Table of content

Journal of Petroleum Research & Studies

مجلة البحوث والدراسات النفطية

ISSN: 22205381
Publisher: Ministry of Oil
Faculty:
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The first issue of "Journal of petroleum Research and studies" was in August 2010.
How to publish .
After getting the demanded approval from the assessors on the Research , the Research will be ready to publish in the journal .
The journal is publishing annually.

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Contact info

prdc_journal@prdc.gov.iq

Table of content: 2014 volume:377 issue:10th

Article
A Study of the Dynamics and Control of the Model IV Fluidized Catalytic Cracking Process

Authors: Dhia Yasser Aqar
Pages: 1-26
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Abstract

Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) is one of the most important chemical units in oil refineries due to its economic benefits. This research work concentrates on improving the control system of the Model IV FCC unit where dynamic modeling and the control ability based on the (McFarlane et al., 1993) model. Different open-loop tests were carried out in the wash oil flow rate (F1) and the furnace fuel flow rate (F5) to find the FCC models using Sundaresan and Krishnaswamy (S&K) and fraction incomplete response (FIR) methods. The riser temperature (Tr) and the regenerator bed temperature (Tg) were chosen as the control variables while (F1 and F5) were selected as the corresponding manipulated variables based on the relative gain array (RGA). PI controller tuning parameters were evaluated using the internal model control (IMC) method and different closed-loop control responses were examined for both set point tracking and disturbance rejection changes. Additional adjustments to the IMC filter constant were employed to further improve the closed loop responses for the system.

Keywords

FOPTD --- FCCU --- IMC --- RGA --- Multivariable --- Decoupling


Article
استثمار الحقول النفطية وأثرها في البيئة الزراعية في محافظة البصرة

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ان استثمار حقول النفط والغاز لها اهميتها الأقتصادية للدولة ، وتساهم في رفع المستوى المعاشي للسكان ، ألآ انها في الوقت نفسه تترك اثارسلبية على مدخلات الزراعة بصورة خاصة ، وتتسبب في ظهور تأثيرات بيئية وصحية واجتماعية واقتصادية بصورة عامة . ويمكن القول ان النفط اساس الطاقة وفي نفس الوقت فان الزراعة اساس تحقيق الأمن الغذائي وان المفهوم ألأساسي للتنمية المستدامة يقوم على علاقة الترابط بين الحصول على المياه والغذاء والطاقة . وان ألأرض هي القاعدة ألأساسية التي يقوم عليها الأنتاج الزراعي وان اي خلل في تللك القاعدة يؤثر على خصائص الترب الزراعية والمياه وعناصر البيئة الحيوية بصورة عامة ، حيث ان ممارسة النشاط التعديني من قبل الأنسان يساهم في تخريب سطح ألأرض ، و يعد النفط من الثروات المعدنية المهمة في محافظة البصرة ، وفي نفس الوقت هو من أهمّ الملوثات البيئية سواءً في البرّ أو البحر ، ويصحب عمليات استخراجه أو نقله أو تصنيعه مخاطر تلوّث ، فهي تساهم في تخريب سطح ألأرض و تؤدي إلى انبعاث العديد من الغازات السامة التي تلوث الهواء و تؤثر سلبياً على الإنسان والبيئة ، وتتأثر البحار وألأنهار من خلال التسرب النفطي من ناقلات النفط فتؤثر على الأحياء المائية ونوعية المياه ، وبالتالي يؤثر سلبآ على النواحي السياحية والترفيهية ، لذا يجب دراسة تقييم الأثر البيئي لمشاريع تنقيب (استكشاف واستخراج) وتصنيع وتخزين ونقل وبيع وتجميع البترول وكل مشتقاته مثل (البنزين والديزل والزيوت والشحوم على سبيل المثال وليس الحصر) بما فيها المنشآت والمعدات ذات العلاقة.

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Article
العمليات التحويرية وتأثيرها على الخواص البتروفيزيائية للصخور الخازنة في المكامن النفطية لعصر الطباشيري الاسفل في حقل كركوك ، شمال العراق

Authors: مسلم عقيل احمد
Pages: 21-50
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Abstract

يضم العصر الطباشيري الاسفل في حقل كركوك اهم المكامن الطباشيرية والتي تتمثل بثلاث تكاوين هي من الاحدث الى الاقدم قمجوقة العليا وقمجوقة السفلى وكراكو والتي تماثل صخارياً وعمرياً تكاوين مودود وشعيبة ويمامة على التوالي في وسط وجنوب العراق . لقد تعرضت صخور المكامن الطباشيرية الى سلسلة من العمليات التحويرية التي تم تشخيصها ودراستها عمودياً وافقياً من خلال وصف اللباب الصخري ودراسة الشرائح الصخرية لمقاطع اربعة عشر بئراً اخترقت مقطع العصر الطباشيري الاسفل وتوزعت على طول الحقل الذي يمتد 100 كم وتم تقسيمه الى خمس مناطق هي من الجنوب الشرقي باتجاه الشمال الغربي مناطق غاطس تارجيل وشوراو وبابا – هنجيره تليها قبة آفانه ثم قبة خرمالة . لقد كان لقسم من هذه العمليات اثرها البالغ والمؤثر على تغير الصفات الصخارية والمسامية الاصلية لسحنات التكاوين الثلاث التي تم تقسيمها الى عدد من الوحدات الصخرية هي من الاعلى نحو الاسفل UQ4,UQ3,UQ2,UQ1 ضمن تكوين قمجوقة العليا وLQ5,LQ4,LQ3,LQ2, LQ1 في قمجوقة السفلى . اما تكوين كراكو فيضم وحدتين هما GA2,GA1 شملت دراسة العمليات التحويرية تقسيمها الى اربعة اصناف من ناحية درجة شدتها :- • عمليات تحويرية بالغة الشدة وتتمثل بعملية الدلمته الشديدة فقط وتظهر في الوحدتين UQ2 و UQ1 على طول الحقل وفي الجزء العلوي من الوحدة LQ3 في منطقتي تارجيل وشوراو . • عمليات تحويرية شديدة وتشمل عملية الدلمته في الوحدة UQ1 في منطقتي تارجيل وشوراو والوحدة UQ4 على طول الحقل باستثناء منطقة بابا وكذلك الجزء الاسفل من الوحدة LQ3 , كما تظهر في الوحدة GA2 من تكوين كراكو . تضم هذه عمليات اخرى والتي تكون بشكل محدود منها عملية التعكر الاحيائي(Bioturbidity ) في اسفل الوحدة UQ1 في قبة خرمالة وعملية احلال الانهايدرايت محل الكاربونات في الجزء الاسفل من الوحدتين UQ1 و UQ2 في قبة خرمالة وعمليتي الاذابة والسمنته Dissolving &cementation في الوحدة UQ1 في قبة افانة وكذلك عملية المكرته لاصداف المتحجرات والحبيبات في الوحدة GA1 والوحدة UQ1 في منطقة شوراو ، اضافة الى عملية اعادة التبلور التي تظهر شديدة في الوحدة UQ4 في منطقة شوراو وفي الوحدتين GA1و GA2 في منطقتي شوراو افانه على التوالي . فضلاً عن عملية الانضغاط الكيميائي التي ادت الى تكوين خطوط الاذابة Stylolites في الوحدتين UQ3 و LQ1 في منطقة شوراو . • في الوحدتين UQ3 و LQ1 في منطقة شوراو . • عمليات تحويرية معتدلة الشدة وتمثل عملية اعادة التبلور (Recrystalization )وهي الاكثر شيوعاً ضمن هذه المجموعة وتظهر في جميع الوحدات الصخرية ولكافة مناطق الحقل تليها عملية الدلمته (Dolomitization ) في الوحدات LQ4,LQ2,UQ2 والجزء الاسفل من الوحـدة GA1 ومــــن ثــم عمليات احــلال السليكا محل الارضيـــه والحبيبات والتي اغلبــها مـــن مستحثة الـ OrbituLina في الوحدتين LQ3,UQ1 في قبتي بابا وخرمالة . ويضاف الى ذلك عملية الاذابة في الوحدات UQ4,UQ2,UQ1 في منطقتي شوراو وافانه. كما تشمل هذه المجموعة عمليتي الانضغاط الكيمائي والفيزيائي في الوحدات LQ5,LQ1,UQ1 . • عمليات تحويرية ضعيفة الى ضعيفة جداً وتشمل عمليات التعكر الاحيائي وتكون معدن البايرات Pyriteاضافة الى عمليات الاذابة والتسميت الضعيفة في وحدات GA2,GA1,LQ3,LQ1 . ان معظم المساميه المتواجدة في صخور العصر الطباشيري هي مسامية ثانوية ناجمة اضافة عن تكون التشققات عن عمليتي الدلمته والاذابة . تضمنت عملية احلال الدولومايت نوعين ، الاولى مكونة من دلمته ذات مرحلة واحدة Single Staged والتي شملت السحنات المكونه من الحجر الحبيبي البيوليدي البليوليدي (Pelolitic ) والدملقي (Oolitic)في بعض وحدات تكويني قمجوعة العليا وقمجوقة السفلى اضافة الى سحنات الاحجار الدولوماتيه الطينية كما في تكوين كراكو . الدلمته الثانية هي المتعددة المراحل Multistaged والتي تشمل ثلاث مراحل ، ينجم عن المرحلة الاولى معينات متفرقة في كل من الحبيبات والارضية وتعمل على زيادة المساميه بدرجة ضعيفة . اما المرحلة الثانية فتتمثل بزيادة عدد معينات الدولومايت وتلاصقها لتشمل معظم الارضية والحبيبات وتعطي نسيجاً مــن نوع Unimodal- planar-e ونتيجة الاذابة لما تبقى من الارضية والحبيبات غير المتدلمته ينتج افضل السحنات المسامية كما في الوحدة UQ1 . اما المرحلة الثالثة والتي تتمثل بنمو معينات الدولومايت وتداخلها مع بعضها البعض وينتج عنها نسيج من نوع Polymodal – Planar-s وتعمل على تقليل المسامية وتظهر في بعض سحنات الوحدة UQ1 وتبلغ هذه المرحلة ذروتها في الوحدتين UQ2,LQ3 .

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Article
Synthesis of Biopolymers by Condensed Histidine Imide Derivatives with Some Acid Anhydride and Their Crosslink with Acrylonitrite

Authors: Firyal M. A --- Mayada H --- Assel K. M
Pages: 27-41
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Abstract

Histidine as known amino acid was converted to its acid chloride [C1] with thionyl chloride at 0 oC, then reacted with ammonia, the corresponding imide-diamine [C2] was obtained, and then condensed with maleic or methylnadic anhydride. The two novel condensed polymers [C3, C4] were obtained with highly conversion percentage and modified to crosslinked polymers [C5, C6] with acrylonitrile monomer through vinylic group by free radical polymerization. The physical properties of all prepared polymers were studied and characterized by 1H-NMR, FT-IR and UV-visible spectroscopy. The swelling % was calculated. The new Polymers [C3, C4], were synthesized by direct polycondensation to give the new bioactive polymers. The rate of hydrolysis of the prepared polymers was studied in different pH values at 37 oC. Howeve, the crosslinked biopolymers [C5, C6] indicated much more chemical resistance than [C3, C4], and the sustained release was observed as good results in basic medium.

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Article
Preparation of Poly (N-4-Antipyrinyl or Procainyl Methyl Nadamic Acids) as Drug Polymers

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Abstract

Two new monomers of N-4-antipyrinyl methyl nadamic acid M1 and N-Procaienyl methyl nadamic acid M2 were synthesized from reaction of 4-Aminoantipyrine or procaine with methyl nadic anhydride at room temperature with dioxane as a solvent. The prepared monomers M1 and M2 were polymerized free radically with AIBN as initiator to corresponding polyamic acids P1 and P2, which were converted to their sodium salt polymers P3 and P4 to enhanced their solubility's in water. The physical and chemical properties were studied for monomers and polymers, also FT-IR, 1H-NMR and UV. Spectroscopy was characterized of M1or M2. The intrinsic viscosity was measured by Ostwald viscometer at 30 0C .The swelling % was measured and the controlled release rates of drug polymers were studied in different pH values at 37 0C.


Article
Undersaturated Oil Compressibility Prediction for Mishrif Reservoir in the Southern Iraqi Oil Fields Using Artificial Neural Network

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Coefficient of isothermal oil compressibility is required in transient fluid flow problems, extension of fluid properties from values at the bubble point pressure to higher pressures of interest and in material balance calculations [1, 2]. Coefficient of isothermal oil compressibility is a measure of the fractional change in volume as pressure is changed at constant temperature [3]. Coefficients of isothermal oil compressibility are usually obtained from reservoir fluid analysis. Reservoir fluid analysis is an expensive and time consuming operation that is not always available when the volumetric properties of reservoir fluids are needed. For this reason correlations have been developed and are being developed for predicting fluid properties including the coefficient of isothermal oil compressibility. This paper presents an application of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) methods for estimation of isothermal oil compressibility for the Mishrif reservoir oils among of commonly available field data, according to the fact that this method is useful when relationships of parameters are too complicated. The method is proposed as a more effective prognostic tool than are currently available procedures. In this study, back propagation (BPN) network was used to develop an ANN model to predict isothermal oil compressibility. A three layer feed-forward network has been selected which has the best correlation coefficient in testing the models. The new model of undersaturated oil compressibility in which the first layer consists of five neurons representing the input values of pressure above bubble point, solution gas oil ratio at bubble point, oil gravity API, reservoir temperature and gas specific gravity. The second (hidden) layer contains 12 neurons, and the third layer contains one neuron representing the output values of undersaturated oil compressibility. It was found that the new model estimate undersaturated oil compressibility for Mishrif reservoir crudes in the southern Iraqi oil fields much better than the published ones. The present model predicts undersaturated oil compressibility with an average absolute relative error of 3.86% for the testing data set.

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Article
Study the Effect of Alkaline and Surfactants on Improving Iraqi Crude Oil Recovery

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This research aims to study the effect of using alkaline (caustic) and surfactant materials to imp rove the recovery of Iraqi crude oil under laboratory conditions. Flooding tests were carried out by using solutions of two alkalines (NaOH, Na2CO3) and two anionic surfactants materials were prepared at three concentrations ( 0.5%, 1%, 2 % ) using sand packs with ( 8.5 cm ) length and ( 6.5 cm ) diameter, which is saturated with tap water and then saturated with Basrah crude oil of 40 APIo density and 39.5 cp viscosity. The results were compared with the results of flooding tests by tap water and 2wt% brine water. In tests that tap water and 2wt% brine water were used as a primary recovery a secondary recovery had been tested by using materials that gave highest recovery, the results showed an increase in the recovery and the highest value was 50% by using 0.5% surfactant no.2. The research showed different effects of these solutions. In general, alkalines type showed an increase in recovery factor vs. concentration, but surfactant type showed decrease in the recovery factor vs. concentration. Also, the results showed that the recovery by using surfactant no.2 were the best respective to other materials, and the highest recovery obtained was 90.9 at 0.5%. يهدف البحث إلى دراسة تأثير استخدام القلويات والمواد فعالة السطح ( مخفضات التوتر السطحي ) على تحسين استخلاص النفط الخام العراقي تحت ظروف مختبرية. أجريت تجارب الإزاحة (الإفاضة) باستخدام محاليل نوعين من المواد القلوية ونوعين من المواد فعالة السطح وبثلاثة تراكيز من كل نوع (0,5 % ، 1% ، 2% ) وباستخدام عمود مسامي رملي بطول (8,5 سم) وقطر (6,5 سم) مشبع بالماء العادي ثم شبع بنفط خام البصرة ذو كثافة (40 APIo) ولزوجة ديناميكية بحدود (39,6 سنتي بواز) ومقارنة نتائجها مع نتائج استخدام الماء العادي و2% ماء مالح . التجارب التي استخدم فيها الماء العادي و2% ماء مالح للإزاحة الأولية تم إجراء إزاحة ثانوية عليها باستخدام المواد الكيمياوية بالتراكيز التي أعطت أعلى قيم لمعامل الاستخلاص وأظهرت النتائج زيادة في معامل الاستخلاص الثانوي، وكانت أعلى قيمة لمعامل الاستخلاص 50% باستخدام 0,5% مادة فعالة السطح 2 . أظهرت نتائج البحث تأثيرات مختلفة لتلك المحاليل على معامل الاستخلاص و بصورة عامة أظهرت المواد القلوية زيادة في معامل الاستخلاص مع زيادة التركيز بينما المواد الفعالة السطح أظهرت انخفاض في هذه القيم بزيادة التركيز. وكذلك أظهرت النتائج إن أعلى قيمة لمعامل الاستخلاص كانت 90,9 باستخدام المادة فعالة السطح 2 وبتركيز 0,5% .


Article
Adoption the basis of spatial analysis and geographic information systems (GIS) techniques to development oil industry projects

Authors: Fanir Farooq Omar Naji
Pages: 92-109
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Abstract

It is recognized today that human lives the information age, which is characterized by the multiplicity of its data and the complexity of its aspects and the most important thing is characterized by "information" that will determine the progress of the people, the more able countries to devise ways to protect the information and how to make the best use of them whenever it is an indication of its progress and its ability to face obstacles to development and the information sources are diverse and interrelated up to the level of complexity that they can be analyzed and dealt with the existence of developed computer systems, that stored and processed the information .And because maps are also considered sources of information which use in management and project planning, and being an important means of connecting ideas and planning them so it necessitated the need for the emergence of advanced systems have the ability to draw and design schemes and production of digital maps. With possibility of linking information (metadata) with the real location on the Earth's surface, called the (spatial data). The emergence of these systems are scientific leap on the in geographic science especially spatial data that has accumulated over the centuries and resulted in a huge amount of data and information. These systems added a lot in the field of building spatial database which can updating and help in treating maps accurately and effectively combines the advantages of the two systems (information systems and systems of digital maps), which was named "GIS" systems which electronic digital competent to enter, store and retrieve, analyze data . And connect them with large areas of maps that can not be saved on security on the paper. The data is saved with maps in a coherent manner so as to facilitate the user to display the data with maps and several methods as well as a calculation processing to extract the results and reports in a few time and effort and use them in decision-making which helps to speed the study and analysis the information and support decision-makers in a number of important decisions concerning projects which requires accuracy and speed.

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Article
Interpretation of Drill Stem Test

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The behavior of pressure derivative analysis and pressure build-up analysis expressed and discussed in this paper. Data from the drill-stem test report for field example through closing the vertical well (Build-up period) analyzed using the ECRIN KAPPA software. Build-up analysis used to estimate characterizations of reservoir: permeability, initial pressure and skin factor. Pressure derivative analysis used to know the type of flow regime, reservoir boundaries, wellbore storage and other parameters. IPR compared with the Vogel method by calculating the constants (0.084755, 1.4428*10-3, and -8.5207*10-7) to replace Vogel's equation constants (1.8, 0.2 and 0.8). Abnormal point is located in a single phase region. Its pressure is greater than that of the next point but its production rate is lower than that of the next point. Productivity index calculated depending on the last production rate. Good results are obtained of determination formation properties by using drill-stem test data instead of production test data. Formation damage is recognized from buildup analysis and constant wellbore storage, unit slope and radial flow regime are recognized from pressure derivative analysis.

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Article
Usage of Iraqi Surfactant Modified Zeolite for Treatment of Water Produced from Oil Production Processes

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This study aimed to remove the oil from the produced water imported from Pai- Hassan field using akashat Iraqi natural zeolite after organic modification with cationic surfactant Hexadecyl Trimethyl Ammonium Bromide (HDTMA) solutions as a numerical complication of critical micelles concentration (CMC) of HDTMA (1CMC, 3CMC, .to 13CMC) solutions. Measuring the Electrical Conductivity (EC) of supernatant, and FT-IR, XRD characterization of solid modified Na/HDTMA zeolite indicates that the optimum HDTMA concentration for zeolite modification is (11 CMC) at 65 C°, and the optimum zeolite weight at constant volume (30 ml) of surfactant solution is 2 g zeolite. Also the removal % of oil from produced water at optimum conditions is 91%.


Article
Emulsion Breaking of Used Cutting Fluid by Electrocoagulation Method to Decrease Water Pollution

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Cutting fluids are liquids having different compositions that are used in metal possessing operations. After being used, the fluids became less effective and need to be changed. In this research the treatment of petroleum oil emulsion type cutting fluid has been carried out using electrocoagulation technology to decrease its environmental impact on water resources. Cutting oil type 7201 produced in (Al-daura) refinery has been treated at different concentrations (1, 2, 3 and 4%) by weight to study the effect of the cutting fluid concentration on the time needed for emulsion breaking. The effect of other parameters such as electrical voltage (by using 40, 50 and 60 volt), aluminum metal electrodes' surface area (by using 4 and 6 cm²) and the effect of added NaCl salt concentrations (by using 0.2, 0.27 and 0.33% by weight) on the emulsion breaking time has been studied. It has been found that there is an optimum voltage for each emulsion concentration and the emulsion breaking time increase with the increase of the cutting fluid concentration and it decrease with the increase of the electrode surface area and the salt concentration. سوائل القطع هي عبارة عن سوائل ذات تراكيب وتراكيز مختلفة وتستعمل في عمليات تشكيل المعادن لتقليل الاحتكاك والتبريد وبعد مرور فترة زمنية معينة على الاستعمال تصبح هذه السوائل اقل كفاءة وتحتاج الى عملية استبدال. في هذا البحث تم معالجة سوائل القطع التالفة من نوع مستحلبات الزيوت النفطية باستعمال تقنية التخثير الكهربائي لتقليل تاثيرها السيء على البيئة المائية وقد تم استعمال المستحلبات الناتجة من زيت القطع 7201 المنتج في مصافي الدورة وبتراكيز وزنية مختلفة (%1,2,3,4 ) لدراسة تاثير تركيز المستحلب الزيت النفطي على الزمن المطلوب لكسر الاستحلاب كما تم دراسة عوامل اخرى مثل تغير فرق الجهد المسلط (الفولتية الكهربائية )عند استعمال فرق جهد(40,50,60 ) فولت ودراسة تاثير المساحة السطحية للاقطاب الالمنيوم باستعمال اقطاب بمساحة 4,6cm²) ) وتاثير التركيزالوزني للاملاح المضافة % (0.3,0.27,0.33) على زمن كسر الاستحلاب .لقد وجد ان هناك فرق جهد مسلط معين هو الافضل لكل تركيز من المستحلبات وان زمن كسر الاستحلاب يزداد بزيادة تركيز الزيت النفطي المستحلب ويقل بزيادة كمية الاملاح في المستحلب وزيادة المساحه السطحية.


Article
Integration of NMR, Conventional Logs and Core Data to Improve Formation Evaluation of a Gas Reservoir in Kangan and Dalan Formation, Iran

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Conventional log based reservoir characterization of a gas reservoir in the Kangan and Dalan formations have recently been improved by application of the nuclear magnetic resonance log (NMR). Important reservoir properties such as permeability pore size distribution and capillary pressure curves can be estimated from NMR. These parameters are simulated directly in the laboratory on core samples recovered from the reservoir. Due to high cost associated with coring and some technical problems, few wells in any given field are cored. The only problem of NMR measurements in gas reservoirs is that in gas-bearing zones, total NMR porosity read much less than actual porosity due to low hydrogen index of the gas. This problem was solved by integration of NMR porosity with conventional well logs such as density and sonic and compared with core porosity. Improved porosity calculation lead to better core independent permeability estimation on the wells logged with NMR. NMR T2 distribution was calibrated with laboratory derived pore size distribution in 7 samples and a constant scaling factor was derived for each rock type to predict a pseudo pore size distribution from NMR. Logarithmic mean of pore size distribution in 4 wells with NMR was integrated with conventional logs in an artificial neural network to predict a pseudo pore size distribution logarithmic mean (PPSDLM) in the wells without NMR. PPSDLM and conventional well logs were involved to an electrofacies modeling to predict electrofacies in the reservoir for characterization of heterogeneity of the reservoir in 3D geological model. NMR permeability was also imported to the model as an associated log to predict facies base permeability. To test the permeability prediction, estimated permeability was compared with core derived permeability on 2 cored wells to see how well, estimated permeability fitted the actual core permeability.


Article
Preparation an Optimal Hydrogel of Water Shutoff for Iranian Oil Field

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Abstract

Presenting a suitable hydrogel for water shutoff in Iranian oil field is based on gelation time and gel strength. Rheological behavior of gel was the main purpose of this research. To determine the gelation time, thermal stability and gel strength a plan of bottle tests were conducted by using the central composite design method with two factors. The hydrogels composed of AN125VLM and chromium triacetate as copolymer and crosslinker, respectively were recorded for 8 weeks. Furthermore, the consistency modulus of the gels was measured by amplitude sweep tests using the Paar-Physica universal spectrometer, model MCR501. A hydrogel with 26,339 ppm concentration of copolymer and 0.12 ratio of crosslinker/copolymer and also gelation time of 2 days was selected as the optimal one. Also, it showed the maximum value of consistency modulus of 31,900 Pa among the other samples, tremendously, which showed the highest resistance against external stress. To ensure the gel strength among different effective parameters on the gel in porous media, a plan of rheological experiments were carried out. A 12 Run Plackett-Burman design was used for screening the eight parameters of NaCl, CaCl2, KCl and MgCl2 concentrations, temperature, pH, sodium lactate and nanoclay while keeping the optimal hydrogel component constant. Finally, it was found that temperature was the most effective parameter to control gelation time and also pH had negligible effect on the gelation time of this optimal gel.


Article
Application of Systematic Approach for Fast Oil Production Enhancement-Case Studies

Authors: Mahdi Nadri Pari --- Seyed Mahdia Motahari
Pages: 182-204
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Abstract

Full field studies and master development plans are time consuming and expensive tasks for any company to find optimum improved oil recovery method. Fast oil production enhancement is a method applied over existing assets resulting in fast increase in oil production in less expensive way. This approach consists of five steps as identification of source of production decline problem through evaluation of diagnostic tests, prioritizing different solutions for treating the problem, conceptual integrated modeling of reservoir and wells, production network optimization and economic analysis. In this paper we elaborate and implement these five steps in an Iranian Oil Field with twenty wells. Firstly we found that the production decline is due to poor well cleaning after stimulation and work over operation and also reservoir pressure decline leading to not having sufficient energy to push oil to the surface. Secondly; based on specifications of each well and pre-determined screening criteria; artificial lift methods were prioritized followed thirdly by conceptual modeling of first ranked artificial lift method which was electric submersible pump for first ranked wells. The fourth step was optimization of production network through sequential quadratic programming and lastly probabilistic economic analysis based on different ESP time to failure. The result of this study shows viability of application of ESP in this field in fast way.

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Article
Experimental Investigation on Factors Affecting Oil Recovery Efficiency during Solvent Flooding in Low Viscosity Oil Using Five-Spot Glass Micromodel

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Abstract

Lack of experimental study on the recovery of solvent flooding in low viscosity oil is obvious in previous works. This study concerns the experimental investigation on oil recovery efficiency during solvent/co-solvent flooding in low viscosity oil sample from an Iranian reservoir. Two micromodel patterns with triangular and hexagonal pore structures were designed and used in the experiments. A series of solvent flooding experiments were conducted on the two patterns that were initially saturated with crude oil sample. The oil recovery efficiency as a function injected pore volume was determined from analysis of continuously captured pictures. Condensate and n-hexane were employed as base solvents, and Methyl Ethyl Ketone (MEK) and Ethylene Glycol Mono Butyl Ether (EGMBE) used as co-solvents. The results revealed that not only does the solvent flooding increase the recovery in low viscosity oil but also this increase is evidently higher with respect to viscous oil. But, type of solvent or adding co-solvent to solvent does not noticeably increase the recovery of low viscosity oil. In addition, further experiments showed that presence of connate water or increasing injection rate reduces the recovery whereas increasing permeability improves the recovery. The results of this study are helpful to better understand the application of solvent flooding in low viscosity oil reservoirs.


Article
New Development in Catalytic Reforming Process to Produce High Octane Gasoline

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Abstract

In this work, improved catalytic reforming reaction was carried out through using reaction promoters Sn, in and Ge. Four types of catalysts were prepared: Pt/HY, Pt-Sn/HY, and Pt-Sn-In/HY, and Pt-Sn-Ge/HY. The weight percentage of metals were 0.5 % for Pt and 0.1% for each of Sn, In and Ge. The performances of catalysts (activity, selectivity and catalyst stability) were studied using Iraqi heavy naphtha of Al-Dura refinery (Baghdad) as feedstock. The catalytic reforming unit consisted of a vertical tubular stainless steel reactor of 20mm internal diameter, 30 mm external diameter and 680 mm height. The operating pressure was atmospheric, and the operating temperatures varied between 425 to 525 oC. For all experimental runs: the weight hourly space velocity WHSV =2, the catalyst amount = 50 g, and H2/HC ratio =3. The results showed that the best reforming temperature over all four types of prepared catalysts was 475 oC which gave the highest conversion of heavy naphtha to high octane products (aromatics and branched isomers). It was concluded that the trimetallic catalyst Pt-Sn-In/HY and Pt-Sn-Ge/HY show high selectivity to desired reforming products with 91.5% and 85% respectively. On the other hand, the Pt-Sn/HY and Pt/HY, catalysts show slectivities of 79% and 74% respectively. The results indicated a clear increase in catalyst stability with high resistance to coke formation for catalysts promoted with In and Ge as a third metal. Also, it was noted that the production of aromatics and isomers are increased for both types of trimetallic catalysts Pt-Sn-In/HY, and Pt-Sn-Ge/HY under the same operating conditions. في هذا البحث تم اعداد دراســة لغرض تطوير عملية التهذيب بالعامل المساعد باستخدام مرقيات للعوامل المساعدة المستخدمة في العملية (Sn, In and Ge)، حيث تم تحضير اربعة انواع من العوامل المساعدة المحملة على الزيولايت نوع Y Pt/HY, Pt-Sn/HY, and Pt-Sn-In/HY, and Pt-Sn-Ge/HY بنسب معادن 0.5% للبلاتين و 0.1% لكل من Sn In و Ge. تم دراسة اداء العوامل المساعدة المحضرة باستخدام مـادة النفثـا العراقيـة الثقيـلة (مصفى الدورة) كمادة اولية للعملية. تم الدراسة في منظومة مصنعة من الحديد المقاوم للصدى بأبعاد 20 و30 ملم للقطر الداخلي والخارجي للمفاعل وبطول 680 ملم. الضغط المستخدم كان ضغط جوي واحد ودراسة التفاعل بمدى حرارة تتراوح بين (425-525 م°)، و WHSV=2 و 50 غم من وزن العامل المساعد، ونسبة H2/HC=3. أظهرت النتائج أن أفضل حرارة للعوامل المساعدة المستخدمة كانت 475 م° والتي أعطت أعلى نسبة تحول من النفثا الثقيلة للمركبات العطرية والايزومرات المتفرعة التي تمتلك عدد اوكتاني عالي. أثبتت النتائج ان العوامل المساعدة ثلاثية المعدن نوع Pt-Sn-In/HY, and Pt-Sn-Ge/HY أعطت انتقائية عالية بأتجاة المركبات ذات العدد الاوكتاني، وبنسبة .591% و 85% على التوالي. كما اظهرت العوامل المساعدة نوع Pt/HY و Pt-Sn/HYانتقائية بمقدار 74% و79% على التوالي. ومن جانب اخر اثبتت النتائج ان اضافة المعدن الثالث نوع الجرمانيوم والانيديوم نتج عنة استقرار عالي للعوامل المساعدة مع مقاومة لتكون الكاربون وفقد الفعالية. كما تم ملاحظة زيادة أنتاج المواد عالية العدد الاوكتاني عند استخدام العوامل المساعدة ثلاثية المعدن Pt-Sn-In/HY, and Pt-Sn-Ge/HY عند نفس الظروف التشغيلية.


Article
Surge Pressure Effect on Crude Oil Export Pipelines to Petroleum Ports

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Abstract

Pressure surges in pipelines are created by a change in momentum of the moving stream (e.g. valve closure). The occurrence of pressure surges should be determined by transient pressure analysis .Surge pressures are particularly critical for pipelines transporting liquid fluids, because of the high density and lower compressibility compared to gaseous fluids. Although damping of the pressure wave initiated at the point of blockage occurs as it travels upstream, surge may in some cases result in the highest pipeline pressure at a location well upstream of the point of origin. This may occur in particular for liquid pipelines in hilly terrain. Methods of preventing the generation of unacceptably high surge pressures including valve closure speed reduction or special fast-response pressure relief systems close to the point of surge initiation. If not sufficient, strict adherence to well formulated operating procedures should be implemented. In our research we presented the factors that may contribute in the happening of surge phenomenon and with the use of computer calculations and experimental work we gave some solutions to prevent it. Depending on Joukowsky equation we noticed that for crude oil that each time when decreasing the valve opening the pressure will increase .in experimental part we also made tests on gas oil by using a system in petroleum research and development center the results showed that as the valve closed the pressure increase where we get maximum pressure of 42 psi.  

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Article
Borehole Stability in Shale Formation: Modeling the Effects of Molecular Weight and Concentration of Polymers in the Drilling Fluids Formulation

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A new experimental model was developed to predict the role of special polymeric additives, in the drilling fluid formulation, on the wellbore stability in shale formation. The shale formation was regarded as a non-ideal membrane and the effects of various characteristics of the added polymers were studied on the membrane reflection coefficient. The model was applied to unique field data from the oil field in south of Iran, including clay structure, cation exchange capacity (CEC), density and porosity of the shale. The results, using various polyglycols and polyacrylamides as the polymeric additive, showed that the structure of the polymeric chains e.g. type and content of ionic segments had significant effect on their adsorption mechanism and its strength. It was concluded that increasing the molecular weight of the polymer chains decreased the rate and amount of the adsorption due to the increasing of the entanglements between the chains which in turn limited their mobility. So, adsorption of the polymeric material on the shale had significant impress on its performance as a membrane by increasing the shale reflection coefficient enhancing its stability during drilling process. Finally, the developed model results were in good agreement by experimental test results which was done in a specific shale stability set up.

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Article
Rehabilitating of used Generator Oil by Acid /Bentonite Treatment and Studying of its Performance Evalution

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Used generator lubricant oils are considered hazardous wastes because of their high content of pollutants (thermal degradation products from the base oil and combustion products from fuel and lubricant and external pollutants). Thus, this research aimed to refining the waste oils for economic and environmental purpose. In this study, it was applied acid / bentonite treatments which include treatment with commercial sulphuric acid followed by adsorption on Iraqi bentonite and study the effect of treated used genarator oil and regards to enhancing their performance in service. The quality checked by evaluation of some important properties i.e. specific gravity, viscosity, flash point, pour point, ash content, and total acid number. The results of treated used oil showed that, specific gravity decreased from 0.898 to 0.894, viscosity increased from 95 cst to 136 cst. ,flash point increased from 179 oC to 200 oC, pour point increased from -13 oC to -16 oC, ash content decreased from 1.174 %to, 1.0775% and total acid number decreased from 2.983mg KOH/g to1.0775mg KOH/g. The results of evaluation of performance of fresh and treated generator oil studied by comparison of some properties such as specific gravity, viscosity, flash point pour point, ash content, and total acid number to the oils in use. تعد زيوت مولدات الطاقة الكهربائية المستهلكة من النفايات الخطرة بسبب محتواها العالي من الملوثات (نواتج التحلل الحراري من النفط والمنتجات الأساسية من وقود الاحتراق وزيوت التشحيم والملوثات الخارجية). لذلك جرى العمل على تنقية الزيوت المستهلكة لإعادة استخدامها لأسباب اقتصادية وبيئية. وتم في هذا البحث استخدام طريقة المعالجة (حامض /بنتونايت) التي تتضمن التعامل مع حامض الكبريتيك التجاري والامتزاز باستخدام البنتونايت العراقي ودراسة تقييم أداء عمل المولدة الكهربائية بعد استخدام الزيت المعالج. وتم فحص الزيت المعالج بتقييم بعض الخصائص المهمة مثل الكثافة النوعية واللزوجة ودرجة الوميض ودرجة الانسكاب ومحتوى الرماد والرقم الحامضي الكلي ومقارنتها بخصائص الزيت المستهلك وقد أظهرت النتائج نقصان في الكثافة النوعية من 0.898 إلى 0.894، وزيادة اللزوجة من 95 سنتي ستوك إلى 136سنتي ستوك بدرجة حرارة 40 مْ ،وزيادة درجة الوميض من 179مْ إلى 200 مْ ،وزيادة درجة الانسكاب من -13 مْ إلى -16 مْ ، ونقصان محتوى الرماد من %1.174 إلى % 1.0775 ونقصان الرقم الحامضي من 2.983ملغم هيدروكسيد البوتاسيوم /غم من إلى 1.0775ملغم هيدروكسيد البوتاسيوم /غم. كما تم تقييم أداء الزيت الجديد والمعالج بمقارنة بعض الخصائص المهمة مثل الكثافة النوعية واللزوجة ودرجة الوميض ودرجة الانسكاب ومحتوى الرماد والرقم الحامضي الكلي للزيوت إثناء الاستعمال


Article
Synthesis of Local Demulsifiers and Evaluation in Iraqi Oil Fields

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De-emulsifiers are one of the important industrial additives used commonly in petroleum industry in order to separate the salt water from crude oil in wet crude oil fields of south oil company (S.O.C) in Iraqi fields. In the present study, it has been prepared local demulsifies by synthesis Gemini surfactants bis (Quaternary ammonium salt). The local de-emulsifier was assessed in the laboratories of South Oil Company (S.O.C) Comparison with the results of commercial de-emulsifier (A), where the local material efficiency was higher than the important commercial (A) adopted in the S.O.C by bottle Test and later was produced (6) barrels of material prepared and evaluated in AL-SHAMIA Degassing station in Iraqi South Rumaila . Where, evaluated the local de-emulsifier in the fields and show the positive results, this describes the evaluation of field emulsifying the local material in this study with lost cost of preparation of a one barrel about 500$ in the time that the cost of one barrel of commercial de-emulsifier is 1000$. The assessment was in the conditions of commercial de-emulsifier, depending on the natural of Dehydrator and Desolater in addition of the effective Dose is 25ppm and by 100% separation efficiency in same fresh oil source. The efficiency of local de-emulsifier studied varity of parameters like: Temperature and the time required to separation function of the Dose. The field evaluation conditions of local de-emulsifier were under control outside of the oils (fresh) of D2 (Desolater) of isolation units to examine all of the water and salt content of crude oil.

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Table of content: volume:377 issue:10th