Table of content

Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering

المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط

ISSN: 19974884/E26180707
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Engineering
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering is a quarterly peer-reviewed scientific journal that was established in 2000 by the College of Engineering of the University of Baghdad. The Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering receives citations in the category of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering and relevant subjects.

Aims
The Iraqi journal of chemical and petroleum engineering is Open Access journal dedicated to publishing peer-reviewed research articles with respect to the subjects in fields of chemical and petroleum Engineering. In particular, petrochemical, biochemical, water treatment, electrochemical, petroleum and natural gas production and technology, and environment are the major interest of the journal. The journal aims to provide a free platform for the researches all over the world to share diverse types of knowledge and discuss the recent developments in the subjects related to the journal interest.

Objective
Objective of the journal is to promote the researches in the engineering subjects covered by journal to dissemination their intellectual products to the global community free of restriction. That achieves by making all of published articles available free of cost for all researcher through adopting Open Access publication model.

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Contact info

Aljadreah, Baghdad
Iraq
P.O Box: 47024
Phone: +964-1-7781506
Email: ijcpe@coeng.uobaghdad.edu.iq
ijcpe@yahoo.com

Table of content: 2016 volume:17 issue:4

Article
Corrosion Inhibition of Carbon Steel in Hydrochloric Acid under Dynamic Conditions

Authors: Q.J.M. Slaiman --- Jaafar C. Eirs
Pages: 1-10
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Abstract

In this work, studying the effect of ethylenediamine as a corrosion inhibitor was investigated for carbon steel in aerated HCl solution in range of 0.1-1N under dynamic conditions, i.e., rotational velocity of 400–1200 rpm in the temperature range 35 – 65 ºC. Weight loss method was employed in absence and presence of the inhibitor as an adsorption type in concentration range 1000 – 5000 ppm using rotating cylinder specimens. The experimental results showed that corrosion rate in absence and presence of inhibitor is increased with increasing temperature, rotational velocity and concentration of acid. It is decreased with increasing inhibitor concentration for the whole range of temperature, rotational velocity and concentration of acid solution. Under these conditions maximum inhibition efficiency obtained was 86% while minimum inhibition efficiency was 36%. The adsorption of this inhibitor on carbon steel surface is found to obey Langmuir adsorption isotherm.


Article
Synthesis Of Nano Ni-Mo/γ-Al2O3 Catalyst

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Abstract

Nano γ-Al2O3 support was prepared by co-precipitation method by using different calcination temperatures (550, 600, and 750) oC. Then nano NiMo/γ-Al2O3 catalyst was prepared by impregnation method were nickel carbonate (source of Ni) and ammonium paramolybdate (source of Mo) on the best prepared nano γ-Al2O3 support at calcination temperature 550 oC. Make the characterizations for prepared nano γ-Al2O3 support at different temperatures and for nano NiMo/γ-Al2O3 catalyst like X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescent, AFM, SEM, BET surface area, and pore volume. The Ni and Mo percentages in the prepared nano NiMo/γ-Al2O3 catalyst determined by X-ray fluorescence were 2.924 wt % and 12.9 wt %, respectively. SEM of prepared nano γ-Al2O3 support at calcination temperature 550 oC. The average particles diameter of prepared γ-Al2O3 support determined by AFM at calcination temperatures 550, 600, and 750 oC and for prepared nano NiMo/γ-Al2O3 catalyst at calcination temperature 550 oC.


Article
Study of the Performance of Paraffin Wax as a Phase Change Material in Packed Bed Thermal Energy Storage System

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Abstract

The present work deals with an experimental investigation of charging and discharging processes in thermal storage system using a phase change material PCM. Paraffin wax was used as the PCM which is formed in spherical capsules and packed in a cylindrical packed column which acted as an energy storage system. Air was used as the heat transfer fluid HTF in thermal storage unit. The effect of flow rate and inlet temperature of HTF on the time of charging and discharging process were studied. The results showed that the faster storage of thermal energy can be made by high flow rate of heat transfer fluid HTF and high inlet temperature of heat transfer fluid. It was found that at 65°C HTF inlet temperature, the melting and solidification processes accelerated by 27.9% and 57.14% respectively, when the flow rate was increased from 9 to 24 L/s. Also, when the HTF inlet temperature changed from 65°C to 80°C, the time needed to complete melting process decreased by 38.8%.


Article
Performance Study of Electrodialysis for Treatment Fuel Washing Wastewater

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Abstract

In this work, electrodialysis (ED) has been demonstrated to be appropriate technique for reducing the electrical conductivity of real wastewater from fuel washing unit, which has been previously treated by other electrochemical technology (electrocoagulation and electrooxidation). A five cell electrodialysis stack, with an active membrane area of 60 cm2 per cell was employed. During a batch recirculation mode ED system, the effects of parameters such as electrical potential applied (6-18 V) and flow rate of streams (0.5-1.7 L/min.) on the performance of the total dissolved solids (TDS) separation and specific power consumption (SPC) were studied. The results indicate that the process of ED under potential (15 V) and flow rate (1.4 L/min) are recommended as operation conditions. The removal of TDS achieved was about 95% throughout (80 min.) time of electrodialysis and (1.72 kWh/m3) of SPC. Moreover, SPC increased with an increase in the applied potential of ED stack, while it was not intensely responsive to the change in the flow rate.


Article
Indirect Electrochemical Oxidation of Phenol Using Rotating Cylinder Reactor

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Abstract

Indirect electrochemical oxidation of phenol and its derivatives was investigated by using MnO2 rotating cylinder electrode. Taguchi experimental design method was employed to find the best conditions for the removal efficiency of phenol and its derivatives generated during the process. Two main parameters were investigated, current density (C.D.) and electrolysis time. The removal efficiency was considered as a response for the phenol and other organics removal. An orthogonal array L16, the signal to noise (S/N) ratio, and the analysis of variance were used to test the effect of designated process factors and their levels on the performance of phenol and other organics removal efficiency. The results showed that the current density has the higher influence on performance of organics removal while the electrolysis time has the lower impact on the removal performance. Multiple regressions was utilized to acquire the equation that describes the process and the predicted equation has a correlation coefficient (R2) equal to 98.77%. The best conditions were found to get higher removal efficiency. Removal efficiency higher than 95% can be obtained in the range of C.D. of 96-100 mA/cm2 and electrolysis time of 3.2 to 5 h. The behavior of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) mineralization denotes to a zero order reaction and the rate of reaction controlled by active chlorine reaction not by mass transfer of phenol towards the anode.


Article
Experimental Work to Study the Behavior of Proppant Inside the Hydraulic Fractures and the Plugging Time

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Abstract

Experiments were conducted to study the behavior of the solid particles (proppant) inside the hydraulic fracture during the formation stimulation, and study the effect of the proppant concentration on the hydraulic fracturing process, which lead to bridge and screen-out conditions inside the fractures across the fracture width that restricts fracturing fluid to flow into the hydraulic fracture. The research also studies the effect of the ratio between the fracture size and the average particles diameter “proppant", on fracture bridging. In this study two ratios were considered β= 2 and 3 ,where β=Dt / Dp where: Dt= hydraulic fracture size (width) and Dp=Average particles diameter. This work presents experimental work to study the behavior of these particles (proppant) inside the hydraulic fractures by measuring the plugging time for different particles concentration for different conditions. The experimental data recorded for different particle concentration and one flowing forces (gravity) inside the hydraulic fracture. Most recorded experimental data obtained were analyzed by using SPSS software.

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Article
Osmotic Membrane Bioreactor for Oily Wastewater Treatment using External & Internal Configurations

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Abstract

The present work aims to study the treatment of oily wastewater by means of forward osmosis membrane bioreactor process. Side stream (external) configuration and submerged (internal) configuration of osmotic membrane bioreactor were performed and investigated. The experimental work for each configuration was carried out continuously over 21 days. The flux behavior of forward osmosis membrane in an osmotic membrane bioreactor (OMBR) was investigated, using NaCl as the draw solution and CTA as FO membrane. The effect of mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) concentration and TDS accumulation of bioreactor on water flux and membrane fouling behaviors was detected. The accumulation and rejection of nutrients in the bioreactor (Nitrate, COD, and Phosphate) were investigated over the days of the experiment. Water flux and membrane fouling were not significantly affected by MLSS concentration at low level and this effect increase with increasing MLSS concentration (4000–10000 mg/L). Besides, water flux was severely affected by elevated salinity of the aeration tank. OMBR showed high removal of COD (96%) and FO membrane revealed high retention of phosphate (97%) but retention for nitrate was relatively low (72%). The sparingly soluble salts in the influent, bioreactor, draw solution, and RO effluent were detected through the experiment. The results showed flux decline with time to about 47% from the initial flux and two osmotic backwashing were applied at day 7 and 14 during the operation and the flux restored approximately 30% of its loss. Side stream and submerged configurations revealed nearly similar response over the experiments while side stream module showed better water flux (7.0 LMH) than submerged (6.1 LMH). The results showed that the concentration of inorganic ions is below the limits that may cause severe scaling.


Article
Investigation of Binary Solvents Performance for Regeneration of Iraqi 15W- 40 Waste Lubricant

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Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of binary solvent for regeneration of spent lubricating oil by extraction-flocculation process. The regeneration was investigated by bench scale experiments by using locally provided solvents (Heavy Naphtha, n-Butanol, and iso-Butanol). Solvents to used oil, mixing time, mixing speed and temperatures were studied as operating parameters. The performance on three estimated depended key parameters, namely the percentage of base oil recovered (Yield), percent of oil loss (POL), and the percent of sludge removal (PSR) were used to evaluate the efficiency of the employed binary solvent on extraction process. The best solvent to solvent ratio for binary system were 30:70 for Heavy Naphtha : n-Butanol (N:n-But) and Heavy Naphtha : iso-Butanol (N:iso-But). The optimum solvent to oil ratio or critical clarifying ratio (CCR) were 3.4, and 3.8 for N : n-But, and N : iso-But respectively. The optimized operating mixing time, mixing speed, and temperature which result in, maximum recovered base oil (87.75% and 88.88%), minimum oil losses (8.46% and 3.62%), and maximum sludge removal (5.63% and 6.12%), were (45 min, 700 rpm, 35 oC), and (30 min, 700 rpm, 35 oC ) for N:n-But, and N:Iso-But respectively.


Article
Chromium (VI) Removal from Wastewater by Electrocoagulation Process Using Taguchi Method: Batch Experiments

Authors: Amenah S. Al-Nuaimi --- Kamal S. Pak
Pages: 95-103
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Abstract

Electrocoagulation is an electrochemical method for treatment of different types of wastewater whereby sacrificial anodes corrode to release active coagulant (usually aluminium or iron cations) into solution, while simultaneous evolution of hydrogen at the cathode allows for pollutant removal by flotation or settling. The Taguchi method was applied as an experimental design and to determine the best conditions for chromium (VI) removal from wastewater. Various parameters in a batch stirred tank by iron metal electrodes: pH, initial chromium concentration, current density, distance between electrodes and KCl concentration were investigated, and the results have been analyzed using signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio. It was found that the removal efficiency of chromium increased with increasing current density and KCl concentration, and decreases with increasing initial chromium concentration and distance between electrodes, while pH shows peak performance curve. Experimental work have been performed for synthetic solutions and real industrial effluent. The results showed that the removal efficiency of synthetic solution is higher than industrial wastewater, the maximum removal for prepared solution is 91.72 %, while it was 73.54 % for industrial wastewater for the same conditions.


Article
Experimental Investigation of Mass Transfer for Copper Reduction by Weight Difference Technique

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Abstract

An experimental analysis was included to study and investigate the mass transport behavior of cupric ions reduction as the main reaction in the presence of 0.5M H2SO4 by weight difference technique (WDT). The experiments were carried out by electrochemical cell with a rotating cylinder electrode as cathode. The impacts of different operating conditions on mass transfer coefficient were analyzed such as rotation speeds 100-500 rpm, electrolyte temperatures 30-60 ℃, and cupric ions concentration 250-750 ppm. The order of copper reduction reaction was investigated and it shows a first order reaction behavior. The mass transfer coefficient for the described system was correlated with the aid of dimensionless groups as follows: Sh = 3.77 〖Re〗^(0.533 ) 〖Sc〗^0.356 4075 < Re < 34088


Article
The Effect of In-situ Stress on Hydraulic Fractures Dimensions

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Abstract

Understanding of in-situ stress profiles and orientations plays a vital role in designing a successful hydraulic fracturing treatment. This paper is an attempet to examine the effect of lithology and in situ stress on geometery of hydraulic fractures. A hydraulic fracturing design simulator software called FracproPT with various capabilities for designing most of hydraulic fracture was used for simulate and optimize the hydraulic fracturing. For studying purpose, three different cases of stress gradient contrast between different formations are considered in this study (0.4, 0.5 and 0.75 psi/ft). The results obtained from the simulator showed that lithologies surrounding the pay zone have an effect on the fracture’s height, width, and length. Also, Maximum height is achieved when the stress contrast between the pay zone and the surrounding layers is very small.


Article
Removal of Heavy Metals from Industrial Wastewater by Using RO Membrane

Authors: Ahmed H. Algureiri --- Yossor R. Abdulmajeed
Pages: 125-136
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Abstract

Industrial wastewater containing nickel, lead, and copper can be produced by many industries. The reverse osmosis (RO) membrane technologies are very efficient for the treatment of industrial wastewater containing nickel, lead, and copper ions to reduce water consumption and preserving the environment. Synthetic industrial wastewater samples containing Ni(II), Pb(II), and Cu(II) ions at various concentrations (50 to 200 ppm), pressures (1 to 4 bar), temperatures (10 to 40 oC), pH (2 to 5.5), and flow rates (10 to 40 L/hr), were prepared and subjected to treatment by RO system in the laboratory. The results showed that high removal efficiency of the heavy metals could be achieved by RO process (98.5%, 97.5% and 96% for Ni(II), Pb(II) and Cu(II) ions respectively). The permeate flux for all H.M ions was ranged between (10 to 56 L/m2.hr). The low level of the heavy metals concentration in the permeate implies that water with good quality could be reclaimed for further reuse. The RO membrane is characterized by very high efficiency as the H.M. ions removal of up to (97%) with good productivity and medium pressure that means a medium cost of the RO system.

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Table of content: volume:17 issue:4