Table of content

Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering

المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط

ISSN: 19974884/E26180707
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Engineering
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering is a quarterly peer-reviewed scientific journal that was established in 2000 by the College of Engineering of the University of Baghdad. The Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering receives citations in the category of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering and relevant subjects.

Aims
The Iraqi journal of chemical and petroleum engineering is Open Access journal dedicated to publishing peer-reviewed research articles with respect to the subjects in fields of chemical and petroleum Engineering. In particular, petrochemical, biochemical, water treatment, electrochemical, petroleum and natural gas production and technology, and environment are the major interest of the journal. The journal aims to provide a free platform for the researches all over the world to share diverse types of knowledge and discuss the recent developments in the subjects related to the journal interest.

Objective
Objective of the journal is to promote the researches in the engineering subjects covered by journal to dissemination their intellectual products to the global community free of restriction. That achieves by making all of published articles available free of cost for all researcher through adopting Open Access publication model.

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Contact info

Aljadreah, Baghdad
Iraq
P.O Box: 47024
Phone: +964-1-7781506
Email: ijcpe@coeng.uobaghdad.edu.iq
ijcpe@yahoo.com

Table of content: 2016 volume:17 issue:3

Article
Geological Model of Khasib Reservoir- Central Area/East Baghdad Field

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Abstract

The Geological modeling has been constructed by using Petrel E&P software to incorporate data, for improved Three-dimensional models of porosity model, water saturation, permeability estimated from core data, well log interpretation, and fault analysis modeling. Three-dimensional geological models attributed with physical properties constructed from primary geological data. The reservoir contains a huge hydrocarbon accumulation, a unique geological model characterization with faults, high heterogeneity, and a very complex field in nature. The results of this study show that the Three-dimensional geological model of Khasib reservoir, to build the reservoir model starting with evaluation of reservoir to interpretation of well log by using IP software for 14 wells, defining and divided the layers based on the GR Log and Resistivity log to nine layers and then maintained the fault model for a divided central area to four regions. Compared porosity log with porosity core to estimate correction porosity and enter this value to predict the permeability value for each layer by using FZI, and RQI method. The model Containing faults, horizons, zones, and layers depending on this data to make gridding by using pillar gridding. This paper presents a geological modeling and an uncertainty analysis for stock-tank original oil in place. The distribution of the faults is also discussed.


Article
Using Different Surfactants to Increase Oil Recovery of Rumaila Field (Experimental Work)

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Abstract

Enhanced oil recovery is used in many mature oil reservoirs to increase the oil recovery factor. Surfactant flooding has recently gained interest again. To create micro emulsions at the interface between crude oil and water, surfactant flooding is the injection of surfactants (and co-surfactants) into the reservoir, thus achieving very low interfacial tension, which consequently assists mobilize the trapped oil. In this study a flooding system, which has been manufactured and described at high pressure. The flooding processes included oil, water and surfactants. 15 core holders has been prepared at first stage of the experiment and filled with washed sand grains 80-500 m and then packing the sand to obtain sand packs samples for experiment. It was found that the best rate for water injection was 1.2 PV. Productively, while the optimum injection rate was 1.0 PV economically. The study observed that the cost of water injection in secondary recovery increased 700% when PV injected increased from 1.0 PV to 8.0 PV, while the recovery increased only about 8% (58.77 – 66.7%). The effects of concentration, salinity and temperature is also explored by examined many values of each parameter according to surface tension by using capillary rise method. It was found that the optimum conditions for surfactant flooding for sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) 0.01 molar for concentration, 5500 P.P.M for salinity and 70 C for temperatures. These conditions was used to all kinds of surfactants that have been used in this study. The study results indicated that the best surfactant in both productively and economically was SDS with maximum recovery about 90% for each secondary and tertiary recovery and the optimum injection volume for all surfactants 1.2 PV . Another 12 Core holders with fixed pore volume were prepared for the second stage of the experiment. At this stage the pore volume was approximately constant and the variation included different values of SDS concentrations (0.1 and 0.001 Molar) and different values of salinity (1000 P.P.M and 3000 P.P.M) and temperature equal to 90 C. Each value for concentration was experimented with the two values of salinity which in result obtaining four flooding conditions. Each condition was flooded by three injection rates (50, 120, 200 %). The results proved the results obtained from the first stage.

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Article
Thermal and Catalytic Degradation Kinetics of High-Density Polyethylene Over NaX Nano-Zeolite

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Abstract

Thermal and catalytic pyrolysis of waste plastics in an inert atmosphere has been regarded as a creative method, since pyrolysis can convert plastics waste into hydrocarbons that can be used either as fuels or as a source of chemicals. Natural Iraqi kaolin clay was used to synthesis the NaX nano- zeolite by hydrothermal conditions with average particle size equal to 77.63nm.Thermal decomposition kinetics of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) in the absence and presence of catalysts nano NaX Zeolite was investigated. Thermal and catalytic degradation of HDPE was performed using a thermogravimetric analyzer in nitrogen atmosphere under non-isothermal conditions 4, 7 and 10 °C/min heating rates were employed in thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) experiments. First-order decomposition reaction was assumed, and for the kinetic analysis Coats and Redfern (CR) method was used. The apparent activation energy (Ea) was evaluated. Results showed that the NaX nano-zeolite decreases the activation energy (Ea) of HDPE pyrolysis further than the thermal pyrolysis.


Article
Catalytic Reforming of Iraqi Naphtha over Pt-Ti / HY Zeolite Catalyst

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Abstract

In the present work, zeolite Y has been synthesized successfully by sol-gel method.Zeolite was synthesized by crystallization of the final gel which consist from seeding and feed stock gels at 85 oC. HY zeolite was prepared by an ion exchange process with ammonium chloride solution and then loaded with different percentages of platinum and titanium by the wet - impregnation method. X-ray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray Florescence (XRF), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), BET surface area and, Crushing strength were used to characterize the synthesized and prepared catalysts . Results showed high crystallinity 90% with silica to alumina ratio 5 for HY, high surface area of 600 m2/g and pore volume of 0.38 cm3/g. The activity of the prepared zeolite was investigated using a pilot plant unit for the catalytic reforming of Iraqi heavy naphtha. All prepared catalysts were investigated at temperatures of 490,500 and 510oC ,pressure of 20 bar, H2 /HC ratio 3 and LHSV 1.4.hr-1. Reformate was produced with 86 RON and 94% yield at 510ºC and 20 bar using 0.13 wt.% Pt - 0.75 wt.% Ti loaded on synthesized HY.


Article
Experimental Study and Mathematical Modelling of Zinc Removal by Reverse Osmosis Membranes

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Abstract

In this study, aromatic polyamide reverse osmosis membranes were used to remove zinc ions from electroplating wastewater. Influence of different operating conditions such as time, zinc concentration and pressure on reverse osmosis process efficiency was studied. The experimental results showed, concentration of zinc in permeate increase with increases of time from 0 to 70 min, and flux of water through membrane decline with time. While, the concentrations of zinc in permeate increase with the increase in feed zinc concentration (10–300 mg/l), flux decrease with the increment of feed concentration. The raise of pressure from 1 to 4 bar, the zinc concentration decreases and the flux increase. The highest recovery percentage was found is 54.56% for reverse osmosis element, and the highest rejection of zinc was found is 99.49%. Experimental results showed that the concentrations of zinc ion in permeate was lower than the permissible limits (i.e. ˂ 10 ppm). A mathematical model describing the process was investigated and solved by using MATLAB PROGRAM. Theoretical results were consistent with the experimental results approximately 90%.


Article
Applied Spatial Data Analysis Technique on Petrophysical Properties of MA Unit of Mishrif Formation / Noor Field

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Abstract

Noor oil field is one of smallest fields in Missan province. Twelve well penetrates the Mishrif Formation in Noor field and eight of them were selected for this study. Mishrif formation is one of the most important reservoirs in Noor field and it consists of one anticline dome and bounded by the Khasib formation at the top and the Rumaila formation at the bottom. The reservoir was divided into eight units separated by isolated units according to partition taken by a rounding fields. In this paper histograms frequency distribution of the porosity, permeability, and water saturation were plotted for MA unit of Mishrif formation in Noor field, and then transformed to the normal distribution by applying the Box-Cox transformation algorithm. The spatial correlation of the transformed parameters were estimated and modeled in appropriate equation, and then the spatial distribution of the reservoir parameters were specified through Geostatistical methods.


Article
Addition of Super Absorbent Polymer for Upgrading of Cement Quality in Iraqi Oil Wells

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Abstract

This study focuses on the use of an optimum amount of Sodium Polyacrylate (SP) for designing cement slurry with the high performance of rheological properties and displacement efficiency. A laboratory study has been carried out on the cement slurry which prepared with SP as superabsorbent polymer. SP has been providing an internal water source that helps in the hydration process, and curing and ultimately increases the cement strength. Also improves the cement performance by improving the cement stability. Several batches were prepared to determine the proper amount of SP to add it in the cement slurry. Also, we studied its effect on cement density, amount of free water in order to observe the rheological properties, and thickening time. Results indicate that the designed cement rheological properties are directly influenced by the shear rate and shear stress on the mix and pump of the cement with the increase of the SP concentration for the rheological improvement. Laboratory data are presented to highlight Polyacrylate’s positive effect on compressive strength, fluid loss control, and free water.


Article
Parameters Affecting the Thermodynamic Efficiency of PEM Single Cell and Stack of Cells (Two Cells)

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Abstract

In this work, thermodynamic efficiency of individual cell and stack of cells (two cells) has been computed by studying the variation of voltage produced during an operation time of 30 min as a result of the affected parameters:- stoichiometric feed ratio, flow field design on single cell and feed distribution on stack of cells. The experiments were carried out by using two cells, one with serpentine flow field and the other with spiral flow field. These cells were fed with hydrogen and oxygen at low volumetric flow rates from 1 to 2 ml/sec and stoichiometric ratios of fuel (H2) to oxidant (O2) as 1:2, 1:1 and 2:1 respectively. The results showed that the highest voltage and efficiency can be obtained for the stoichiometric ratio of 1:2, while the ratio of 2:1 produced the lowest voltage and efficiency. Also the best results were obtained with the serpentine flow pattern after comparing with the spiral flow pattern in a single cell. Likewise it was proved that the voltage and efficiency are maximized when using the stoichiometry of 1:2, besides that the parallel feed connection of the stack of cells produced much power than the series connection.


Article
Removal of Cadmium Ions from Wastewater by Batch Experiments

Authors: Eman Abed M. --- Lahieb Faisal M. --- Younis Swadi T.
Pages: 101-108
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Abstract

Adsorption experiments were carried out using two different low-cost sorbent materials, date seeds and olive seeds. These sorbents used as a single phase (not as mixture) to remove cadmium ions from simulated wastewater by adsorption process. The equilibrium time was found at 2 hr. The experiments include different parameters such sorbent type and weight and contact time. It was found that both of olive seed and date seed have approximately the same adsorption capacity (qm) with 15.644 mg/g and 15.2112 mg/g, respectively. Equilibrium isotherms and kinetic studies have been carried out. Langmuir isotherm model better fits the experimental data compared with the Freundlich isotherm for olive seed, while Freundlich isotherm fits for date seed .A pseudo-second order kinetic model was appropriate to the experimental data for both seeds. It can be concluded that the olive seed and date seed could be a good sorbent for the removal of cadmium ions from wastewater.


Article
Sorption of Nitrate Salts from Wastewater without and with Modification Orange Peel

Authors: Zainab Abdulrazak N.
Pages: 109-116
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Abstract

This investigation deals with the use of orange peel (OP) waste as adsorbent for removal of nitrate (NO3) from simulated wastewater. Orange peel prepared in two conditions dried at 60C° (OPD) and burning at 500 °C (OPB). The effect of pH: 2-10, contact time: 30- 180 min, sorbent weight: 0.5- 3.0 g were considered. The optimal pH value for NO3 adsorption was found to be 2.0 for both adsorbents. The equilibrium data were analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. Freundlich model was found to fit the equilibrium data very well with high-correlation coefficient (R2). The adsorption kinetics was found to follow pseudo-second-order rate kinetic model, with a good correlation (R2 > 0.95 and 0.94) for the orange peel adsorbent at 500 °C (OPB) and at 60 °C (OPD), respectively. The results showed that the orange peel was found to be an attractive low cost adsorbent for the treatment of wastewater.


Article
A Morphological Study of Alumina Hollow Fiber Membrane

Authors: Asrar Al-Obaidy
Pages: 117-123
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Abstract

Morphologies of ceramic hollow fiber membranes prepared by a combined phase-inversion and sintering method were studied. The organic binder spinning solution containing suspended Al₂O₃ powders was spun to a hollow fiber precursor, which was then sintered at elevated temperatures( 300 ˚C, 1400 ˚C, 25 ˚C) in order to obtain the Al₂O₃ hollow fiber membranes. The spinning solution consisted of polyether sulfone (PES), N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP), which were used as polymer binder, solvent, respectively. The prepared Al₂O₃ hollow fiber membranes were characterized by a scanning electron microscope (SEM). It is believed that finger-like void formation in asymmetric ceramic membranes is initiated by hydrodynamically unstable viscous fingering developed when a less viscous fluid (non-solvent) is in contact with a higher viscosity fluid (ceramic suspension containing invertible polymer binder). The effects of the air-gap (0 cm, 2 cm, 15 cm) on fibre morphology have been studied and it has been determined that viscosity due to change in air-gap is the dominating factor for ceramic systems.

Table of content: volume:17 issue:3