Table of content

Medical Journal of Babylon

مجلة بابل الطبية

ISSN: 1812156X 23126760
Publisher: Babylon University
Faculty: Medicine
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

Medical Journal of Babylon (MJB) is a quarterly medical journal concerned with clinical and basic medical researches. MJB follows the Publication Ethics Statements suggested by Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) and International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE).

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العنوان البريدي: العراق-محافظة بابل- الحلة –ص ب 473 جامعة بابل –كلية الطب – مجلة بابل الطبية
عنوان البريد الالكتروني medjbabylon2004@gmail.com

Table of content: 2016 volume:13 issue:3

Article
Expression of CD44 in Saliva among Group of Smoker Patients with Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Authors: Mahdi Yacoob Kzar
Pages: 556 -561
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Abstract

The (CD44) biomarker is considered as one candidate molecular marker for detection of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, it islisted as adhesion molecules. This protein has many functions and considered as multistructural cell surface protein which involved different pathological events. The over-expression of CD44 wasdetected in different cancers in human, including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Therefore this study designed to evaluate the role of CD44 in OSCC, quantified in stimulated saliva, beside its correlation with smoking.This case-control study composed of 30 patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma who were smokers, and other 60 control persons for comparison: 30 subjects of them were smoking and others were free of smoking. CD44 was assessed by ELISA technique, in stimulated saliva collected from all groups.The result of this study show thatsalivary CD44 protein level significantly higher in smoker patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma in comparism to smoker and non-smoker control healthy persons, thus the CD44 protein have an important role, as a non-invasive way, in the early diagnosis and monitoring of oral squamous cell carcinoma patients.

Keywords

OSCC --- CD44 --- saliva --- smoking


Article
Risk Factor and Consequences of Women with Coronary Heart Disease in Babylon Province 2016

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Abstract

Coronary heart disease is considered as one of the most frequent illnesses and the most important cardiovascular disease in develop countries and developing countries and common form of heart disease in Iraq it is one of causes of death in women it is also Known as Ischemic heart disease. Coronary heart disease refer to disease due to decrease blood supply and in sufficient delivery of oxygen to the heart muscle. There are multiple type of coronary heart disease starting from stable angina (demand angina , supply angina ) and acute Coronary syndrome (myocardial infarction, Non STEMI)

Keywords

heart --- blood --- Coronary


Article
The Duration of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus as a Risk Factor For The Occurrence of Peripheral Neuropathy

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Abstract

This research was performed to evaluate type 2 diabetes mellitus duration as a risk factor for development of peripheral neuropathy (DPN). Initially 157 patients with T2DM who fit the general inclusion criteria were collected, but only 61 of them enrolled in this study due to the application of restricted inclusion criteria and according to the results of the nerve conduction study (NCS) those 61 patients divided into two groups, group 1: 36 patients, had diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN), and group 2:25 patients without DPN. For all these patients a lot of investigations were performed to exclude any other cause of neuropathy( lipid profile, renal, thyroid functions, fasting blood sugar and glycated hemoglobin). Significant statistical differences in the duration of T2DM between study groups was observed, p value was 0.04.The more duration of T2DM the high risk for diabetic peripheral neuropathy.


Article
Study of IgA Concentration in Gingivitis Patients

Authors: Baha Hamdi Hakim Al-Amiedi
Pages: 575 -579
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Abstract

Fifty gingivitis patients were diagnosed by dentist and ten normal subjects were elected as controls. Gingivitis patients and controls were investigated for serum and salivary IgA determinations. In which, blood and salivary samples were collected from both of patients and controls. Sera, saliva and salivary proteins in five microliter amounts per each of which were applied into low and high level anti IgA partigens. The patients sera have shown elevated IgA concentration means which approximate one fold increase than that of controls. Male and female patients were of comparable serum IgA concentration levels. Individual variation plot were found of multipeak type. The age group 30– 34 and 35 – 39 years were showing optimum concentration means . Saliva and salivary concentration means were showing nullified IgA concentrations in both patients and controls. IgA may interacts with are oral available antigens (microbial ) and fix complement thus forming complex giving nullified IgA concentrations.

Keywords

gingivitis --- serum --- saliva.


Article
Bile Leak Management Following Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

Authors: Ali Abdulhaleem Kadhim Al-Eessa
Pages: 580 -587
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Abstract

Laparoscopy now is the gold standard technique for cholecystectomy. Post laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) bile leak may occur. This prospective studyincludes 38 patientsfrom a period of May 2014 to May 2016 in Hilla teaching general hospital to assess options of management of bile leakfollowing LC.Conservative supportive measures alone was successful in 20 patients.ERCP intervention applied in 9 patients with a stent application, papillatomy or CBD stone extractionwith subsequent resolution. Explorative laparotomy by expert surgical team was done for 9 patients with Roux-en-Y-hepaticojejunostomy as a result of iatrogenicmassive injury to main biliary duct. Mortality rate was zero.Male to female ratio was 2:1 for whole bile leaked patients, and 3:1 for patients treated with interventions. Post laparoscopic cholecystectomy bile leak can be managed conservatively with close monitoring in a start.MRCP is valuable noninvasive test to assess biliary duct system. ERCP as a diagnostic and therapeutic measure was effective minimal invasive approach to control leak. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy should be performed meticulously in order to avoid catastrophic biliary ductal injury with a wise conversion to open when indicated. Proper clipping technique of cystic duct is essential to avoid cystic duct leak.


Article
Detection of Repetitive DNA Sequence and Outer Membrane Lipoprotein in Local Isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

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Abstract

A total of 100 clinical samples were collected during this study which were obtained from patients suffering from different infections such as UTI, skins, burns, wounds and from sputum in patient with respiratory diseases, only (12) isolates of P.aeruginosa isolated. At first molecular detection of P.aeruginosa (OprI) was done by using specific PCR primer. It was found that OprI marker was observed in all bacterial isolates (100%) with molecular size (250bp).The results showed that Box-element at a molecular size (500 bp) gave positive in only 9 ( 75% ) isolates. This will reflect on the distribution of some genes among different isolates of P.aeruginosa isolated from different sources.


Article
Outcome of Nasal Septalheamatoma / Abscess

Authors: Adil Hadi Salih Al-Azzawi
Pages: 593 -595
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Abstract

Septalheamatoma and abscess are infrequent conditions, but can result in a serious complications if not dealt with at a proper time. To study the outcome of nasal septalheamatoma and abscess in relation to the time of diagnosis and drainage. Forty three patients were prospectively studied, the time of diagnosis, drainage and outcome were sequentially evaluated. Forty three patients (31 males and 12 females), age range 3-20 years (mean age 8 years) were included. Surgical interference (drainage with anterior package and insertion of drain) was performed in all patients. A delay in diagnosis and surgical drainage is the main cause of subsequent complication.

Keywords

heamatoma --- abscess --- deformity


Article
The Effect of Chromium in The Pathogenesis of Insulin Resistance in Preeclampsia

Authors: Haydar Hashim Al-Shalah
Pages: 596 -602
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Abstract

Insulin resistance is well established to be related with preeclampsia. The action of insulin in human appears to be potentiated by chromium. The aim of present study was assessment of chromium level in the development of insulin resistance in preeclampsia and hence its pathogenesis . This case control study was achieved on subjects recruited from Babylon Teaching Hospital for Obstetric & Gynecology during the period between September 2013 till October 2015, included 90 pregnant women, 45 of them identified with preeclampsia in the third trimester and other 45 were apparently healthy pregnant women taken as a controls. Chromium concentrations was measured by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. Fasting insulin was estimated by Enzyme Linked Flouroscent Immune-Assay (ELFA) technique and fasting plasma glucose concentration by glucose oxidase method. Insulin resistance was calculated by homeostatic model assessment(HOMA)using mathematical equation. The results of present study showed no significant difference in fasting plasma glucose concentrations between patients and controls (P value >0.05),while there were a significant differences in chromium concentration level and insulin resistance between two groups (P value <0.05).However, there was no correlation between insulin resistance in patients with preeclampsia and low chromium level (r= 0.101, p=0.508). The present study concluded that low chromium level has no impact on the development of insulin resistance in preeclampsia.


Article
Effect of Tobacco Smoking on Hemoglobin Level among Kirkuk Technical Institute Students

Authors: Wafa Mahmood Jasim
Pages: 603 -609
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Abstract

Smoking is regarded as one of the most common unhealthy habits that affect human health because of its impacts on other body organs . The aim was to determine the impact of cigarettes smoking regarding the Hemoglobin level. among Kirkuk- technical institute students . Across- sectional study was done and a randomly selected sample (30 smokers and 30 non – smokers students from the same age between 19-20 years ) from different scientific depts. in Kirkuk Technical Institute after receiving their agreements to participate in the study which was started from 1/11/2015 till 1/2/2016 . A special questionnaire sheet prepared for this purpose and Hemoglobin estimation was done in primary health center which belongs to Kirkuk technical institute by using Sahli's haemoglobinometer which is the documented method used in primary health center . The study results show that 85.0 % living inside Kirkuk city and most of students from administrative dept .(70.0%) , 21 smoker students ( 70%) and 23 non- smoker students (76.7%) from were aware from the dangerous effect of smoking on human health . The study concluded that early establishment of smoking in young age group lead to more complications . The study recommended that advanced educational programs about the effect of smoking and its relation to diseases occurrence in other body organs and further future complications lead to death .


Article
Shear Bond Strength of Composite Resin Bonded to Enamel Etched with Er; Cr : YSGG Laser: A Comparative in vitro Study

Authors: Qasim Abdulkareem Mohammad
Pages: 610 -622
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Abstract

Eighty sound bovine incisors have been selected for this study, and divided into eight groups (N=10). The labial enamel of group 1 was conventionally etched by 37% phosphoric acid, group 2 roughened with diamond bur then acid etched, group 3, 5, and 7 etched by Er;Cr:YSG Glaser with a power of 1W, 2W and 3W respectively, groups 4, 6 and 8 same as groups 3, 5 and 7 but followed by acid etching. After that self-etching bonding agent applied and cured then a composite core made and loaded till failure. One-way AVOVA test showed significant differences between groups (p<0.05). Duncan multiple range post-hoc test showed that the SBS mean value for group 3 was (5.8±1.2 MPa), and the group 4 (9.7±1.6) which was significantly higher than group 3, but both of them were significantly lower than other groups. There were no significant differences among group 5 (15.6±1.2), group 7 (16±1.1) and group 1 (17.1±2.6). No significant differences were found among group 2 (21.2±1.9), group 6 (21.3±2.2) and group 8 (22.6±1.5), and these three groups were significantly more retentive than all other groups in this study. Conclusions: 1W laser etching produced the least SBS. 2W and 3W laser etching can substitute acid etching, but they give better results as good as bur roughened+acid etching if they followed by acid etching.


Article
Investigation of Some Moraxella lacunata virulence Factors and Detection of Toxoplasma gondii in Patients with Eye Infections in Hilla City

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This study based up-on 100 eye swab samples were collected from patients complaining of ocular disease who were attended to Al-Hilla Teaching Hospital during period ranging from November 2015 to January 2016. Those patients belong to age groups between two years to sixty years .Only 12 isolates of Moraxella lacunata was isolated from patients with ocular infection. The results obtained in this study explain all bacterial isolates sensitive entirely to Neomycin ,Gentamicin ,Ceftriaxone and Piperacillin while the results show the bacterial isolates less sensitive to Clarithromycin and Ceftazidime antibiotics. Besides, the results of this study depicted all bacterial isolate inability to produce CFA/I in the presence D –mannose and positive for CFA/III. Also, study the effect of lysozyme on bacterial isolate . The results showed that the isolated bacteria can withstand in thepresence of different concentration of lysozyme.


Article
Serodiagnosis of Rubella in Pregnant Women

Authors: Israa Hashim Saadoon
Pages: 628 -634
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Abstract

This study was conducted from 15th December 2012 to 15th May 2013 and included 220 pregnant woman whose age (18-40) years , who attended Azadi General Teaching Hospital, Kirkuk General Hospital and some primary health care centers in Kirkuk Governorate. Blood sample was drawn from each woman to determine specific anti-rubella antibodies (IgM and IgG) by using Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA). The results revealed that anti-rubella IgG , IgM and both IgG & IgM antibodies at the same time for the 220 pregnant women were 85.90 % , 4.55 % and 1.82% respectively. The study revealed that the highest rate of seropositivity was in the age group 24-29 years, while the lowest rate was in older age group ≥36 years. Also the study revealed that the rate of seropositivity of rubella-IgG was higher (65.6%) among women who lives in urban areas while the highest seropositivity for rubella-IgM and both IgM and IgG at the same time were among women who lives in rural areas with significant relation P> 0.05 . Regarding the relation of rubella antibodies among pregnant women with the number of children, highest rates for rubella-IgM and both IgM and IgG at the same time were recorded among pregnant women with no children than who had one child or more while for rubella IgG the highest rate was among pregnant women with two children with significant relation P> 0.05. The study revealed that the pregnant women in the second trimester had highest rate of seropositivity for anti- rubella IgG, while the highest rates for anti- rubella IgM an both IgM and IgG at the same time was recorded among pregnant women in the first trimester of pregnancy. In relation to the history of abortion and the seropositivity of rubella antibodies were the (61.58 %) of pregnant women had history of abortion with significant relation P> 0.05, however the abortional frequency were had no more deferent recorded among pregnant women with history of one abortion or more with non-significant relation P>0.05.

Keywords

Rubella --- pregnant women --- ELISA


Article
Mutation Profile of Exon 14 and Exon 21 of ATP7B Gene in Patients with Wilson Disease

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Abstract

Wilson disease (WD) is an autosomal recessive disorder in ATP7B gene which encodes a copper-transporting ATPase. This protein involves in the transport of copper into the plasma protein ceruloplasmin and in excretion of copper from the liver. Large numbers of mutations in ATP7B gene were found to have a role in the pathogenesis of WD. The variation in the clinical and biochemical features of the disease renders the diagnosis difficult task. This study aimed to determine the mutations in exon14 and 21 of ATP7B gene in Iraqi patients with WD to be used for molecular diagnosis.A total of 35 patients with WD and other 10 apparently healthy individuals were recruited for this study. Blood sample was obtained from each subject from which DNA was extracted and exon 14 and 21 were amplified with amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) and conventional polymerase chain reaction using specific primers. Direct sequencing was used to find out the mutations in these exons.Five novel mutations and one single nucleotide polymorphism (homozygous or heterozygous) were recorded, among which 3 silent (c.3133C>T, c.4194T>C and c.4302G>A), 1 missense (c.3181G>C) and 2 splice site mutations (IVS21+40delA and IVS21+23G>A). The heterozygous mutation c.3133C>T was the most prevalent one among WD patients (40%). For diagnostic purpose, these results strongly suggested the heterozygous mutation c.3133C>T could be exploited in combination with the other high prevalent mutations.

Keywords

Exon 14 --- Exon 21 --- ATP7B gene --- Wilson Disease


Article
Immunohistochemical Expression of P53 in Benign Pleomorphic Adenomas of Salivary Glands: A clinicopathological Study

Authors: Layla Horamy Fatah --- Ameera Kamal Khaleel
Pages: 642-652
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Abstract

Pleomorphic adenoma (PA) is the most common benign neoplasm of the salivary gland and shows remarkable morphological diversity. It, malignant transformation is not very rare. Mutation in the tumor suppressor gene (p53) may lead to the progression of this tumor. The purpose of this study was to analyze the immunohistochemical expression of p53 in salivary glands PAs in relation to sex, age, primary anatomical site, the duration, size and histopathological subtype of the tumor. The materials used in this study consist of (45) paraffin-embedded salivary gland biopsy specimens of benign pleomorphic adenoma of salivary gland. The p53 immunoreactivity was semi-quantitatively evaluated in 1000 cells examined under the microscope at x40 magnification and recorded as percentage of p53 positive tumor cells over the total number of cells examined in the area. PAs showed negative expression of p53 in 60% of cases. The p53 labeling index was ranging between 6% to 70%. Statistical analysis showed no significant relation of the mean labeling indices with the sex, age, duration of the tumor, size, and histopathological subtype (p>0.05), but it showed significant relation with the gland site (p<0.05).


Article
A Comparative Study Of Immunohistochemical Expression Of MMP-9 and Its Inhibitor TIMP-1 In Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma and Polymorphous Low Grade Adenocarcinoma Of The Salivary Glands

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The Aims of current study were to assess the immunohistochemical expression of TIMP-1 and MMP-9 in the salivary glands adenoid cystic carcinoma and polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma and immunoexpression matching of these proteins with the outcomes of clinicopathology. Twenty five blocks of salivary polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma and another twenty five of salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma attained from the oral pathology department archives of College of Dentistry in Baghdad University and the hospital of Al-Shaheed Ghazi were retrospectively involved in our study which are inserted in archival formalin fixed paraffin. We gained and immunostained sections of four micrometer using monoclonal antibody against MMP-9 and TIMP-1. The detection of immunoexpression was by the existence of stain which are brown in color seen in the cytoplasm of cells of tumor. The quantity of cells that expressed the stain was related with the clinicopathological documents of the patients. MMP-9 expression was found positive in 21cases of PLGA and 22 cases of ACC restricted in tumor cells. TIMP-1 expression was found positive in 20 cases of PLGA and 19 cases of ACC limited in tumor cells. The relation was seen non-significant [P=0.357] in concerning MMP-9 appearance in both types of tumor and [P=0.937] was seen about TIMP-1 expression in two types of tumor. The relation was seen non -significant in examples of gender [ p= 0.117], sites [p= 0.991] and stage [ p= 0.853] of PLGA and ACC was seen concerning MMP-9 and TIMP-1. Non-Significant relation was seen with grade [p= 0.951] of ACC was detected regarding TIMP-1 and MMP-9. An anxious equilibrium was seen between TIMP-1 and MMP-9 in malignant salivary gland neoplasm. Imbalanced of MMP-9/TIMP-1 expressions might offer the tumor cells a double growth benefit because uninhibited TIMP-1; deposition of ECM is joint with increase MMP-9; degradation of ECM. A multistep process created due to this communication which is capable to excite and possibly will show a portion in the genesis of salivary gland tumor; may chain forces to normalize invasive events related to these neoplasms.


Article
The Use of Power Doppler Ultrasound in the Differentiation Of Benign From Malignant Thyroid Nodules in Duhok – Kurdistan Of Iraq

Authors: Maysaloon Shaman Saeed
Pages: 664 -669
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Abstract

In the last decade, nodular diseases of the thyroid gland has become an important subject for most of the surgeons and clinicians, trying to reach a proper early detection yielding a preferable outcomes, the study done to evaluate the diagnostic performance of Power Doppler sonography in detecting the nature of thyroid nodules, correlated with fine needle aspiration (FNA) results, helping in the differentiation of their benign from malignant behavior, a total of 200 patients with thyroid nodular disease, age ranging (18 – 69) years, (176 females, 34 males) referred to the radiological department in Azadi teaching hospital, examined by grey scale, color and power Doppler ultrasound; correlation with FNA was done to all nodules, Doppler Ultarsonography is helpful in comparison with FNA results; in the diagnosis of the nature of thyroid nodules, peripheral Doppler vascular arrangements seen more in the benign nodules while central distribution was seen more in the malignant ones.

Keywords

Thyroid --- Nodule --- Doppler --- Power --- Vascularity --- Ultrasound


Article
Protective Role Of Honey on The Dorsal Surface of The Tongue of Methotrexate Treated Rats (Histological and Immunohistochemical Study)

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The most common side effect of chemotherapy is oral mucositis and the effective treatment is considered important in cancer patient. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of honey as a treatment for dorsaltongue mucositis caused by the methotrexate. Forty Albino rats were usedin the present study and grouped randomly into control and study groups(20 animals each). The rats in the control group were divided randomly into two groups: 10 animals were treated by distilled water and 10 animals were treated by (2.5gm/kg) honey two times daily for eight days using gavage needle, and a physiological salinewas intraperitoneally injected at day four for all the animals. In the study group, they were intraperitoneally injectedby60 mg/kg of methotrexate at day four and the animals were treated in the same way like control group. At day eight, all the animals were sacrificed;and a cross section fromthe tongue was removed for histopathological and immunohistochemical (Ki-67 and Bcl-2 immunolabeling) analysis. Honey can partially protect the tongue from methotrexate induced cytotoxicity, and attenuate the associated injury. Ki-67 immune expression was non significantly increased (p>0.05), but Bcl-2 immune expression was significantly increased in (p<0.05) in comparison with methotrexate treated group. Honeycan produce protection against methotrexate induced dorsal tongue mucositis.Flavonoids and phenolic compounds in honey can accelerate the healing process by its anti-oxidant and free radical scavenging properties.

Keywords

Honey --- Mucositis --- Chemotherapy --- ki-67 --- Bcl-2


Article
Anatomical Study of Mental Foramen Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography in Selected Adult Dentate Kurdistan Patients

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Mental foramen is a very important anatomical landmark in dentistry and knowledge about mental foramen is very important because it transfers the mental nerve and vessels. The aim of thisresearch was to study the morphology and morphometry of the mental foramen using cone beam computed tomography in dentate adult Kurdistan patients. Thirty nine cone beam computed tomography were studied to analyze the shape, position, distance, and diameter of mental foramen. It was found that the most common variation of mental foramen was oval shape, and situated in line between 1st and 2nd premolar, and apical to the apex of associated tooth,and these variations showeda nonsignificant differences with the gender and age. The mean distances from mental foramen to the alveolar crest in the right and left side was 13.37±2.41 and13.60±1.96 mm respectively, and the mean distances from mental foramen to the inferior mandibular borderin the right and left side was10.98±1.97 and10.82±1.95mm respectively. Statistical analysis showed no significant differences regarding the gender and side, but significant difference present regarding age group. The mesio-lateralmean distance in the right and left side was 3.87±0.85and 3.68 ±0.78 mm respectively. But the superior-inferior distance in the right and left side was 3.17 ±0.85 and3.25 ±1.00 mm respectively. Statistical analysis showed no significant relation present with the gender, age group, and side.Knowing the exact location of the mental foramens and its variations is very important andcan help toplan surgical procedures properly.


Article
Preliminary over-Head Traction Followed by Closed Reduction Versus Closed Reduction without Preliminary over-Head Traction; A Comparative Study Discussing The Treatment of Developmental Dysplasia of The Hip (DDH) From The Age of 6 To 24 Months

Authors: Adnan Esa Alkilaby --- Mohammed Jaafer Alwash
Pages: 691 -700
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There is a controversy whether to use preliminary over-head traction or not prior closed reduction in infants treated for DDH. The aim of this study was to compare the results of treatment of 2 groups of patients; the first group was treated by closed reduction preceded by overhead traction for 2 weeks, while the second group was treated by closed reduction without preliminary traction. This prospective study reviewed the clinical and radiological outcome of 84 hips in 67 patients having DDH treated in Al-Sader Teaching Hospital between March 2005 & January 2014. The mean age at the time of the operation was 14 months. The female to male ratio in our study was 8.5: 1.5. The mean period of follow up was 58 months. The rate of satisfactory results in the first group was 89.5% which is higher than that of the second group in which the rate of satisfactory results was 80.4%. This study revealed that overhead traction followed by closed reduction give better results and low rate of complications and this justified in patients with DDH aging 6-24 months old.


Article
The Role of PTEN Gene Deletion In Prostate Cancer In Relation To Proliferative Capability of Malignant Cells

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PTEN gene is a tumor suppressor gene located in 10q23,3 that encode dual- specificity protein and lipid phospatase with tensinhomologe. The PTEN protein signals adjust cell splitting up and express cells to enter normal cell death way. defeat of PTEN leads to over –foundation of AKt, which in circle , is related with unrestrained cell production. In this cross section study, we examined 50 paraffin-embedded blocks belongs to 50 patients with proved prostate cancer, All slides subjected to IHC KI67 Ab ( which is a parameter of proliferative activity of malignant cells), and to 1 molecular study of PTEN gene in all tissues by using CISH technique. The association between PTEN gene status examined by CISH technique with KI67 score performed by IHC technique , is highly significant, in that we get 71.43% (25/35) of no deletion cases had KI67 score ≤10% of cells, while in cases with PTEN gene deletion , we had 73.33% (11/15) of cases carry KI67 score >10% of cells.


Article
Ki 67 Expression in Various Diseases of Gallbladder

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Cell proliferation is an important prerequisite for the development of a neoplasm. Ki-67 is one of the most important cell proliferation markers. Its expression is correlated with the aggression of various histopathologic changes in the epithelium of gallbladder. This study aims to assess the expression of Ki-67 in various pathological processes that affects the epithelium of gallbladder. Gallbladders from 146 patients were studied histopathologically. Then sections from the paraffin embedded tissues were evaluated for the expression of Ki-67 by using immunohistochemical method. The results of Ki-67 labeling index were estimated for each pathologic category and were analyzed for their significance using Mann-Whitney test. The mean value of Ki-67 LI in the epithelium of normal gallbladder was (0.7%), in acute cholecystitis (1.14%), epithelial hyperplasia (8.38%), metaplasia (21.18%), dysplasia (38%) and (70.6%) in the carcinoma group. There was no statistically significant difference with regard to ki-67 between the epithelium of normal GB and those with acute inflammation (p= 0.904) and the difference was highly significant when the normal gallbladder epithelium was compared with carcinoma group. There was statistically highly significant difference when the comparison was performed between normal epithelium and metaplasia group (p< 0.001) and the group of dysplasia (p= 0.001). From the present study a conclusion can be made is that Ki-67 expression increases in chronic inflammation and further increment occurs in premalignant and malignant lesions of the gall bladder epithelium and can be used as a marker of aggression of histopatholgic lesions.


Article
Efficacy and Safety of Rituximab in Pediatric Chronic Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura in Duhok/Kurdistan

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Chronic or refractory Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is a difficult-to-manage condition enfaced by pediatricians. Known ways of treatment like long term use of steroids and immunosuppressant show poor response and multiple side effects. Splenectomy may be used as a modality. Many studies have been done about effectiveness of rituximab in chronic ITP before splenectomy and its safety.This study was performed to assess the efficacy and safety of rituximab for childhood chronic ITP as a step of treatment prior to splenectomy. A prospective cohort study included 12 patients with chronic ITP in Duhok city. These patients were aged 2 -18 years and had platelet counts < 20 × 10(9)/L; for more than 1 yearand showed recurrent bleeding from mucous membrane and were treated in different ways with no response. Rituximab was given to them and they were followed up for more than 1 year. Eight patients (66.7 %) attained platelet count of more than 50× 109/L with no signs of bleeding tendency, of them five patients (41.6 %) had complete response (platelet count was >100×109/l) , three patients( 25%) had partial response (platelet count was <50×109/l). Four patients (33.3%) had no response (the platelet count remained low with no raising). No serious side effects were recorded during treatment and follow up.


Article
Lidocaine Spray to Prevent Laryngospasm in Air Ways Surgeries

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Laryngospasm is life threatening event that complicate airway surgeries requiring especial attention to prevent. To evaluate the advantage of pre intubation lidocaine spray to the laryngeal mucosa to prevent extubation laryngospasm. 80 patients of both sexes below 9 years old admitted for adenoidectomy or rigid bronchoscope foreign body removal included in this study. All patients were from risk groups to develop laryngospasm.At induction stage, before intubation and bronchoscope introduction 10%lidocain sprayed to the laryngeal mucosa . The incidence of laryngospasmis noticed after removal of endotracheal tube and bronchoscope. All patients included in this study for both types of surgical procedures not develop any type of laryngospasm whether partial or complete after extubation Lidocaine spray can prevent laryngospasm in risk patients.

Keywords

Lidocaine --- spray --- laryngospasm --- foreign body


Article
Diagnosis of Early Diabeticby The Uses of Salivary Amylase as a Detector in Al Suleimania Provinceat Shaheed Shawkat Hospital

Authors: Raida Noori Hamid
Pages: 731 -733
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Diabetes mellitus is one disease which can cause death . The objective from this work is the use of salivary amylase as the detector for the presence of diabetes. In Al Suleimania at Shaheed Shawkat hospital this small pilot study was made comparison for the amount of salivary amylase by taking saliva sample from 30 diabetic patients and 30 no diabetic as control and measure the amount of amylase to compare the results between them. We find Significant increase of salivary amylase in diabetic group in comparison with control group. This study represented a continuation for another research which use saliva in the diagnosis of diabetic rather than the uses of blood or urine. I suggest to consider these results as a base for further wide researches for samples from different cities in Iraq.

Table of content: volume:13 issue:3