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﺴﻜﻮﺏ ﺇﻥ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻌﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﻴﺌﺔ ( ﻭﺍﻟﺰﻳﻎ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﻭﻱ Encircled Energy Enc) ( ﻭﺷﻜﻞ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﺍﻷﺷﻌﺔ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﻛﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﺠﻤﻌﺔ Root Mean Square ( ﺗﻌﺘﱪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﳌﺆﺛﺮﺓ ﻋﲆ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﰲ ﺇﻱ ﺗﻠﺴﻜﻮﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﳍﺎ A spherical Aberration) ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻇﻬﺮﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ Zemaxﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﺴﻜﻮﺏ .ﻟﻘﺪ ﺗﻢ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﲈﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻘﺼﺎﻥ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻼﺗﻜﻮﺭ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﻧﻘﺼﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﻎ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﻭﻱ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ )ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﴫﻳﺔ(، ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﰲ ﻧﻔﺲ (، ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﺠﻤﻌﺔ ﻓﺈﳖﺎ ﺗﻘﻞ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﴫﻱ RMS)ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺇﱃ ﻧﻘﺼﺎﻥ ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻌﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﻴﺌﺔ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﺪﺭﻭﺳﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻠﺴﻜﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺳﻜﺮﻳﻨﻲ.


Article
The Inhibition Combustion of Polyester and Epoxy Resins by Using Some of Inorganic Phosphorus Salts
تثبيط الاحتراق لراتنجي البولي استر والأيبوكسي باستخدام بعض أملاح الفسفور اللاعضوية

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Abstract In this work, the effect of four types of inorganic phosphorus salts on flammability for polyester and epoxy resins has been studied in the weight ratios of (0.5, 1.5, 2.5 & 3.5%) by preparing films of (130×130×3) mm3 in diameter, Three standard tests method were used to measure the flame retardation which are; ASTM: D-2863, ASTM: D-635 & ASTM: D-3014. The results obtained from these tests indicated that additive IV has high efficiency as a flame retardant, self-extinguishing (S.E), occurred at the percentage 0.5% for unsaturated polyester resin and the percentage 1.5% for epoxy resin. Non-burning (N.B), occurred at the percentage 2.5% for unsaturated polyester resin and at the percentage 3.5% for epoxy resin. Additives I and II show low effect on retard combustion in both resins.ﺍﳋﻼﺻﺔ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ، ﺩﺭﺱ ﺗﺄﺛﲑ ﺍﺭﺑﻊ ﺍﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻣﻼﺡ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﻔﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻼﻋﻀﻮﻳﺔ ﻋﲆ ﺗﺜﺒﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﻠﻬﻮﺑﻴﺔ ﻟﺮﺍﺗﻨﺠﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻮﱄ ﺍﺳﱰ .3 ( ﻣﻠﻢ3×130×130) ( ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﲢﻀﲑ ﴍﺍﺋﺢ ﺑﻘﻴﺎﺱ 3.5% ﻭ0.5, 1.5, 2.5)ﻭﺍﻻﻳﺒﻮﻛﴘ، ﻭﺑﻨﺴﺐ ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ ﻭﺯﻧﻴﺔ ، ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ASTM: D-2863ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻣﺖ ﺛﻼﺙ ﻃﺮﺍﺋﻖ ﻗﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺗﺜﺒﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﻠﻬﻮﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ: ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ IV. ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺤﺼﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺗﺸﲑ ﺍﱃ ﺍﻥ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻑ ASTM: D-3014 ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ASTM: D-635ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻟﺮﺍﺗﻨﺞ ﺍﻟﺒﻮﱄ ﺃﺳﱰ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﺸﺒﻊ 0.5% (. ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ S.E)ﻳﻤﺘﻠﻚ ﺗﺄﺛﲑﺍ ﻛﺒﲑﺍ ﻛﻤﺜﺒﻂ ﳍﺐ، ﺣﻴﺚ ﳛﺪﺙ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﰐ 2.5% (. ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ N.B) ﻟﺮﺍﺗﻨﺞ ﺍﻷﻳﺒﻮﻛﴘ. ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﳛﺪﺙ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻷﺷﺘﻌﺎﻝ ﻟﻠﻌﻴﻨﺔ 1.5%ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺣﺪﻭﺛﻪ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ، ﻓﻘﺪ ﺃﻇﻬﺮﺍ ﺗﺄﺛﲑﺍ ﻗﻠﻴﻼ ﻋﲆ II ﻭI ﻟﺮﺍﺗﻨﺞ ﺍﻷﻳﺒﻮﻛﴘ. ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺎﻥ 3.5%ﻟﺮﺍﺗﻨﺞ ﺍﻟﺒﻮﱄ ﺃﺳﱰ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﺸﺒﻊ ﻭﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺗﺜﺒﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﻠﻬﻮﺑﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻛﻼ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺗﻨﺠﲔ.


Article
Determine the effectiveness of the concentrations of radioactivity of natural 40K, 238U,and 232Th wetland sediment in the Sea of Najaf, Iraq
تحديد فعالية التراكيز النوعية للنشاط الإشعاعي الطبيعي العراق– لرواسب الاراضي الرطبة في بحر النجف 238U،232Th،40Kل

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Abstract In the current study the radio activity concentrations have been measured for samples of sediment taken from the Sea of Najaf. The Concentrations were investigated for (238U, 232Th, 40K) using NaI(Tl) 3"×3" system. The result show that the radio activity of potassium 40K ranged between (427.806±4.827 308.517±4.099) Bq/Kg, average (378.161±4.235) Bq/Kg; Uranium 238U ranged between (8.446±0.357 3.730±0.237) Bq/Kg, average (5.977±0.297) Bq/Kg; Thorium 232Th ranged between (4.609±0.264 0.0059±0.002) Bq/Kg, average (0.700±0.038) Bq/Kg; and Radium equivalent values ranged between (44.017±1.034 30.182±0.594) Bq/Kg, average (36.097±0.678) Bq/Kg. The Absorbed dose rate in air ranged between (22.681±0.496 - 16.000±0.300) nGy.h-1, average (18.965±0.337) nGy.h-1. By comparing the experimental results with the globally calculated results it found that effectiveness of radiation concentrations of the samples studied within the globally range.اﳋلاصة ﺗﻢ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺷﻌﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﻟﻨﲈﺫﺝ ﺍﻟﱰﺳﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺄﺧﻮﺫﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺑﺤﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﻒ. ﺍﺫ ﺗﻢ ﲨﻊ ﺍﺛﻨﺎ ﻋﴩ ﻧﻤﻮﺫﺟﺎﹰ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﱰﺳﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﲈﺫﺝ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺔ. ﻭﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻳﺪﺍﺕ .NaI (Tl) 3"×3" ( ﺗﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﲈﻝ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﻣﺔ ﻛﺎﺷﻒ ﻳﻮﺩﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺩﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﳌﻨﺸﻂ ﺑﺎﻟﺜﺎﻟﻴﻮﻡ 238U ،232Th ،40K)ﺍﳌﺸﻌﺔ ﺗﱰﺍﻭﺡ ﻣﺎ ﺑﲔ40Kﺑﻴﻨﺖ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﺷﻌﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺒﻮﺗﺎﺳﻴﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻴﻮﺭﺍﻧﻴﻮﻡ Bq/Kg (378.161±4.235) ﻭﺑﻤﻌﺪﻝBq/Kg (308.517±4.099 - 427.806±4.827) 232Th ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﻳﻮﻡ Bq/Kg (5.977±0.297) ﻭﺑﻤﻌﺪﻝ238U Bq/Kg (8.446±0.357 3.730±0.237) . ﻛﲈ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻣﻜﺎﻓﺊ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺩﻳﻮﻡ Bq/Kg (0.700±0.038) ﻭﺑﻤﻌﺪﻝBq/Kg (4.609±0.264 0.0059±0.002) .Bq/Kg (36.097±0.678) ﻭﺑﻤﻌﺪﻝBq/Kg (44.017±1.034 30.182±0.594) ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﱰﺍﻭﺡ ﺑﲔ ﻭﺑﻤﻌﺪﻝ nGy.h-1 (22.681±0.496 - 16.000±0.300) ﺃﻣﺎ ﻗﻴﻢ ﺍﳉﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﳌﻤﺘﺼﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳍﻮﺍﺀ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺗﺮﺍﻭﺣﺖ ﻣﻦ . ﻭﺟﺪﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﺷﻌﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﲈﺫﺝ ﺍﳌﺪﺭﻭﺳﺔ ﺗﻘﻊ nGy.h-1 (18.965±0.337) ﺿﻤﻦ ﺍﳊﺪﻭﺩ ﺍﳌﺴﻤﻮﺡ ﲠﺎ ﻋﺎﳌﻴﺎ.


Article
Preparation and Spectral Study of Co (II), Ni (II), Cu (II) ,Pd(II) and Pt(IV) Complexes Containing N2 Donor Atoms
Preparation and spectral study of Co (II), Ni (II), Cu (II) ,Pd(II) and Pt(IV) complexes containing N2 donor atoms

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Abstract

Abstract Ligand N2 donor (N,N’-bis (3,4,5-trimethoxybenzalidene) dithiooxamide (LH)) has been prepared from dithiooxamide with 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzaldehyde. The reaction was reflexed for 12 h. at 70 ºC. Co (II), Ni (II), Cu(II), Pd (II) and Pt (IV) complexes were synthesized via reaction between appropriate metal ion and the ligand (LH). The ligand (LH) characterized by CHNS elemental analysis, Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), H-NMR-spectroscopy and UV-Visible spectroscopy. The complexes characterized by Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), 1HNMR-spectroscopy, UV-Visible spectroscopy,magnetic susceptibility and conductivity measurements. From the analytical and spectral data, the stoichiometry has been found to be 1:2 for all the complexes. The Spectral data confirms well coordination of Schiff-bases ligand with the metal through imine nitrogen atoms of Schiff base moiety. Conductivity of complexes were measured using DMSO as a solvent where conductivities of complexes were ionic in ratio (1:2)..The ligand LH, Ni (LH)2 and Cu (LH)2 showed greater activity against Aspergillus niger. while the complexes Co (LH)2, Pd (LH)2 and Pt (LH)2 not show any activity against this fungi.ﺍﳋﻼﺻﺔ N,N’-bis (3,4,5-trimethoxybenzalidene) dithiooxamide (LH)) N2ﺗﻢ ﲢﻀﲑ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺷﻴﻒ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ -ﺛﻼﺛﻲ ﻣﻴﺜﻮﻛﴘ ﺑﻨﺰﺍﻟﺪﳞﺎﻳﺪ( ﺑﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺗﺼﻌﻴﺪ ﺣﻮﺍﱄ 5,4,3ﻣﻦ ﺗﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺍﻷﻣﲔ )ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻳﺜﺎﻳﻮﺍﻭﻛﺴﲈﻳﺪ( ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﻟﺪﳞﺎﻳﺪ ) ﺳﺎﻋﺎﺕ، ﲬﺴﺔ ﺍﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﻘﺪﺍﺕ ﺣﴬﺕ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻌﲈﻝ ﺍﻣﻼﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﺑﻠﺖ ﺍﻟﺜﻨﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻴﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺜﻨﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺤﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺜﻨﺎﺋﻲ 12 ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻼﺩﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺜﻨﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻼﺗﲔ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺎﻋﻲ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻜﻨﺪ ﺍﳌﺤﴬ. ﺗﻢ ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﻭﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻜﻨﺪ ﺍﳌﺤﴬ ﺑﺘﻘﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻟﻠﻌﻨﺎﴏ ﻭﺍﳌﻄﻴﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﲢﺖ ﺍﳊﻤﺮﺍﺀ ﻭﺗﻘﻨﻴﺔ ﻃﻴﻒ ﺑﺮﻭﺗﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﻧﲔ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻭﻱ ﺍﳌﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﴘ ﻭﺗﻘﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻄﻴﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻔﺴﺠﻴﺔ-ﺍﳌﺮﺋﻴﺔ. ﺍﻣﺎ ﺍﳌﻌﻘﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺤﴬﺓ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺗﻢ ﲢﻠﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﻭﺩﺭﺍﺳﺘﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺎﺕ: ﺍﳌﻄﻴﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﲢﺖ ﺍﳊﻤﺮﺍﺀ ﻭﺗﻘﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻄﻴﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻔﺴﺠﻴﺔ-ﺍﳌﺮﺋﻴﺔ ﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﺠﺎﻣﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻻﻟﻜﱰﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﳊﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ DMSOﺍﳌﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﳋﻮﺍﺹ ﺍﳌﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻘﺪﺍﺕ. ﺩﺭﺳﺖ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻘﺪﺍﺕ ﺑﻤﺬﻳﺐ LH,. ﺃﺧﲑﺍ ﻗﻴﺴﺖ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻳﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻴﻜﻨﺪ ﻭﻣﻌﻘﺪﺍﺗﻪ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻭﺟﺪ ﺃﻥ 1:2ﻭﺟﺪ ﺍﻥ ﺍﳌﻌﻘﺪﺍﺕ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻮﺻﻠﺔ ﻭﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﻭﻫﻮﻧﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﻔﻄﺮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﻠﺪﻳﻪ ﺃﻣﺎ Aspergillus niger ﺃﻇﻬﺮﺕ ﺃﻋﻈﻢ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﻪ ﺿﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﻄﺮ Ni(LH)2, Cu(LH)2 ﱂ ﻳﻈﻬﺮﻭﺍ ﺃﻱ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻳﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ ﺿﺪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﻄﺮ


Article
Effect of Gamma Ray on rheological and mechanical properties for poly styrene-bentonite composite by using Ultrasonic Waves technique
تأثير اشعة كاما على الخواص الريولوجية والميكانيكية لمتراكب بولي ستايرين-بنتونايت باستخدام تقنية الموجات فوق الصوتية

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Abstract

Abstract Depending on study mechanical properties and acoustic idices for polystyren-bentonite composite samples by using ultrasonic waves technique at non-destructive test. The mechanical dynamic variables were studied by using technique of velocity of an ultrasonic wave pulse from which wave velosity, elastic modulus, dencity, shear viscosity, absorbtion coefficient, relaxation time, relaxation amplitude, compressibility and wave length at room temperature after and befor irradiation. The results showed that all properties increase lineary or exponentially with increasing of composite concentration while decreasing specific acoustic impedance, elastic modulus, velosity and wave length.اﳋلاﺻة ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺪ ﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﳋﻮﺍﺹ ﺍﳌﻴﻜﺎﻧﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺎﻣﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺗﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﲈﺫﺝ ﺑﻮﻟﻴﺴﺘﺎﻳﺮﻳﻦ - ﺑﻨﺘﻮﻧﺎﻳﺖ ﺍﳌﱰﺍﻛﺒﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺗﻘﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺤﺺ ﺑﺎﻟﺬﺑﺬﺑﺎﺕ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺗﻴﺔ ﻛﻔﺤﺺ ﻏﲑ ﺍﺗﻼﰲ. ﻭﺗﻢ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻣﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻴﻜﺎﻧﻴﻚ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻲ ﺑﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ ﴎﻋﺔ ﻧﺒﻀﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﺔ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺗﻴﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺮﺍﺝ ﻗﻴﻢ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﴎﻋﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﺔ ،ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﳌﺮﻭﻧﺔ ،ﺍﻟﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ، ﺍﻟﻠﺰﻭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻴﺔ، ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻻﻣﺘﺼﺎﺹ، ﺯﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﱰﺧﺎﺀ، ﺳﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﱰﺧﺎﺀ، ﺍﻻﻧﻀﻐﺎﻃﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﱪ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻌﻴﻊ ﻭﺑﻌﺪﻩ. ﺑﻴﻨﺖ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻥ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﳋﻮﺍﺹ ﺗﺰﺩﺍﺩ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺧﻄﻴﺔ ﺍﻭ ﺍﺳﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﳌﱰﺍﻛﺐ ﺑﻴﻨﲈ ﺗﻨﺎﻗﺼﺖ ﻗﻴﻢ ﺍﳌﲈﻧﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﳌﺮﻭﻧﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﴪﻋﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻲ.


Article
Some Chaotic Properties on -space
بعض الخواص الفوضوية في فضاء

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Abstract

Abstract We study some chaotic properties on G-space, we prove if f is G-localy eventually onto then f is G-sensitive dependence on initial conditions, also if f is G-chain sensitive then is also G-chain sensitive when f ≈ h.Also we generalize some properties about G-blending.ﺍﳋﻼﺻﺔ ﻓﺈﳖﺎ ﲤﺘﻠﻚ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ G-localy eventually، ﺑﺮﻫﻨﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻟﺔ Gﺩﺭﺳﻨﺎ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳋﻮﺍﺹ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺿﻮﻳﺔ ﰲ ﻓﻀﺎﺀ ﺗﺮﺍﻓﻖ f ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ G، ﺃﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﲤﺘﻠﻚ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻣﺘﺴﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﰲ ﻓﻀﺎﺀ-Gﻣﻌﺘﻤﺪﺓ ﻋﲆ ﺍﻟﴩﻭﻁ ﺍﻻﺑﺘﺪﺍﺋﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻓﻀﺎﺀG ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﲤﻠﻚ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻣﺘﺴﻠﺴﻠﺔ. ﺃﺧﲑﺍ ﺑﺮﻫﻨﺎ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳋﻮﺍﺹ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺿﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﲣﺺ ﺍﳋﻠﻂ-h ﻓﺈﻥ h


Article
Antibacterials activity from agaricus bisporus on some bacteria isolates
دراسة للفعالية التثبيطية للفطر ضد بعض العزلات البكتيريAgaricus bisporus

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Abstract

Abstract The antimicrobial properties of cold water, hot water, ethanol and aceton extracts of mushroom Agaricus bisporus on some gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumonia, Bacillus cereus), gram negative bactaria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi) were investigated the present showed that aceton extract (50 mg/ml) exhibited maximum antibacterial activity to all bactaria isolated. Its showed wide spectrum of antimicrobial effect against Streptococcus pneumonia (31.6 mm), Escherichia coli (27.4 mm), Bacillus cereus (12 mm), Salmonella typhi (20.6 mm), Staphylococcus aureus (18 mm), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (10.2 mm). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) reached 6.25 mg/ml for positive bacteria and 12.5 mg/ml for negative bacteria while the (MBC) reached 12.5 mg/ml for positive bacteria and 25 mg/ml for negative bacteria except Pseudomonas aeruginosa were reached (MIC) 25mg/ml anD (MBC) 50 mg/ml.اﳋلاﺻة ﺍﳌﺎﺋﻴﺔ )ﻣﺎﺀ ﺑﺎﺭﺩ، ﻣﺎﺀ ﺣﺎﺭ( ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺤﻮﻟﻴﺔ (Agaricus bisporus)ﺗﻢ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺗﺄﺛﲑ ﻣﺴﺘﺨﻠﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻄﺮ (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas)ﺃﻳﺜﺎﻧﻮﻝ، ﺃﺳﻴﺘﻮﻥ( ﺿﺪ ﺳﺘﺔ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻜﱰﻳﺎ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺳﺎﻟﺒﺔ ﻟﺼﺒﻐﺔ ﻏﺮﺍﻡ (Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus. ﻭﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﺧﺮ￯ ﻣﻮﺟﺒﺔ ﻟﺼﺒﻐﺔ ﻏﺮﺍﻡ aeruginosa,Salmonella typhi) ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﻇﻬﺮﺕ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﻠﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺤﻮﻟﻴﺔ ﺗﺄﺛﲑ ﺗﺜﺒﻴﻄﻲ ﻛﺒﲑ ﺿﺪ aureus, Streptococcus pneumonia) )ﻣﻠﻐﻢ/ﻣﻞ( ﺃﻋﲆ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺗﺜﺒﻴﻂ ﻟﻜﻞ ﺍﻷﻧﻮﺍﻉ 50ﻛﻞ ﺍﻷﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﻜﺘﲑﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺪﺭﻭﺳﺔ، ﺳﺠﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﺍﻷﺳﻴﺘﻮﲏ ﻭﺑﱰﻛﻴﺰ ﺿﺪ ﺑﻜﱰﻳﺎ (Streptococcus pneumonia) )ﻣﻠﻢ(، 27.4 )ﻣﻠﻢ( ﺿﺪ ﺑﻜﱰﻳﺎ 31.6ﺍﻟﺒﻜﺘﲑﻳﺔ ﺃﺫ ﺑﻠﻎ ﻗﻄﺮ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺜﺒﻴﻂ ﺗﻠﺘﻬﺎ Salmonella typhi ﲡﺎﻩ ﺑﻜﱰﻳﺎ (Bacillus cereus) )ﻣﻠﻢ(، 20.6 ﲡﺎﻩ ﺑﻜﱰﻳﺎ (Escherichia coli) )ﻣﻠﻢ(، 21 ﺃﻗﻞ Pseudomonas aeruginosa )ﻣﻠﻢ( ﺑﻴﻨﲈ ﺳﺠﻠﺖ ﺑﻜﱰﻳﺎ 18 ﺑﻘﻄﺮ ﺗﺜﺒﻴﻂ ﻗﺪﺭﻩ Staphylococcus aureusﺑﻜﱰﻳﺎ MBC ﻭﺍﻟﱰﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺗﻞ MIC )ﻣﻠﻢ(، ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺃﻇﻬﺮﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺃﻥ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﱰﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﳌﺜﺒﻂ ﺍﻷﺩﻧﻰ 10.2ﻗﻄﺮ ﺗﺜﺒﻴﻂ ﻭﻗﺪﺭﻩ )ﻣﻠﻐﻢ/ﻣﻞ( 12.5 )ﻣﻠﻐﻢ/ﻣﻞ(، 6.25ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﺍﻷﺳﻴﺘﻮﲏ ﺿﺪ ﺍﻷﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﻜﺘﲑﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﺒﺔ ﻟﺼﺒﻐﺔ ﻏﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﺪﺭﻭﺳﺔﻫﻲ )ﻣﻠﻐﻢ/12.5 ﻗﺪﺭﻩ MICﻟﻠﱰﻛﻴﺰﻳﻦ ﻋﲆ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﱄ ﺑﻴﻨﲈ ﺳﺠﻠﺖ ﺍﻷﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﻜﺘﲑﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻟﺒﺔ ﻟﺼﺒﻐﺔ ﻏﺮﺍﻡ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻣﺜﺒﻂ ﺃﺩﻧﻰ )ﻣﻠﻐﻢ/25 ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺳﺠﻠﺖ Pseudomonas aeruginosa )ﻣﻠﻐﻢ/ﻣﻞ(، ﻣﺎﻋﺪﺍ ﺑﻜﱰﻳﺎ 25 ﻗﺪﺭﻩ MBCﻣﻞ( ﻭﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻗﺎﺗﻞ )ﻣﻠﻐﻢ/ﻣﻞ( ﻟﻠﱰﻛﻴﺰﻳﻦ ﻋﲆ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﱄ


Article
The Qualification and Quantification of Caffeine in Two Different Caffeinated Pharmaceutical Formulas Employing RP-HPLC Technique.
القياس النوعي و الكمي للكافيين في مستحضرين صيدلانيين مختلفين محتويين على الكافيين بتوظيف تقنية الكروماتوغرافيا السائلة عالية الاداء-الطور العكوس.

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Abstract

Abstract Background: Method optimization of drug analysis is an arising approach among multidisciplinary science fields. The High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has been approved to be the cornerstone of drug analysis. Over the last ten years, HPLC has been figured as the analysis method of choice for many compounds. HPLC system has been utilized in diversified applications such as: the quantitative/qualitative analyses of biological samples, calculating the amounts of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), isolating specific components from their mixtures, and many others. This work aims to qualify and quantify the caffeine in two different pharmaceutical formulas namely; Panadol® Extra tablets and Thicker Fuller Hair® shampoo employing RP-HPLC. Methods: Isocratic method was utilized with fixed mobile phase ratio as methanol: water (40:60). The flow rate was 0.8 ml/min while the wavelength was 273nm. Calibration curve was plotted via the utilization of the following concentrations (0.0, 20, 40, 60, and 80) µg/ml. Thirty six caffeinated tablet samples were examined as dissolved by methanol and filtered with 0.22 µm nylon-membrane syringe filter and diluted. On the other hand three independent caffeinated shampoo samples were examined. The samples were diluted, shacked, and filtered with 0.22 µm nylon-membrane syringe filters. Finally, the diluted solutions were injected to the RP-HPLC and the data was observed and recorded. Results: The areas required to plot the calibration curve were observed. The caffeine peak was identified within each pharmaceutical sample. Consequently the identified peaks were also quantified. The mean content of caffeine in caffeinated tablets was found to be 64.96 mg. Moreover, the caffeine concentration in the shampoo was observed as 0.0047%. Discussion and conclusion: In this work the RP-HPLC has been utilized in the qualification and quantification of caffeine in two different pharmaceutical formulas namely; Panadol® Extra tablets and Thicker Fuller Hair® shampoo. HPLC technology has matured to the extent that almost any existing drug can be analyzed by an existing method that can be found in the analytical literatures. For future work other drugs can be examined or even multidrug formulas can be tried with such accurate and precise RP-HPLC technique.ﺍﳋﻼﺻﺔ ﺧﻠﻔﻴﺔ: ﺗﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺋﻲ ﻫﻮﳖﺞ ﻣﺘﺼﺎﻋﺪ ﺑﲔ ﳎﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺼﺼﺎﺕ. ﺍﻥ ﺗﻘﻨﻴﺔ ﻗﺪ ﺍﺛﺒﺘﺖ ﻟﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﺣﺠﺮ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺋﻲ. ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ (HPLC)ﺍﻟﻜﺮﻭﻣﺎﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺋﻠﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺗﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻪ (HPLC) ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺮﻛﺒﺎﺕ. ﺍﻥ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ (HPLC)ﺍﳌﻨﴫﻡ ﺗﻘﺮﺭ ﺍﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﺎﺕ ﻣﺘﺸﻌﺒﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ: ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﻴﺔ /ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻳﻠﻮﺟﻴﺔ، ﺍﳊﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺤﺘﻮ￯ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺪﻻﲏ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻝ، ﻋﺰﻝ ﺍﳌﺮﻛﺒﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﳐﺎﻟﻴﻄﻬﺎ، ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﺧﺮ￯ ﻋﺪﻳﺪﺓ. ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﳞﺪﻑ ﻟﻠﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻤﻲ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻓﻴﲔ .(RP-HPLC) ﺷﺎﻣﺒﻮﺑﺘﻮﻇﻴﻒ ﺗﻘﻨﻴﺔ “ﺛﻜﺮ ﻓﻠﺮ” ﻭ“ﺑﻨﺎﺩﻭﻝ ﺍﻛﺴﱰﺍ”ﰲ ﻣﺴﺘﺤﴬﻳﻦ ﺻﻴﺪﻻﻧﻴﲔ ﳘﺎ ﺑﺎﻻﺳﻢ؛ ﺍﻗﺮﺍﺹ . ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ (40:60)ﻃﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ: ﺗﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺖ ﻣﻊ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺛﺎﺑﺘﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﺎﻗﻞ ﻛﲈ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻴﺜﺎﻧﻮﻝ: ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﻧﺎﻧﻮﻣﱰ. ﻭﻗﺪ ﺭﺳﻢ ﻣﻨﺤﻨﻰ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ 273 ﻣﻞ /ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﺑﻴﻨﲈ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻲ 0.8ﺗﺪﻓﻖ ﻣﻴﻜﺮﻭﻏﺮﺍﻡ /ﻣﻞ. ﺗﻢ ﻓﺤﺺ ﻋﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺳﺘﺔ ﻭﺛﻼﺛﲔ ﺣﺒﺔ ﺩﻭﺍﺀ ﲢﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﲆ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻓﻴﲔ ﻛﲈ ﺍﺫﻳﺒﺖ ﰲ (0.0, 20, 40, 60 ﻭ80) ﻣﻴﻜﺮﻭﻣﱰ ﻓﻠﱰ ﻏﺸﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻳﻠﻮﻥ ﺫﻱ ﺍﳊﻘﻨﺔ. ﻣﻦ ﻧﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﺃﺧﺮ￯ ﺗﻢ ﻓﺤﺺ ﺛﻼﺙ 0.22ﺍﳌﻴﺜﺎﻧﻮﻝ ﻭﺗﻢ ﺗﺼﻔﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﺑﻮﺳﺎﻃﺔ 0.22ﻋﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺸﺎﻣﺒﻮﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﲢﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﲆ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻓﻴﲔ. ﻭﺧﻔﻔﺖ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ، ﺭﺟﺖ، ﻭﺗﻢ ﺗﺼﻔﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺮﺷﺤﺎﺕ ﺣﻘﻨﺔ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻟﻮﺣﻈﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻭﺗﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻠﻬﺎ.(HPLC)ﻣﻴﻜﺮﻭﻣﱰ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻏﺸﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻳﻠﻮﻥ. ﻭﺃﺧﲑﺍ، ﺗﻢ ﺣﻘﻦ ﺍﳌﺤﺎﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺨﻔﻔﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ: ﻭﻗﺪ ﻟﻮﺣﻆ ﺍﳌﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔ ﻟﺮﺳﻢ ﻣﻨﺤﻨﻰ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻳﺮﺓ. ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻢ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺫﺭﻭﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻓﻴﲔ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﺻﻴﺪﻻﻧﻴﺔ. ﻭﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﲆ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺗﻢ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﻛﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻤﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﲢﺪﻳﺪﻫﺎ. ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺜﻮﺭ ﻋﲆ ﳏﺘﻮ￯ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻓﻴﲔ ﰲ ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ ﲢﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﲆ ﻣﺎﺩﺓ .0.0047٪ ﻣﻠﻎ. ﰲ ﺣﲔ ﻟﻮﺣﻆ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻓﻴﲔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﺒﻮ64,96ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻓﻴﲔ ﻟﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻜﻮﺱ ﻟﻠﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻋﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻤﻲ HPLC ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ: ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻘﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟـ Thicker Fuller ﻭﺷﺎﻣﺒﻮﺍﻟـ Panadol® Extraﳌﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻓﻴﲔ ﰲ ﻣﺴﺘﺤﴬﻳﻦ ﺻﻴﺪﻻﻧﻴﲔ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﲔ ﳘﺎ ﺑﺎﻻﺳﻢ؛ ﺍﻗﺮﺍﺹ ﺍﻟـ ﻟﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻱ ﺩﻭﺍﺀ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ (HPLC). ﻗﺪ ﻧﻀﺠﺖ ﺗﻘﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﻭﻣﺎﺗﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺋﻠﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ Hair® ﲢﻠﻴﻠﻪ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺜﻮﺭ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺩﺑﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻠﻴﺔ. ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﲇ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻓﺤﺺ ﺃﺩﻭﻳﺔ ﺃﺧﺮ￯ ﺃﻭﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻓﺤﺺ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﱰﻛﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﻣﻊ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻀﺒﻮﻃﺔ.


Article
Effect of Magnetic Field and Laser wave length on structural and optical properties of Platinum nanoparticles prepared by laser Ablation in Liquids
دراسة تأثير المجال المغناطيسي وطول موجةالليزر على الخواص التركيبية والبصرية لجسيمات البلاتين النانوية المحضرة بطريقة الاستئصال الليزري في السوائل

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Abstract In this research were study the effect of changing the magnetic field and pulse laser wavelength on the properties of platinum nanoparticles prepared by laser ablation in different concentrations of various solutions such as double distilled deionized water (DDDW), methanol and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) with various concentrations. using pulsed laser ablation method to preparation of platinum nanoparticles around 5-10 (nm) using pulsed laser (Nd: YaG) using various wavelength. the absorbance spectra and florescence measured to study the optical properties of preparation, the morphology of Pt characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmition electron microscope (TEM). For colloidal solutions prepared in this way. The results showed the possibility of preparation of colloidal solutions of platinum and grain size less than 10 (nm). The results showed absorption at the wavelength 280 (nm). The scanning electron microscope images showed the formation Spherical shape of nanoparticles using laser ablation (PLA) method.اﳋلاﺻة ﺗﻢ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺗﺄﺛﲑ ﺗﻐﻴﲑ ﺍﳌﺠﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﴘ ﻭﻃﻮﻝ ﻣﻮﺟﺔ ﻧﺒﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﺰﺭ ﻋﲆ ﺧﻮﺍﺹ ﺟﺴﻴﲈﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺗﲔ ((SDS) Sodiumﺍﻟﻨﺎﻧﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺤﴬﺓ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺌﺼﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﺰﺭﻱ ﰲ ﳏﺎﻟﻴﻞ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﻣﻨﺰﻭﻉ ﺍﻻﻳﻮﻧﺎﺕ، ﻭﺍﳌﻴﺜﺎﻧﻮﻝ ﻭ ﺑﱰﺍﻛﻴﺰ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺔ. ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻣﺖ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺌﺼﺎﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻴﺰﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﴤ ﻟﺘﺤﻀﲑ ﺟﺴﻴﲈﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺗﲔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻧﻮﻳﺔ Dodecyl Sulphate) )ﻧﺎﻧﻮﻣﻴﱰ(. 355،532،1064 )ﻧﺎﻧﻮﻣﻴﱰ( ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻟﻴﺰﺭ)ﺍﻟﻨﺪﻳﻤﻴﻮﻡ-ﻳﺎﻙ( ﺍﻟﻨﺒﴤ ﻭﺃﻃﻮﺍﻝ ﻣﻮﺟﻴﺔ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺔ 5-10ﺑﺤﺪﻭﺩ (، ﻟﻠﻤﺤﺎﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﻭﻳﺔ TEM) ( ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﺫ SEM)ﻗﻴﺴﺖ ﺃﻃﻴﺎﻑ ﺍﻻﻣﺘﺼﺎﺻﻴﺔ، ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻠﻮﺭﺓ، ﻭﻓﺤﺺ ﺍﳌﺠﻬﺮ ﺍﻻﻟﻜﱰﻭﲏ ﺍﳌﺎﺳﺢ )ﻧﺎﻧﻮﻣﻴﱰ(. 10ﺍﳌﺤﴬﺓ ﲠﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ. ﻭﺑﻴﻨﺖ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﲢﻀﲑ ﳏﺎﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺗﲔ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﻭﻳﺔ ﻭﺑﺤﺠﻮﻡ ﺣﺒﻴﺒﻴﺔ ﺑﺄﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ )ﻧﺎﻧﻮﻣﻴﱰ(. ﺍﻥ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺍﳌﺠﻬﺮ ﺍﻻﻟﻜﱰﻭﲏ ﺍﳌﺎﺳﺢ ﺃﻇﻬﺮﺕ 280ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻇﻬﺮﺕ ﻗﻤﺔ ﺍﻣﺘﺼﺎﺹ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻲ (PLA)ﺗﻜﻮﻧﻮﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﺟﺴﻴﲈﺕ ﻧﺎﻧﻮﻳﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻛﺮﻭﻱ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺌﺼﺎﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻴﺰﺭ


Article
Survey on The Methods Used in The Recognition Part of The License Plate
دراسة الطرائق الخاصة بتمييز ارقام السيارات

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Abstract

Abstract License plate recognition has been entered in many critical systems like tracking stolen cars, traffic surveillance and parking management. License plate recognition process consists of three parts; the first part is identifying the position of the license plate, second, segments license plate into individual image characters and the third is recognizing these characters. License plate is influenced by the noise in the real world such as illumination and angle of the camera, so that the accuracy of locating, segmenting and recognizing are affected. There are many methods for each part, choosing any method of them depends on the type of application and its environment as well as the execution time. In this paper, we will survey and study the methods used in recognition part.ﺍﳋﻼﺻﺔ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﲤﻴﺰ ﻟﻮﺣﺎﺕ ﺍﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﳊﺴﺎﺳﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻬﻤﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺗﺘﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﴪﻭﻗﺔ، ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ، ﻭﻣﺮﺍﻗﺒﺔ ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﻭﺭ. ﺗﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﲤﻴﺰ ﻟﻮﺣﺎﺕ ﺍﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ؛ ﺍﳌﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﻫﻲ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﺣﺔ، ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﲡﺰﺋﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﱃ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﻟﻠﺤﺮﻭﻑ ﻭﺍﻻﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ ﻫﻲ ﲤﻴﺰ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳊﺮﻭﻑ ﻭﺍﻻﺭﻗﺎﻡ. ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺭﺓ ﺗﺘﺄﺛﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻮﺿﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﻲ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻭﺯﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﲑﺍ، ﻭﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺗﺘﺄﺛﺮ ﺩﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺠﺰﺋﺔ. ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﺍﺋﻖ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ، ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻱ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﲆ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻭﺑﻴﺌﺘﻪ ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬ. ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ، ﺳﻮﻑ ﻧﺴﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﻭﻧﺪﺭﺱ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﰲ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﲤﻴﺰ ﺍﳊﺮﻭﻑ ﻭﺍﻻﺭﻗﺎﻡ.


Article
Effect of laser Parameters on Structural properties of PbS thin film prepared by pulse laser Deposition
تأثير معلمات الليزر على خواص التركيبية لاغشية كبريتيد الرصاص المحضرة بطريقة الترسيب بالليزر النبضي

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Abstract

Abstract In this research, we study the effect of changing of Laser parameters on properties of lead sulphide thin film (PbS) nanoparticles prepared by Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on the base of glass.We used pulsed laser deposition for the preparation of (PbS) nanothinfilm limits 70-85 (nm) using a pulsed laser (Nd-YAG) with a wavelength of 1064 (nm). examination of the atomic force microscope (AFM) and examination of scanning electron microscope (SEM) for thin films prepared in this way. The results showed the possibility of preparation of thin films with grain size around 75 (nm). The scanning electron microscope images showed and the formation of a spherical shape nanoparticles using the method of Pulsed laser Deposition (PLD)اﳋلاﺻة ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻧﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺤﴬﺓ (PbS)ﺗﻢ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺗﺎﺛﲑ ﺗﻐﻴﲑ ﻣﻌﻠﲈﺕ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﺰﺭ ﻋﲆ ﺧﻮﺍﺹ ﺍﻏﺸﻴﺔ ﻛﱪﻳﺘﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺻﺎﺹ ﻋﲆ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﺟﺎﺝ. ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻣﺖ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺸﻂ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻴﺰﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﴤ ﻟﺘﺤﻀﲑ (PLD)ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﱰﺳﻴﺐ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺸﻂ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﺰﺭﻱ 1064 )ﻧﺎﻧﻮﻣﻴﱰ( ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻟﻴﺰﺭ )ﺍﻟﻨﺪﻳﻤﻴﻮﻡ-ﻳﺎﻙ( ﺍﻟﻨﺒﴤ ﺫﻱ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻲ 70-85 ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻧﻮﻳﺔ ﺑﺤﺪﻭﺩ (PbS)ﺍﻏﺸﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﻏﺸﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺤﴬﺓ (SEM) ﻭﻓﺤﺺ ﺍﳌﺠﻬﺮ ﺍﻻﻟﻜﱰﻭﲏ ﺍﳌﺎﺳﺢ (AFM))ﻧﺎﻧﻮﻣﻴﱰ(. ﺗﻢ ﺃﺟﺮﺍﺀﻓﺤﺺ ﳎﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﻮ￯ ﺍﻟﺬﺭﻳﺔ ﻧﺎﻧﻮﻣﻴﱰ(. ﺍﻥ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺍﳌﺠﻬﺮ 75 (0ﲠﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ، ﻭﺑﻴﻨﺖ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﲢﻀﲑ ﺍﻏﺸﻴﺔ ﺭﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﻭﺑﻤﻌﺪﻝ ﺣﺠﻮﻡ ﺣﺒﻴﺒﻴﺔ (PLD)ﺍﻻﻟﻜﱰﻭﲏ ﺍﳌﺎﺳﺢ ﺃﻇﻬﺮﺕ ﺗﻜﻮﻧﻮﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﺟﺴﻴﲈﺕ ﻧﺎﻧﻮﻳﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻛﺮﻭﻱ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺸﻂ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻴﺰﺭ

Table of content: volume:2 issue:3,4