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Engineering and Technology Journal

مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا

ISSN: 16816900 24120758
Publisher: University of Technology
Faculty: Presidency of the university or centers
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Journal aims to disseminate knowledge in the fields of Engineering, Technology and Sciences .All the researches will submit to the scientific evaluation procedures of publishing and documentation. The journal under takes only the publishing of the new researches that had not been published previously on other journals or debated in conferences.

The Instructions of Submitting The Research to Scientific Evaluation:
a- The research should be Submitted in 4 copies in Arabic or English Languages, auther's name should be eliminated from 2 copies only. The abstract should be typed on the front page not exceeding (150 words) in both Arabic and English on size (A4) sheet. Pages should be numbered and not more than (15) page.
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Secondly- The annual subscription in the journal inside Iraq is ID250000) Iraqi dinar, and outside Iraq is (us $250) abroad.
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Engineering and Technology Journal
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The responsibilities of the Engineering & Technology Journal can be defined as:
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ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL
Scientific Refereed Journal Issued by University of Technology, IRAQ
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جمهورية العراق –بغداد
الجامعة التكنولوجية- مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا- ص.ب. 35010
Email: etj@uotechnology.edu.iq
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Journal website:
http://uotechnology.edu.iq/tec_magaz/EN/index.htm
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Republic of Iraq, Baghdad
University of Technology, Engineering & Technology Journal.
P.O.Box.35010
Email: etj@uotechnology.edu.iq

Email: uot_magaz@yahoo.com
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Table of content: 2016 volume:34 issue:4 Part (B) Scientific

Article
Extraction of Functional Compounds from Plantago Lanceolata Plantand its Effect on Bacteria Causing Renal Diseases
استخلاص المركبات الفعالة من نبات لسان الحمل وكشف فعاليتها المضادة لبكتريا المجاري البولية

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Abstract

Seven extracts were prepared from the fresh and dried leaves of Plantagolanceolataplant. Various specific chemical reagents were used to differentiate several functional groups extracts .The results of the experiments undertaken showed the presence of certain chemical compounds (phenols ,tannins ,glycosides and polysaccharides ) and absence of proteins in six extracts . Whereas extract number 7 gave only tannins and phenols .pH measurements were performed for all the extracts , they were ranging from 5.1 to 5.3 . The results of the effect of inhibition test that was conducted by employing pathogenic bacteria of renal disease (Esherichia coli,Salmonelatyphi , Shigellaspp. , Klebsiellaspp. , Proteus mirabilis ) occurring of interference . This interference was happened between the phenols and tannins with glycosides and polysaccharides led to the absence of the inhibition in extracts 1-6.But in case of extract No. 7 , when glycosides and polysaccharides washed , different diameters of inhibition ( 18.3 , 16.3 , 21 , 19 mm ) zone were appeared for all pathogenic bacteria (Esherichia coli ,Salmonelatyphi , Shigella spp. , Klebsiella spp. , Proteus mirabilis ) at certain concentration ( 100 mg/ml ) The results showed that the diameter of the inhibition zone was as a function of concentration of the extract at the range studied (12.5 , 25 , 50 , 100 mg/ml ) and the lowest concentration ( 12.5 mg/ml ) represented the minimum inhibitory concentration ( MIC ) .


Article
Copyright Protection Service for Mobile Images

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Abstract

This paper presents a watermarking protocol that is used for protecting any digital image and working as a copyright registration for any important image to any user who feels his/her image is important. The registration by this server is applied only once for any input image by keeping the date and the time of the registration with secure authentication process. The authentication process combines both the encryption and the digital signature to generate the invisible watermark that will be added to the image and only the visible watermark will be shown on the lower/right corner of the client image. The proposed protocol has three stages represented by watermark generation, watermark embedding and verification. For the first stage, three steps should be followed to generate a watermark. In the first step, the phone number with international code is encrypted using SHA-1, in the second step, the result of the first step and a watermark text are encrypted using SHA-1 hash function again and the third step encrypts the result of the second step using RSA algorithm. For the second stage of the protocol discrete wavelet transform algorithm is used for watermark embedding. And for the third stage a matching is done between the retrieval watermarks with the decrypted one. As a result both concepts of integrity and authenticity can be obtained from the proposed protocol, because hash function using SHA-1 is still secure just time so the system is guaranteed to the two parties: the cover originality, safe transmission with full integrity, and full authenticity.


Article
Preparation and Studying the Fracture Toughness of Laminate Composites

Authors: Awham M. Hameed --- Mays Sabah Mahdi
Pages: 451-461
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Abstract

Binary polymer blend was prepared by the mechanical mixing of epoxy resin (EP) with polycarbonate (PC) in different weight ratios of (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20%). Charpy impact test was carried out on these blends to determine the values of impact strength (I.S). It was found that the blend of the ratio (20wt. %) of PC has the highest (I.S) compared with other ratios. For this reason, this percentage of mixing was selected to fabricate the composite materials. Hand lay-up method was utilized to synthesize the (single and hybrid) laminate composites with fiber volume fraction (Ф=15%). Glass and Kevlar fibers were used to reinforce the epoxy and its polymer blend with different sequences of skin and core layers of the composite. The values of Young's modulus (E), impact characteristics (I.S, Gc, Kc) and hardness were determined for these composites. It is found that the values of (E) and hardness decrease while the values of material toughness (Gc) increase with increasing the blending ratio of the polymer blend. It can also be noticed that the composite reinforced with Kevlar fibers records the highest value of (Gc) compared with other composites.


Article
Preparation and Study the Characteristics of Tungsten Trioxide Thin Films for Gas Sensing Application

Authors: Suaad.S.Shaker
Pages: 462-469
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Abstract

In this study, Tungsten Trioxide thin films were successfully synthesized at different substrate temperatures by pulse laser deposition. Structural, morphological and electrical properties of WO3 thin films, were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Atomic Force Microscope AFM), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Hall Effect and sensing measurements. The results was indicated that WO3 thin films prepared at 450ᵒC was optimum condition where sensitivity toward H2S gas has been measured, sensitivity was higher than other films preparation at (250ᵒC,350ᵒC) temperature.


Article
A Comparative Study of Thermal Insulations and Physical Properties of Lightweight Concrete Using Some Raw Materials

Authors: Sanaa A. Hafid --- Amenah E. Mohammed Ridha
Pages: 470-478
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Abstract

In this work, no-fine lightweight concrete was produced by using crushed bricks, thermostone as coarse aggregates to produce lightweight concrete. For both, superplasticizers were added to the mixture, the specimens were then cured in water for (7, 28, 60) days respectively. Compressive strength determine the mechanical properties, Physical properties of these concrete types were examined through thermal conductivity and fresh density. The compressive strength test showed that the compressive strength of the concrete was about (8-15.7) N/mm2 by using natural gravel aggregate, (4.8-8.1) N/mm2 by using crushed bricks, and (3.14-5.4) N/mm2 by using thermostone aggregate. After 28 days, the thermal conductivity were (0.58),(0.41),(0.26) W/m.k, for the natural gravel ,crushed bricks and thermostone concrete. Besides; these concrete types are characterized by their low cost, environmentally friendly,high production rate, fire resistance, thermal insulation and light weight.


Article
Efficacy of Filter Water with Nanosilver-coated Natural Zeolite in Controlling Water Molds Infection on Bunnei (Barbus Sharpeyi )Eggs

Authors: Rana H. Shammari
Pages: 479-489
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Abstract

The effect of indirect use of nanosilver particles (AgNPs) was studied for control water molds infection on Bunne eggs during incubation period in the hatchery. This effect was studded with different concentrations of nanosilver-coated natural zeolite (0.5,1and 2 % AgNPs) and these concentrations were compared with unmodified natural zeolite as water filter in semi-circulatory incubation system. All incubators were inoculated with water molds-infected Bunne eggs for testing the effect of AgNPs on inhibition of fungal infection. Dead and infected eggs were removed periodically ,the efficacy of the filters was assessed by estimation the survival rates from fertilization to accomplishment of the yolk-sac absorption stage. Survival rate was increased about 5.3% (filters with 0.5% AgNPs) from fertilization to larvae compared to control (P<0.05).The additional option of active carbon (absorbent media) along with AgNP-coated zeolite filters caused an increase of about 13.5% in the survival rate for the larval stage (P<0.05).No infection with water mold were observed in the incubators during the incubation period in the incubators with water supply from filters with AgNP-coated zeolite in contrast to the control group with about 12% water mold infection. The end results enhanced that the indirect usage of AgNPs in the aforementioned filters were significantly effective for control water mold infections on semi-circulation system for incubation of Bunne’s eggs, making them a candidate for exchange the chemical reagents currently used in eggs incubation in hatchery system. The indirect use of nanosilver materials for the disinfection of water for eggs incubation was applied for the first time in fish hatchery in Iraq.


Article
The Effect of Annealing Temperature on Structural & Optical Properties of Nanocrystalline SnO2 Thin Films Prepared by Sol-Gel Technique

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Abstract

In this work, studying the structural and optical Nano crystalline SnO2 thin films grown on cleaned glass substrates by using sol- gel (dip coating) technique. It is worthy to say that the thickness of the deposited film was of the order of (300-400)nm . The films are annealed in air at , 300◦C, 400◦C and 500◦C temperatures for 60 minutes. The films that are analyses by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) , atomic force microscopy and optical absorption spectroscopy technique. The size of crystalline was observed, as well as, so as to increase with increasing annealing temperature . XRD analysis reveals that the whole films are polycrystalline with tetragonal structure with preferred orientation of (110),(101),(200) and (211) . The increase of annealing temperature leads to raise the diffraction peaks and decrease of FWHM. The atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results showed that the average grain size was increase with the increase in annealing temperature. Spectra of transmittance and absorbance was recorded at wavelengths range (300-1000)nm .The optical properties showed high transmission at visible regions. The optical band gap energy was found to be (3.5 , 3.75 , 3,87) eV at annealing temperature (300,400,500 )°C respectively.


Article
Post Thermal Oxidation of Tin Thin Film on Silicon Substrate for MIS Hetrojunction Prepared by Thermal Evaporation

Authors: Halah H. Rashed
Pages: 499-511
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Abstract

In this work, preparation of high quality conductive oxide SnO2 thin film by post-thermal trearment of deposited tin by vacuum thermal evaporation on glass and p -type silicon substratesfor preparation of metal-insulator-semiconductor hetrojunction. The opticalabsorption, electrical, structural and surface morphology of the SnO2 thin film on glass substrate were characterized byUV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometer, electrical conductivity, X-ray diffraction spectrum andatomic force microscope respectively. The X-Ray Diffraction pattern show that the SnO2 thin film is polycrystalline with and tetragonal rutile, Atomic Force Microscope show that the grains size of the thin film varies from 50 to 150 nm .The optical properties show that SnO2 thin film is high absorbance in Ultra-violet region, whereas it's transparent in the visible and near infrared regions and have direct optical band gap of 3.6 eV, and last the electrical conductivity results show that the resistivity is decrease with increase the temperature and activation energy is approximately to the 0.107eV. The electrical properties of n SnO2/SiO2/p Sihetrojunctionwere studied by I–V measurement under dark and illumination conditions, in the dark condition, I–V measurement reveals that the heterojunction have rectifying behavior, the ideality factor and the reverse saturation current of this diode are 5.18 and 1.5×10–6 A respectively. Under illumination condition, I–V measurement reveals that the photocurrent is larger than the dark current, and a linear relation between ISC and VOC with the incident light intensity to reach a maximum value beyond tends to saturated and become constant. These electrical properties of prepared device can its work as a detector or solar cell.


Article
Structural and DC Electrical Properties of (CuI ) Thin Film Prepared by Pulse Laser Deposition

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Abstract

In this paper , Copper(I) Iodide (CuI)thin films were prepared by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD).The effect of different No. oflaser pulse (200,500 and 800) on the structural and electrical properties were studied.The structure of all CuIfilms istested using X-ray diffraction (XRD) the results were found to be polycrystalline of hexagonal structure with strong crystalline orientation at (111)plane.D.C measurements revealed that the electrical activation energy (Ea) decreases with increasing of pulse shootof thin films. The Hall effect measurements confirmed that the CuI are P-type and the charge carriers concentration (n) were increased with increasing of pulse shoots .Also, it can observe that Hall mobility (H) decreases with the increasing of pulse shoot for films.

Keywords

PLDtechnigue --- CuI thin film --- Al --- Nd:YAG --- PL


Article
Thermoelectric Effects on Optical Properties of The Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystal Films

Authors: Ali Hussein Abd Al Razak
Pages: 521-527
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Abstract

Recently, has been studied the electro-optical properties of the polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) systems because it has unique properties use in smart windows technology. The selection of material is important for performance and application of polymer dispersed liquid crystal devices. The choosing of the materials are based on the physical properties of each constituent materials like refractive matching/ mismatching of Liquid Crystals and polymers, their purity, chemical and photo stability, mutual miscibility etc. The size, shape, and arrangement of these microscopic structures are (droplet) synthetic chemistry of the both constituent molecules. In this present work has been used commercially available nematic liquid crystal ZLI-3239 and UV curable polymer (NOA-71) was used as matrix element. This polymer is clear, colorless, liquid photopolymer that is cured under UV light. The main idea of this research is mixing both the liquid crystal and the polymer in liquid state which both having almost same viscosity to form single liquid phase followed by phase separation processes to separate liquid crystal from the polymer. The polymer is provided sit for liquid crystal which has arrangement of microscopic structures droplet in different sizes. This research showing effect of the temperature and electrical field on the liquid crystal which has direct influence on the optical properties of polymer dispersed liquid crystal film.

Keywords

PDLC --- Smart Windows


Article
Proposed Business Intelligence Systemthrough Big Data

Authors: Hasanen S. Abdullah --- Saif Bashar Neama
Pages: 528-539
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Abstract

Every company or institution in the world has huge amounts of raw data. Since, we are living now in the era of data and data explosion, data is generated in an alarming rates. AstheBig Data problem emerges, big data cannot be processed by traditional systems due to its huge size, complexity and rapid generation, and since data became the most important element in the business world to drive companies and institutions in the right direction. Business Intelligence Systems are built to serve that purpose. This paper introduces a system that will implement a Business Intelligence techniqueto handle Big Data problem through HadoopFramework benefiting from its functionalitiesto provide a parallel processing environmentby implementing a cluster of three nodes that will hold the data set and running queries on it in parallel using the functionality of MapReduce algorithm. The system consists of four primary stages: first is the stage of loading the data into the cluster, second is the stage of constructing the data warehouse to become the source layer for the data analysis stage to extract the business insights. Thethird stage analyzes the data and answers the business problems.Finallythe fourth stage isthe data visualization stage where the answers that gathered from the previous stage will take the form of visual charts and graphs that will be contained in a unified business intelligence dashboard that will provide the overall look for the business operations.


Article
An Efficient Association Rules Algorithms for Medical Test Analysis

Authors: Ahmed Tariq Sadiq --- Alaa Sameer Ali
Pages: 540-546
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Abstract

Data Mining denotes mining knowledge from hugequantity of data. All algorithms of association rules mining include ‘first finding frequency of item sets, which accept a minimum support threshold, and then calculates confidence percentage for all k-item sets to construct robust association rules’. The trouble is there are some of algorithms that need more time for compute minimum support, minimum confidence and extraction larger item. In this paper one algorithm is proposed (enhanced reduces items Apriori algorithm) to reduce execution time. The proposed algorithm purpose to introduce algorithm to mine association rules to obtain fast algorithm by reducing execute time. Due to many experiments in (enhanced reduces items Apriori algorithm), this algorithm is very fast compared with (topk-rules and topk-non redundant rules) algorithms.


Article
Preparation of Graphene via Electrochemical Exfoliation Method for Environment Applications

Authors: Salam Hussein --- Raneen Imad Jibrael
Pages: 547-552
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Abstract

In this research, electrochemical exfoliation process of the graphite as electrode immersed in a sulfuric acid, nitric acid and water (H2SO4/HNO3/H2O) was used to produce high-quality graphene. The structural and chemical properties, of the prepared graphene were studied. XRD shows that the structure of grapheneis polycrystalline with preferential orientation in the (002) and (004) direction. Raman spectra showed two intensive peaks IG and I2D corresponding to 730.01 and 628.04. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FT-IR) spectrum showed the stretching vibration of C=C aromatic ring 1649.19 cm-1 andthe stretching vibration from C-H 1456.30 cm-1 bend. Also the oxygen-containing functional groups have been appeared like O-H, C=O and C-O. After preparation of graphene and characterization, environmental testing was conducted to purify the mixture consisting of water and oil. Naked eye noted that the water has been purified from oils, and also water samples have been tested using optical microscopy.

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Article
Structural, Morphological and Optical Properties of Co3O4 Thin Film

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Abstract

The sol-gel technique was used because it is simple, economic and less equipment. The films deposited by dip coating method on glass substrate. The effect of pH value and annealing temperatures on structural, morphological and optical properties of Co3O4 were studied by XRay diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and UV-visible Spectroscopy (UV-VIS). XRD measurements show that all the films are nanocrystallized in the cubic spinel structure and the films quality improved with increase the pH value and annealing temperatures. SEM images shows that the films was discontinuous surface with spherically grains increase from (65 to 83 nm) with increase the pH from 10.5 to 11.5. the annealing temperature improved the surface morphology. The optical band gap Eg was decrease from 2.7 to 2.4 eV when the pH alter from 9.5 to 11.5 while decrease from 2.5 to 2 eV with increase the annealing temperature from 300 to 600 °C .

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Article
Ba2-x PbxCa2Cu3O8+δ Superconductors Up 99K

Authors: Shatha Hashim Mahdi
Pages: 560-565
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Abstract

In the present study the effect of replacement of Pb at the Ba place in the oxygen deficient BaO layer of Ba2-x PbxCa2Cu3O8+δ with (0≤x≤0.3) cuprate superconductor has been investigated. Bulk polycrystalline specimens have been prepared by the solid state reaction process. Four probes technique is used to find the Tc. The highest Tc(offset) were 88, <77, 97and 99 K for all specimens with x = 0.0, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 respectively.The optimum Tc(off) of ~ 99 K and Tc(onset) ~ 106.38K has been found for the composition Ba1.7 Pb0.3Ca2Cu3O8+δ. X-ray diffraction analysis showed an orthorhombic arrangement with an increase of the c-axis for the specimens substitution with Pb as compared with those of no Pb content. The change of thePb content of all specimens created a change in the volume of the unit cell which has an important effect to obtain the superconductor state.


Article
Classification of Gender Face Image Based on Slantlet Transform

Authors: Nidaa Flaih Hassan --- Reem Majeed Ibrahim
Pages: 566-577
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Abstract

Image Face classification has been an effective research area over last two or three decades and it is considered as a challenging research topic. In this paper a new classification algorithm is proposed for gender classification based on face image.The proposed algorithm consists of two phases: training and testing phases.In the training phase five steps are implemented to classify gender images; at first step the face in a digital image is segmented so as to eliminate the undesirablebackground, the redundancy and suppression of noise is reduced using Slantlet Transform in step two. From transformed face images,Eigen faces feature is extracted using Principle Component Analysis (PCA). In step three to reduce the number of dimensions without losing information (Eigen value is used as a vector of features), in the final step decision whether the face image is male or female is done by applying Support Vector Machine (SVM). The experimental outcome indicate that the SVM classifier achieves precision of 89% whenthe classification process using Wavelet 'Transform, and 93 % with Slantlet' Transform for the same number of the test-set.


Article
Proposed Image Similarity Metric with Multi Block Histogram used in Video Tracking

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One of the important requirements in the object detection and tracking is the extracting of efficient features to trackthe target in video sequence. The feature of colour in image is one of the most visual features widely used. The using ofcolour histogram is the most popular method for representing color feature. One of the problems of using colour histogram to represent feature is its lack of spatial information where it is used to represents statistical distribution of the coloursonly. In this paper a new similarity metric with multi block colour histogram of image is proposed. This metric will be used by an object tracking method where the similarity will be applied to get a decision of choosing the correct solution (location) of the object from many candidate locations


Article
Color Image Compression Using DPCM with DCT, DWT and Quadtree Coding Scheme

Authors: Ashwaq T. Hashim --- Suhad A. Ali
Pages: 585-597
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This paper is concerned with the design and implementation of a compression method for color image. This method based on Differential Pulse Code Modulation (DPCM), Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) , Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) and Quadtree Coding Scheme. As a first step the DPCM technique is used to isolate blocks of an image into correlated and uncorrelated blocks. The isolated correlated blocks have been compressed using DCT based compression method then each block has been embedded with zeros on the original image. Each uncorrelated block has been compressed using DWT based method and put the compressed block in its location on the original image. Then, the result (i.e., the zeros blocks and compressed blocks with DWT) coded using Quadtree spatial coding. The output from DWT based and DCT based passed through shift coding stage to gain a possible further compression. The performance results of proposed hybrid algorithms produces better quality of image in terms of Peak-Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR) with a higher Compression Ratio (CR) compared to standalone DCT or DWT. The PSNR values of the reconstructed images after applying proposed system are ranged from 30.62 to 40.95dB and CR on average, have been reduced to be around 1:19.6 of the size of the original image.

Keywords

DCT --- DWT --- DPCM --- Quadtree --- ShiftCoding --- Image Compression


Article
Iris Anti-spoofing: Static and Dynamic Technique

Authors: Hanaa M. Ahmed --- Bushra Jabbar Abdulkareem
Pages: 598-609
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Abstract

The probabilityof the biometric system to be spoofed is widely acknowledged. Complete security does not really exist, butsignificant efforts have led to study such threats and to develop countermeasures to direct attacks to the biometric system in an attempt to ensure the security and to reduce this risk. This paper presents two novel anti-spoofing techniques to protect iris biometric system from spoof attack, static and dynamic. Static technique is based on the principle of degree of sharpening of the input eye image.Dynamic technique is based on variation of the size of the pupil if the illumination is increased. This technique is tested on 15 folders of original MMU database (Multi Media University database) Each folder contains two eyes image sampleswhichrepresent live trail and 15 folders of(MMU database) eye images printed using scanner device and photographed using a specific camera are saved in computer to represent 15 attempts of spoof attack. The evaluation tests ofliveness detection phase for iris which is applied in iris database show that the detection of the liveness properties is very good as depicted in Table (1) and Table (2).


Article
Effect of Porosity on Thermal Conductivity and Flexural Strength of Ceramic Foam

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Abstract

Refractory ceramics used for thermal insulating applications should be porous; containing large number of air cells.This work addresses a highly porous local ceramic prepared via simple and low cost process (direct foaming method) by using Iraqi raw material (kaolin) and egg white as a binder and a foaming agent. Porosity, thermal conductivity and flexural strength were obtainedafter sintering of the specimens at 1100 and 1300 oC. The prepared ceramic foam contained a large amount of spherical microspores; it has high porosity (68.1-80%), low thermal conductivity (0.2-0.6) W/m.K with flexural strength range (0.4-2.8) MPa.The direct foaming method, using egg white foam, proved to be an efficient and feasible method for producing highly porous ceramics with good mechanical properties for thermal insulating applications.

Keywords

Table of content: volume:34 issue:4 Part (B) Scientific