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MUSTANSIRIA DENTAL JOURNAL

مجلة المستنصرية لطب الاسنان

ISSN: 18138500
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University
Faculty: Dentistry
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

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SCIENTIFIC AND REFERRED DENTAL JOURNAL

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Table of content: 2016 volume:13 issue:1

Article
Push-out bond strength and apical microleakage of (MTA Plus, Biodentine, and Bioceramic) as apical third filling (An in vitro study)

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Abstract

Background: This study was conducted to evaluate the sealing ability of (MTA Plus, Biodentine Bioceramic root repair material) as an apical third filling by using (Push-out bond strength test, apical microleakage test). Materials and methods: Sixty straight palatal roots of the maxillary first molars teeth were used in this study, the roots were instrumented by using crown down technique with Protaper universal rotary system, the roots were randomly divided into three groups according to the materials used for filling apical third (n=20).Group (1): MTA Plus . Group (2): Biodentine. Group (3): Bioceramic repair material. For all groups complete obturation with easy & quick obturation system was used. After incubation period of three days ten roots for each group were embedded in clear acrylic resin and each root sectioned in apical to provide slice 2mm in thickness. The bond strength was measured using computerized universal testing machine. Ten roots remain from each group used for apical microleakage study. The roots submerged in 2% methylene blue for three days. The roots were cleared and the degree of linear dye penetration was measured in millimeter by stereomicroscope under 40 X magnification with calibrated scale ocular grid. The data were analyzed statistically using ANOVA and LSD test. Results: In push-out bond strength showed the Biodentine has the highest mean values (19.687) in comparison with other groups followed by MTA Plus group which the mean value was (19.395), while the BC material group has the lowest mean value (10.977). In microleakage the BC material group has the high mean values (0.477) of apical dye penetration in comparison with other groups. Biodentine group has lowest mean values (0.359) of apical dye penetration. Conclusions: The Biodentine higher push-out bond strength and less apical microleakage then other test materials.


Article
The effect of disinfection procedure and storage on wettability of hydrophilized condensation silicone impression materials

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Abstract

Background: a newly developed hydrophilized condensation silicone impression material claimed to be hydrophilic, but exposure to disinfection procedure and storage could alter the wettability of impression material. Thus, the aim of present study was to evaluate the effect of impression disinfection by immersion in 0.5% NaOCl for 10 mints. on wettability of hydrophilized condensation silicon . In addition, effect of storage after disinfection for two hours, measured by contact angle of dental stone mix with impression surface. Materials and Methods: Hydrophilized condensation silicone (putty and wash type) tested with type III dental stone and 0.5% sodium hypochlorite disinfectant solution were used in this study. Disinfection procedure by immersion for 10 mint. Wettability was evaluated in simulation of regular clinical situation pouring 2ml. of stone slurry on impression surface to form stone patty. Each patty sectioned into two halves, scanned with flat bed scanner and images printed. Dental stone mix contact angle with impression surface was measured with protractor from scanned image of the cross section of stone patty. Measurements were preformed before and after disinfection procedure, also after storage in humid environment for two hours. Results: The putty type showed significant difference p<0.001 when subjected to disinfection and storage. The wash type showed no significant difference p>0.05 when subjected to disinfection or storage. Both types together they were not affected by disinfection procedure p>0.05, but storage had significant effect p<0.001 on wettability. Conclusions: For the hydrophilized condensation silicone using both types together (putty + wash) for making impression improve wettability even after disinfection. Delay pouring impression for two hours cause deterioration of impression wettability.


Article
Comparison of marginal adaptation between all ceramic crown and full cast crown with two different luting cement (In Vitro study)

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Abstract

The purpose of this study was to determine and evaluate the micro leakage and fit of all ceramic crown and full cast metal crown using two different luting agent. Twenty four recently caries free wisdom teeth were used . The teeth were cleaned and checked with magnifying lens. Noticed any cracks or caries . Specimens remained in distilled water at room temperature . Each specimen were centrally inserted in cylinder 20mm height and 20mm internal diameter containing self curing acrylic resin . Preparation were completed at the dentin level of the cement -enamel junction with a chamfer finish line 1.2mm all round tooth . The height of preparation was 7mm with a convergence angle of six degree using diamond bur ( Germany, No 878, 2012) . Prepared teeth were divided in two main groups ( n=6) . Group A: All ceramic crown(12-Specimens) . Subdivided in two subgroup. A1:- ( 6) Specimens used the zinc-phosphate cement. A2:- (6) Specimens used resin cement . Group B :- Full cast crown (12-Specimens). Subdivided in tow subgroup Group B1 :-( 6 ) Specimens used zinc-phosphate cement Group B2:- (6 ) Specimens used resin cement . After 24hr of storage in distilled water at 37c , all the specimens immersed in 0.5% basic fuchcin dye for 24hr.Fallowing removal from the solution , each tooth was vertically sectioned bucco-lingually with water-cooled diamond disc . Stereomicroscope at 40 magnification was to study the extent of microleakge, which was indicated by the dye pentration recorded at both metal-cement(MC) and tooth-cement ( TC) interface . Microleakge was done according to the index proposed by Tjan etel[1] . The data of all 4 groups was analyzed with one-way analysis of variance with student T-test was used to compare the microleakage scores within the groups at both the interface. The data obtained in this study show statistically significant difference in microleakage level between group A and B and between subgroup of specimens. The conclusion of this study , resin cement recorded less micro leakage in both all ceramic crown, and metal cast crown Than zinc – phosphate cement , because The self curing nature with low curing rate, give rapid and superior adhesion to both dentin and restoration and better mechanical properties


Article
An evaluation of the effects of different pH levels and multiple firing temperatures on hardness of ceramic

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This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of three different media ( artificial saliva, acidic and alkaline ) and the effect of five times of multiple firing procedure on hardness number of IPS e - max pressable ceramic . Seventy discs shaped specimens were fabricated according to the manufacturer’s instructions. The specimens were randomly divided into seven groups. Three for different media and four for multiple firing procedure ( ten specimens for each group). The groups were subdivided as follows: According to different media: Group 1: specimens will be left in artificial saliva (Neutral media) for 10 days at 37c° in an incubator, Group2: specimens will be left in an acidic media for 10 days at 37c° in an incubator, Group 3: specimens will be left in an alkaline media for 10 days at 37c° in an incubator. According to multiple firing procedures Group 1: specimens will be exposed to firing one time, Group 2: specimens will be exposed to firing 3 times, Group 3: specimens will be exposed 5 times to firing procedures, Group 4: these specimens will be exposed to firing for 7 times. Then each group will be subjected to hardness test using Shore D hardness tester. The statistical analysis of the data of the tested groups of different media revealed that the high hardness values was in the alkaline media, while the lowest hardness values was in the acidic media. The highest hardness values of the firing groups were found in the group of 7 times firing, while the lowest hardness values were found in the group 3 times firing and the results were statistically non significant. As a conclusion, an alkaline media increase the surface hardness of the IPS e – max ceramic, and multiple firing did not affect the surface hardness of the e –max ceramic.


Article
Oral health status among patients treated with fixed orthodontic appliance at different time intervals.

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Abstract

Background: Fixed orthodontic appliance considered a risk factor that effect oral health status. Aims of this study were evaluation of oral hygiene, gingival health and caries experience among patients with fixed orthodontic appliance at different time intervals of treatment. Material & Methods:- 32 patients (24 female and 8 male) included in this study and they underwent clinical examination plaque, calculus, gingival health and caries experience by using Loe, 1967, Green and vermillion, 1960 and WHO, 1987 indices at four time intervals: 2-3 weeks after appliance insertion, 2 months, 4 months, 6 months. The statistical analysis of data was by using statistical Package for social Sciences (SPSS version 18). Results:- The means of all variables examined increased during six months of orthodontic treatment with high significant difference during visits. 49.6% of patients developed new caries lesions after six months of treatment. Conclusion:- Patients underwent orthodontic treatment at high risk for developing oral health problems.


Article
Salivary High Sensitive C-Reactive Protein and Gingival Health Status among a Group of Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

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Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder affecting women in their reproductive years. It is a complex disorder affects not only general health but also show a reciprocal link with the oral health. C-reactive protein is an acute phase protein which increase their concentration during certain inflammatory disorders and used as a biomarker of inflammation in the body. The aims of this study were to assess the gingival health status among a group of women with polycystic ovary syndrome as well as to estimate the levels of salivary high sensitive c-reactive protein in unstimulated saliva in relation to gingival health condition. Materials and methods: Sixty two females with an age range 20-25 years old and with a body mass index range18.5-24.9 (normal weight) were included in this study. They were divided into two groups; the study group which included thirty one females with polycystic ovary syndrome, those females attended Babylon Teaching Hospital/ Infertility Center with regular cycles, without clinical or biochemical features of hyperandrogenism and ultrasound exclusion of polycystic ovary (without polycystic ovary syndrome). Collection of unstimulated salivary samples was carried out under standardrized conditions, salivary high sensitive creactive protein levels were estimated. Plaque index of Silness and Lӧe (1964) was used to assess dental plaque. While gingival index of Lӧe and Silness (1963) was used to assess gingival inflammation. Results: Results showed that the mean value of plaque index was found to be higher in the control group (1.18±0.03) than that in the study group (1.00±0.08) with statistically highly significant difference (p<0.01).While the mean value of gingival index was higher among the study group (1.52±0.06) than that in the control group (1.31±0.05) with statistically highly significant difference (p<0.01). salivary levels of high sensitive c-reactive protein among women with polycystic ovary syndrome (1061.68±75.41 pg/ml) were found to be higher than that of control (930.51±94.65) with statistically highly significant difference (p<0.01).The results in this study showed that the correlations between salivary high sensitive c-reactive protein with gingival index were statistically highly significant (p<0.01)in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.While statistically no significant correlation between plaque index and high sensitive C-reactive protein(p˃0.05). In order to assess the specificity and sensitivity of the use of salivary high sensitive c-reactive protein as a diagnostic tool, statistical analysis of Receiver MDJOperative Characteristics Curve (ROC) was used and predictive Value Measurments were done in this study. The results showed that the area under the curve for salivary high sensitive c-reactive protein test was (0.869) with highly significant p-value (p<0.01). The best optimal cut off point for salivary high sensitive c-reactive protein was (1009) with (71%) sensitivity and (96.8%)specificity, indicating a very good predictive capacity for using salivary high sensitive c-reactive protein as a marker for the diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome. Conclusions: It was concluded that gingival inflammation was high among women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Furthermore, salivary levels of high sensitive creactive protein were found to be high among women with polycystic ovary syndrome. It was suggested that the measurement of salivary high sencitive creactive protein may be helpful in diagnosis of women with polycystic ovary syndrome.


Article
Traumatic Dental Injuries Among 6 – 13 – Year - Old - School Children in Tikrit City

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Background: An injury to both primary and permanent teeth and the supporting structures is one of the most common dental problems seen in children. The extent of injury may vary from mild chipping of enamel to sever maxillofacial injury. The aim of this study was to find out the prevalence of traumatized anterior teeth among primary school children. Materials and methods: This study is a cross-sectional survey was carried out through clinical examination of anterior teeth among 720, 6-13 year old children enrolled in primary public schools of tikrit city. The prevalence of traumatized anterior teeth was studied in relation to age, gender, type of injury in addition to the cause of fracture. Recording and diagnosis of dental fracture were assessed according to Garcia-Godoy classification. Results: Males were more affected than females with odds ratio was 2.53 and statistically was significant. The higher prevalence of dental trauma was recorded among the age 10-11 year old. The permanent maxillary central incisors were the most frequent injured tooth and the most frequent type of fracture was the Class II Enamel-Dentine, fracture without pulp exposure. Fall and playing were the most frequent causes of dental injury. Conclusion: data of the present study clearly show the need for dental health education of children and their parents, so prevention programs are needed to improve the dental health of Iraqi children.


Article
The effect of glycerin-painted wax pattern on surface quality of dental stone mold

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Aim: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of glycerin-coated wax pattern on dental stone surface quality in terms of surface roughness and micro air bubble formation. Method: In this study, a total of 20 modeling wax samples were used for the hydrophilicity test (the contact angle test) divided into 2 groups (control and glycerin-painted). A total of 20 dental stone samples were also prepared for visual and microscopic analysis divided into 2 groups (control and glycerinpainted). Results and conclusion: The contact angle data showed a significant decrease in surface hydrophilicity for the glycerin-painted group (P-value < 0.05). However, the visual and microscopical analysis did not show a prominent distinction in surface quality between the two groups, so there is no noticeable effect on dental stone surface caused by glycerin-modified wax pattern.


Article
The Assessment of Different Levels of Dental Participants on Designing a Removable Partial Denture

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A systematic approach to removable partial denture design is difficult and requires thought planning. The correct design must be based upon accepted mechanical and biological principles. This is an experimental study for drawing partial denture design for selected cases on papers by different levels of participants and compares these designs with a standard design taken mainly from a text book "McCracken's Removable partial prosthodontics". The results of this study shown that the highest percentage of acceptable design for the total of three selected components ( major connector, rest and retainers) was 67.91% made by Prosthodontists followed by 49.16 made by students, 29.58% made by general dental practitioners and finally the lowest percentage was 23.33 that made by dental technicians .Also there are great variations seen in different designs, some of them were far away from the principles of removable partial denture design, that lead to put in mind for more focusing on studying removable partial denture design in dental schools.


Article
Evaluation of Transverse strength, Impact strength and Hardness of Thermosense denture base material and compare the result with heat cure acrylic denture base material (in vitro study)

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Background: Thermosense material is the innovative virtually unbreakable, new monomer free rigid denture base material easy and quick to polish and available in 10 colors, suitable to patients unable to accept denture made from materials that could result in allergic reactions or other sensitivity problems. This type is suitable for full and partial denture and can be used for rebase and reline jobs. Also suitable for overdenture on implant and for repair. Material and methods: sixty samples were prepared and divided in to two main groups according to the type of material that used (thermosense denture base material and heat cure acrylic denture base material). Each main group were subdivided in to three subgroups according to the type of test that has used (Hardness, impact strength, and transverse strength). Data were analyzed by oneway analysis of t-test. Results: for this study the result for three tests; hardness, transverse strength and impact strength show high significant difference. conclusion: This study showed Thermosense denture base material had higher impact strength than Heat cure acrylic denture base material but this material had higher transverse strength and hardness than Thermosense denture base material.


Article
Evaluation of the Effect of silanized Zirconium Oxide nano-fillers and Plasma Treated polypropylene fibers Addition on some Properties of Heat Cured Acrylic Resin Denture Base Material

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Background: The polymethylmethacrylate is the most reliable material for the construction of dentures but it has the disadvantages of lacking strength and radio-opacity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of addition of modified nano-zirconium oxide (zro2 ) and plasma treated polypropylene fibers on some mechanical properties of heat cure acrylic resin materials. Materials and methods:- Zirconium oxide nanoparticles were coated with a layer of propyltrioxysilane before dispersed and sonicated in monomer(MMA)in percentage of 2% by weight . The plasma treated polypropylene fibers were in percentage of 2% by weight added to polymer powder. Sixty specimens were constructed and divided into 3 groups according to the using tests; each group was subdivided into two subgroups. The tests used were impact strength, transverse strength and surface hardness. Data were analyzed T-test. Results:- After the addition of plasma treated polypropylene fibers and modified nano-Zro2 fillers there was a highly significant increase in impact strength, transverse strength and surface hardness. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the addition of modified nano-Zro2 fillers and plasma treated polypropylene fibers effective method to enhance the fracture resistance of acrylic denture base material.


Article
Effect of metal oxides on some mechanical properties of clear acrylic specific for artificial eye

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Aim: the study was undertaken to assess the effect of various metal oxides on some mechanical properties of acrylic resin. Materials and methods: Two hundred acrylic specimens were constructed in total. There were two tests utilized (transverse and hardness). For each test, there were nine experimental groups according to the type of metal oxides used. The specimens without use any of metal oxides were considered as control. For transverse test, the specimens were exposed to loads until fracture. For hardness test, the specimens were tested; values were obtained. All data were analyzed and compared using ANOVA and tukey tests. Results: the addition of metal oxides at different concentrations enhanced the transverse strength of acrylic. Significant differences were statistically found between experimental groups and control group (P<0.001); among experimental groups (P<0.001). For hardness test, there was a slight increase in the mean values of hardness of clear acrylic as the concentration of metal oxides increases. No significant differences were statistically found among experimental groups (P>0.05); between experimental groups and control group (P>0.05) except there was significant difference between control and 5% TiO2 group (P<0.05). Conclusion:The incorporation of metal oxides improved the transverse strength and surface hardness of acrylic resin.


Article
Electromyography evaluation of masseter and temporalis muscles in patients with temporomandibular joint dysfunction

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Aim: Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) are composed of heterogeneous masticatory disorders which include muscle and joint disorders ،Major precipitating factors are occlusal, traumatic, psychosocial and systemic factors. The symptoms associated with this syndrome are due to hyper function and/or dysfunction of the masticatory muscles, rather than to degenerative or inflammatory changes of the TMJ .Various attempts have been made to demonstrate this hyperactivity via EMG recordings of the masticatory muscles . The aim of this investigation was to determine possible altered muscular function in patients with TMD, as well as to determine the need for EMG application in TMD diagnosis. Methods: Thirty adults participated in this study :20 subjects with signs and symptoms of TMD and 10 asymptomatic subjects .Surface EMG recordings were obtained from left and right anterior temporal muscle, left and right masseter muscle. Results: of this investigation showed the presence of altered masticatory muscle activity in TMD patients and confirmed the use of electromyography in TMD diagnosis. Conclusion: The investigation has confirmed that EMG is a useful and non-invasive method in TMD diagnosis.


Article
Salivary calcium and phosphate in relation to oral health among postmenopausal women in Baghdad governorate

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In women approaching menopause many physiological changes take place including oral discomfort in addition to general climacteric complaints. The aim of this study was to evaluate the oral health status in relation to some salivary constituents including calcium and phosphate of pre and postmenopausal women. Oral health status of 40 women (20 pre-menopause and 20 post-menopause) were examined including (Decayed, Missing, and Filled teeth index (DMFT), gingival index, plaque index, and calculus index). Stimulated whole saliva was collected to determine salivary calcium and phosphate composition. The data were analysed with Student's t-test. The mean values of pH and flow rate were lower among postmenopausal women than premenopausal one. Plaque, gingival and calculus indices were higher in postmenopause women. Dental caries was also higher among postmenopausal women with a highly significant difference. Concerning the level of salivary calcium and phosphate, both of these elements were significantly higher among premenopausal women than postmenopausal one. Postmenopausal women showed significantly more oral changes than the premenopausal women. These changes could be related to the hormone alterations. Therefore, it is necessary to take preventive and educational measures targeted at these women.


Article
Oral health status and selected salivary physicochemical characteristics among a group of patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia undergoing chemotherapy (longitudinal study)

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Background: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia is fast growing cancer of the white blood cell. Chemotherapy which has been used to treat malignant conditions has a negative impact on oral health condition among cancer patients. This observational study was conducted to determine the level of selected salivary physicochemical characteristics including flow rate and total antioxidant) in addition to evaluation of oral health status (dental plaque and gingival health condition) among a group of patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Materials and methods: The present study included thirty patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia aged (14-17) years old. Those patients attended Medical City in Baghdad and were admitted to the Hematological Center at Teaching Baghdad Hospital. All patients fullfitted certain inclusion criteria. Salivary sample collection and oral examination were carried at three visits: the first visit was carried out before receiving chemotherapy (at the day of admission)(baseline data), while the second visit was carried out at the day 15 (after starting chemotherapy), and the third visit was done at the day 30 (after starting chemotherapy). Stimulated salivary samples were collected and salivary flow rate was determined. Dental plaque was assessed according to criteria of plaque index by Sillness and Lӧe (1964) and gingival health condition was assessed according to the criteria of Modified Gingival Index for Lobene et al (1986). Salivary samples then were chemically analyzed for the detection of salivary total antioxidant. Results: In this study, salivary flow rate decreased with time (visits) (1.44±0.14, 1.27±0.16, 1.02±0.53) with statistically highly significant differences (p<0.01). On the other hand, the mean values of plaque and gingival indices increased with time (visits) (0.89± 0.39, 1.22± 0.58, 1.82 ±0.75) (0.98± 0.49, 1.13± 0.46, 1.38 ±0.84) respectively and the differences were statistically highly significant (p<0.01). While salivary total antioxidant decreased with time (visits) (0.94±0.25, 0.92±0.21, 0.82±0.21) with statistically significant differences (p<0.05). Conclusion: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia, its treatment and duration of treatment have direct and indirect impact on the oral health status of leukemic patients. Those patients had poor oral hygiene with high rate of gingivitis in addition to change in salivary physicochemical properties, thus, an organized, comprehensive oral health preventive and educational programs in addition to intense oral hygiene program before and during the first month of treatment with cytotoxic MDJdrug (chemotherapy) are essential to improve their oral health condition and prevent oral problems and complications.


Article
Validity of Hounsfield Units in Skyview Cone Beam Computed Tomography to detect bone densities at different jaw sites during implant insertion

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Abstract Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bone densities by Hounsfield Unit at jaw sites in sky view cone beam computed tomography and to compare these values to the optimal bone densities proposed in the literature. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six patients, 15 males and 21 females were assessed; CT data for different jaw sections and regions were compared using (t-test). Results: The means of bone density in all regions are higher in male than female. The mean bone density in the anterior mandible is higher ; the mean bone densities in the four jaw regions decreased in the following order in female or male or general ( anterior mandible > anterior maxilla > posterior mandible > posterior maxilla ) . Conclusion: The bone densities assessed by HU fell into the range of optimal bone densities proposed in the literature.


Article
Estimation of Salivary Levels of Pro Inflammatory Cytokines (Interleukin-1α and Interleukin-8) in Iraqi Lichen Planus patients, the association of these parameters with dental plaques, gingivitis and smoking status

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Background: Oral lichen planus (OLP) is chronic inflammatory disease of the oral mucosa whose etiology is still unknown but mounting evidence points to the immunologic basis of this disorder. The aim of the present study was to assess the level of salivary IL-1α, IL- 8, salivary flow rate (SFR), the plaque and gingival indices in lichen planus patients, and to assess their level pre and post treatment with topical steroid in study group, in addition to the assessment of relation of smoking to these parameters in oral lichen planus patients. Materials and methods: Whole saliva from fifteen (15) patients with oral lichen planus, eighteen (18) healthy persons, were investigated for the presence of IL-1 α, IL-8 by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay ( ELISA). In addition, the flow rate of saliva (SFR) measured in both groups, plaque and gingival indices also assessed pre and post treatment. Results: The results showed a significant elevation of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL- 1α , IL- 8, plaque and gingival indices in study group in comparison to control group except the SFR where it was higher in control group than study group also showed that some of these parameters significantly related to smoking statues. The studies parameters also showed significant variation after using of topical steroid in which the salivary level of cytokines IL-1 α , IL-8, plaque &Gingival indices were significantly decreased after treatment except SFR was significantly increase after treatment. Conclusion: Patients with oral lichen planus have had high levels of inflammatory cytokines in their saliva. The results also showed wide variations in levels among patients in pre and post treatment with steroid, in addition the level of pro inflammatory cytokines significantly related to smoking status. The results suggest links between the proinflammatory cytokines ( IL-1 α , IL-8 ) from one side and oral lichen planus disease, medication used for treatment and smoking status of the patients from another side.

Table of content: volume:13 issue:1