Table of content

Iraqi Journal of Science

المجلة العراقية للعلوم

ISSN: 00672904
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Science
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi journal of science is a quarterly specified scientific journal issued by the Faculty of Science at the University of Baghdad. The members of the Editorial Board representing the Departments of Eight Scientific departments, college of science/ Baghdad University and its related units of research, all are professors, scientists with extensive experience and considerable skills in their field of science, as well as an advisory board in support composed of professors and scientists with great reputation in their field of science from other Colleges, universities, or research institutes. The specialty of publication includes the following fields:

1.Pure and Applied Physics.
2.Mathematical Sciences.
3.Computer Science and Information Technology.
4.Science of chemistry.
5.Bio-Science technologies.
6.Earth Sciences, geo-physics, and remote sensing.
7.Astronomy, Space Sciences, and Remote Sensing Unit.
8.Science and Research of tropical area

The visions, goals, and the mechanisms of the Iraqi Journal of Science is to publish scientific research sober in the areas of Applied and Pure Sciences and instructive Iraqi society, scientific research, scientific interest large to contribute to the development of various disciplines, which provides significant support to researchers in all scientific facilities to continue to support the development plans in Iraq.

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Contact info

Baghdad University
College of Science
Baghdad
Iraq
ijs@scbaghdad.edu.iq
07903375590
http://ijs.scbaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2016 volume:57 issue:1C

Article
New Approach for Determination of Ciprofloxacin by Quenched Fluorescence of Analytically Interested Species Using Continuous Flow Injection Laser Diode Fluorimeter Analyser
طريقة جديدة لتقدير السايبروفلوكساسين بوساطة تثبيط الفلورة لفصائل تحليلية مهمة وباستخدام محلل الحقن ألجرياني المستمر للفلورة بثنائيات وصلات ليزرية

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Abstract

The objective of this study was to establish an accurate, precise, sensitive, simple, fast and reliable method for the determination of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride in pure or in pharmaceutical dosage forms using Homemade instrument fluorimeter continuous flow injection analyser with solid state laser (405 nm) as a source. The method is based upon the fluorescence fluorescein sodium salt and its quenching by ciprofloxacin hydrochloride in aqueous medium. The solutions of standard and the sample were prepared in distilled water. The calibration graph was linear in the concentration range of using (10 - 100) mMol.L-1 ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (r= 0.9891) with relative standard deviation (RSD%) for 3 mMol.L-1 ciprofloxacin HCl solution is lower than 2%(n=6). A comparison was made between the newly developed method of analysis with the quoted value using the standard addition method and no significant difference between the new developed method and the quoted value by the manufacturers companies. This indicates clearly that the new method can be successfully used for the assay of the cited day.


Article
Synthesis and Characterization of Several New Succinimides Linked to Phenyl Azo Benzothiazole or Thiazole Moieties with Expected Biological Activity
تحضير وتشخيص عدد من السكسن ايمايدات الجديدة المرتبطة بمكونة فنيل ازوبنزوثايازول او ثايازول ذات فعالية بايولوجية متوقعة

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Abstract

In the present work, several new cyclic imides (succinimides) linked to benzothiazole or thiazole moieties through phenyl azo group were synthesized. Synthesis of the new imides was performed via multistep synthesis. The first step involved reaction of equimolar amounts of succinic anhydride and p-toluidine producing N-(4-tolyl) succinamic acid (1) which was dehydrated in the second step via treatment with acetic anhydride and anhydrous sodium acetate affording N-(4-tolyl)succinimide (2). In the third step, substituted-2-aminobenzothiazoles were introduced in diazotization reaction with nitrous acid producing the corresponding diazonium salts and these inturn were introduced directly in coupling reaction with compound (2) affording the target cyclic imides (3-7). Structures of the new compounds were confirmed by depending on FTIR spectral data and (1HNMR and13CNMR) spectra for some of them which were in good agreement with the proposed ones.


Article
A comparison between Trichomoniasis Infection and other Vaginal Infection among Females in Baghdad Governorate- Iraq
مقارنة بين العدوى بداء المشعرات المهبلية والعدوى بالاصابات المهبلية الاخرى بين الإناث في محافظة بغداد- العراق

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Abstract

Trichomoniasis is a parasitic disease caused by the protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis. It is the most common sexually transmitted protozoal infection. There is no estimated of infection intensity among reproductive-age females. Further studies of the infection intensity of trichomoniasis and other vaginal infection will highlight the importance of this pathogen as a public health problem. A total of 614 females from Baghdad city were screened for T. vaginalis from March 2015 to September 2015. Females aged 13–61 years old provided vaginal swab specimens. The vaginal fluids extracted from these swabs were checked for the presence of T. vaginalis and other vaginal infection using microscopic examination. Overall, 525 (85.5%) of 614 was screened positive for T. vaginalis, 89 of 614 females gave negative results for T. vaginalis instead; they were infected with other vaginal infection. In tested females, 82 (13.36%) of the females were infected with bacteria (including Haemophilus vaginalis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas); 7 (1.14%) of females was infected with Monilia. In addition, the main age group of infected females concentrated in (more than 30 years) which recorded a higher rate of infection. There were 122 (85.31%) of patients had (4) pus cells per field of microscope in Trichomonas infection, 29 (69.05%) of patients had (2) pus cells per field of microscope in bacterial infection, and 2 (33.33%) of patients had (2) pus cells per field of microscope in Monilia infection that was statistically significant. Taking together, the results of this study demonstrate that T. vaginalis is endemic of females in Baghdad city and has a higher intensity rate compare with females infect with bacteria or Monilia. A prevention strategy of T. vaginalis infection could control the transmission of this parasite


Article
Identification of Streptococcus mutans from Human Dental Plaque and Dental Caries Using 16SrRNA Gene
تشخيص بكتريا Streptococcus mutans من عينات تسوس الاسنان واللعاب باستخدام جين 16SrRNA

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One hundred and sixty samples from saliva and dental plaque were sellected from patients with caries active at ages from (4-65) years from Umm Qasr Primary School and Al-Ameria Specialist Dental Center in Baghdad. 15 isolates belong to Streptococcus mutans were identified by biochemical tests and Vitek 2 compact system while 22 isolates identified by using Polymerase Chain Reaction ﴾PCR﴿ techniques and sequencing of 16SrRNA with 120 bp by using 16SrRNA the result confermed that these isolates were belong to S.mutans


Article
Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activites of Secondary Metabolites of Endophytic Fungus Stemphylium radicinum (Meier, Drechs and Eddy)
الفعالية الضد بكتيرية والضد تاكسدية للأيض الثانوي لفطر النابوت الداخلي Stemphylium radicinum (Meier ,Drechs and EddY)

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Abstract

Endophytic fungi are gaining interest as sources of novel bioactive metabolites. The study was carried out to screen and isolate endophytic fungus.An endophytic fungus isolated from root of calyptous plant .The fungus was identified as Stemphylium radicinum (Meier, Drechs and Eddy)based on morphological characterization. Fungal secondary metabolites was carried out by ethyl acetate solvent.The antibacterial activity was tested against five bacterial isolates. Esherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris, Klebsiella pneumonia and Streptococcus pyogenes by using a disc diffusion technique. The inhibition zones exhibited by Fungal secondary metabolites were ranged between 22.5-35.5 mm. Minimum inhibitory concentration MIC test revealed that the extract of S. radicinum exhibited a minimal inhibition values ranging between 25.0-100 ug/ml against bacterial strains .A verification of non toxicity of the fungal secondary metabolites against human blood revealed a negative test. Active compounds of the fungal secondary metabolites involves Tannins, phenols and amino acid .The antioxidant activity was analyzed using2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging assays .The metabolite produced by the fungi could be an alternative source of antimicrobial against clinical pathogens.


Article
Comparative Study on Haematological and some Biochemical Parameters of Rabbit, Oryctolagus cuniculus and Partridge, Francolinus francolinus from Iraqi Environment
دراسة مقارنة لمعايير الدم وبعض الفحوصات الكيموحيوية للارنب الداجن Oryctolagus cuniculus والدراج العراقي الاسود Francolinus francolinu في البيئة العراقية

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Abstract

The present study aimed to establish reference normal ranges of haematological and biochemical parameters of two vertebrates (rabbits and partridges). Twenty animals (10 rabbits, 10 partridges) were used in this study. Blood samples, collected from heart of rabbits, as well from the right jugular vein of partridge, and delivered to the laboratory. Some biochemical parameters (potassium, sodium, and uric acid) have been investigated, in addition blood samples were tested for: white blood cells (WBC), red blood cells (RBC), haemoglobin (HB), haematocrit (HCT), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean concentration of hemoglobin in the corpuscular volume (MCHC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV). Results indicate that haematological and biochemical data are revealed statistically significant differences between rabbit and partridge in most parameter except sodium and potassium were showed no significantly different. The RBC and MCHC levels were significantly higher (P<0.05) in rabbit than in partridge. While, the results showed higher significant (P<0.05) in HB, HCT, MCV, and MCH concentrations were observed in partridge than in rabbit. White blood cells (lymphocytes, monocytes, and granulocytes) showed significant increase in partridge than in rabbit. Some biochemical values are showed non-significant difference in potassium and sodium value between rabbits and partridge. While, the uric acid showed significantly increase (P<0.05) in partridge than in rabbit.


Article
The effect of D and L- amino Acids on Biofilm Formation in Different Microorganisms
تأثير الأحماض الامينية من نوع L و D على تكوين الغشاء الحياتي في احياء مجهرية مختلفة

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Abstract

The D-enantiomers of amino acids have been thought to have relatively insignificant function in biological processes like, D-amino acids are sometimes found in proteins that are not synthesized by ribosomes. While L-amino acids clearly permanent in nature, D-amino acids have previously inapprehensible regulatory roles in the bacterial kingdom, any diverse of bacterial phyla made from these D-amino acids regulate cell wall remodeling in stationary phase and cause biofilm dispersal in aging bacterial communities. Clarification the mechanism by which D-amino acids given cell wall reorganization and biofilm disassembly will undoubtedly discover new paradigms for understanding how extra cytoplasmic processes are regulated as well as lead to development of novel therapeutic. Results of this study evaluated that 50 and 100mM of D-glycine have inhibitory effect on Klebsiella pneumonia, and Staphylococcous aeurues biofilm formation. Also50 and 100mM of D-aspartic acid have the same inhibitory effect on Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcous aureus biofilm formation. The mix of 100Mmof both D-glycine and aspartic acid have more effective inhibitory activity on Escherichia coli, and Staphylococous auerues biofilm formation than when it used alone. While the use of L-serine, L-isoleucine and L-tyrosine have no inhibition activity on biofilm formation of Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcous aurues and Escherichia coli.


Article
Modulatory Effects of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Pits Extract Against Ethinylestradiol Induced Genotoxic Damage in Cultured Human Lymphocytes
الفعالية المُعدِّلة لمستخلص نوى التمر ضد عقار Ethinylestradiol الذي يسبب ضرراً بالمادة الوراثية للخلايا اللمفاوية البشرية المزروعة

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Abstract

Ethinylestradiol is widely used in oral contraceptive formulations and also for the treatment of various sexual and metabolic disorders. It is not only a genotoxic agent but also a tumor initiating agent. In the present study, the modulatory effect of aqueous extract of date pits was evaluated against the genotoxic effect induced by ethinylestradiol on human lymphocytes using chromosomal aberrations (CA), blast index (BI), mitotic index (MI), sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) and replication index (RI) as parameters. The date pits extract was evaluated at 1.075x10-4, 2.125x10-4, 3.15x10-4 and 4.17x10-4 g/ml along with 10 μM of ethinylestradiol in culture medium. The results showed a significant dose-dependent decrease in the frequency of CA and SCE induced by ethinylestradiol. The results of the present study suggest that the plant extract per se does not have genotoxic potential, but can modulate the genotoxicity of ethinylestradiol in cultured human lymphocytes.


Article
Immunohistochemical Study of Natural Killer Cells in Patients with Bladder Cancer
دراسه مناعيه نسيجيه كيميائيه للخلايا اللمفاويه القاتله في سرطان المثانه

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Abstract

Bladder cancer is the ninth most common malignancy all over the world. Immune picture is important in predicting clinical outcome with bladder cancer, so the aim of the present study was to investigate the number of killer cells in the tissue of the patients with the malignant and benign bladder cancer before treatment by using an antigen retrieval immunohistochemical method on archived bladder tumors tissue. In our study, the number of the patients tissue with malignant cancer that staining by immunohistochemistry of NK cells (20%) was lower than in benign (80%) (p≤0.01). The results of the present study were indicated that the lower level of the NK cells in the malignant tissues may be leads to impaired anti-tumor immune response toward the tumor cells and is subsequently unable to suppress progression of the tumor.


Article
Molecular Analysis of Y Chromosome Microdeletions in Oligozoospermic Iraqi Patients
التحليل الجزيئي لمناطق الحذف Microdeletions للكروموسومY في مرضى العقم بقلة النطاف Oligozoospermic العراقيين

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This study was designed to determine the correlation between Y chromosome azoospermia factor (AZF) subregions microdeletions and oligozoospermia in infertile men. Subjects included 50 infertile men with oligozoospermia who had been referred to the Fertility Center and infertility treatment in Kamal Al-Samarrai HospitalBaghdad health office-Iraq. DNA was extracted from blood samples. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of 3 loci spanning the AZFa, AZFb and AZFc subregions of the Y chromosome using sY84, sY127 and sY254 and were performed. The frequency of deletions involving AZFa subregion of the Y-chromosome was found in twelve of the patients (24%) in oligozoospermic infertile Iraqi men. While the other subregion (AZFb and AZFc) of the Y-chromosome were not determined microdeletion in oligozoospermic samples. The study showed that men with oligozoospermia should be evaluated for Yq11 microdeletionsbefore deciding to operate varicoceles or else scheduling them for assisted reproductive techniques and there is a specific correlation between Y chromosome AZFa subregions microdeletions and oligozoospermia.


Article
Genetic Polymorphisms of Interleukin -1 beta Gene in Association with Multiple Sclerosis in Iraqi Patients
تعدد أشكال النوكليوتيدات المفردة لجين إنترلوكين-1بيتا وعلاقته بالتصلب العصبي اللويحي المتعدد لدى المرضى العراقيين

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Abstract

Interleukin-1 β (IL-1 β) is considered to be one of the most important mediators in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases, particularly in neurodegenerative diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). MS is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized with demyelination in central nervous system (CNS). There was believe that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in IL-1β gene can alter the structure and function of the IL-1β and consequently may have play role in MS disease. In this this study the IL-1β gene polymorphism (rs16944, rs1143634) and their association with MS in Iraqi patients were investigated. Two SNPs including IL-1β-511 (rs16944) in promoter and IL-1B+3962 (rs1143634) in encoding region, were studied using Polymerase Chain Reaction- Sequence Specific Primer (PCR-SSP) technique. The results revealed that IL-1β-511 SNP has three genotypes (CC,CT, TT) with non- significant difference in the SNP genotype and allele frequencies of MS patients compare with control group, it was also noticed that the risk allele was (C) with relative risk (RR=1.55) and higher frequency (60.77%) than T (39.23%) allele in RRMS patients. On other hand the three genotypes (CC,CT, TT) of IL-1B+3962 SNP it seem to have the same picture, that mean there was no significant difference in their frequencies between RRMS patients and control group , and the highest genotype frequency was for (CC) genotype (68.92%) and the lowest frequency was for( TT) genotype (2.88%) in patients, it was also noticed that the risk allele was (C) with odd ratio (2.44) and that the (T) frequencies were (16.98%vs. 33.33%) while (C) frequencies were (83.02 vs. 66.67%) in patients and control group respectively. Concerning with these findings, one can suggest that interleukin-1β gene polymorphisms may not be relevant to susceptibility to MS in Iraqi patients, this is probably due to many reasons such as ethnic diversity, the relevant of haplotype for this gene with other haplotype of cytokine encoding genes and finally the limitation of sample size which play critical role in SNPs studies.


Article
Extraction and Partial Purification of Lipopolysaccharide from Clinical Proteus mirabilis Isolate and Compared with Standard Bacteria
الاستخلاص والتنقية الجزئية لمتعدد السكريد الشحمي للعزلة السريرية Proteus mirabilis ومقارنتها مع البكتريا القياسية

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Ninety five samples were collected from different samples (urine, ear and wounds swaps), from hospitals in Baghdad city. The results of cultural, microscopic , biochemical tests indicated that in urine samples E.coli have high occurrence frequency 19 (47.5%) followed by Proteus mirabilis 18(45%) and Klebsiella species 1 (2.5%), while in wounds samples each of Pseudomonas spp. and Proteus mirabilis 10 (25%) , then followed by E.coli with 5 (12.5%) and Klebsiella species 3 (7.5%). Ear swaps samples revealed that Pseudomonas aeruginosa 7 (46%) was the major bacterium followed by Proteus mirabilis 4(26.6).Sensitivity test against eleven antimicrobial agents was done for all of the Proteus mirabilis isolates (32 isolates). The results displayed that most of the isolates were resistant to Methicillin (96.8%), and Rifampin (93.7%) followed by trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole (71.8%), chloramphenicol (62.5%), and cefazoline (59.3%). while the most effective antimicrobial agents against P. mirabilis were Imipenem (96.9%), Azetronam (81.3%), Azithromycin (71.9%) ,Ciprofloxacin (69%).Whereas a moderate effect appeared against both gentamycin and tobramycin in a percentage of (53.2 and 62.5) % respectively. More resistant isolate was selected, and lipopolysaccharide was extracted by hot EDTA method and the yield was (150) mg LPS from (22)g dry weight cell of pathogenic P.mirabilis and (95) mg as LPS from (16) g dry weight cell of standard bacteria were obtained. After partial purification ,chemical analysis of crud and partial purified LPS showed that the carbohydrate percentages were (35 , 44.3) % and (49 , 62)%, while the protein percentage (0.98 ,0.1) % and ( 1.3 ,0.1)% for the standard and isolated bacteria respectively ,whereas both extract appeared free from nucleic acid . Molecular weight of LPS was estimated and it was equivalent to (63095 and 70794) Dalton for the standard bacteria and pathogenic one respectively.


Article
Characterization of CdS nanoparticles Prepared by Liquid – Liquid Interface Reaction
خصائص الجسيمات النانوية لكبريتيد الكادميوم المحضرة بتفاعل السطح الداخلي لتماس سائل-سائل

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Liquid – liquid interface reaction is one of the method to prepare nanoparticles, the preparation of nanoparticles depends on the super saturation of ions which can satisfy by layered two immiscible liquid (toluene and deionized (DI) water). The XRD-diffraction analysis give a mix structure from hexagonal and cubic and the average grain size is 7.73 nm using Sherrer relation and 9.54 nm using Williamson –Hall method. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) Showed that the size of particles around 3 nm which is comparable with Bohr radius of CdS. From UV-Visible spectrum analysis which use two model to estimate the radius of particles , the first one is effective mass approximate (EMA) model and the second one is tight binding model , from the first model the estimated that the radius is 2.069 nm and from the second model. The estimated radius is 1.95 nm which is very comparable with Bohr radius of CdS and this give a strong quantum conferment that distinguish the proper of nano than a bulk.


Article
Preparation and Characterization of Nickel Oxide Thin Films by Electrostatic Spray Technique
تحضير ودراسة خصائص الاغشية الرقيقة لاوكسيد النيكل المحضرة بتقانه الرش الكهربائي المستقر

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A simple, inexpensive, and home–built electrostatic spray deposition (ESD) system with stable cone-jet mode was used to obtain nickel oxide (NiO) thin films on glass substrates kept at temperature of 400°C. The primary precursor solution of 0.1 M concentration hydrated nickel chloride dissolved in isopropyl alcohol. The structural, optical and electrical parameters were studied. The optical absorbance spectra for the studied samples showed its maximum around 280 nm. On the other hand, thickness interferometry measurements on the tested samples showed that film thickness was around 400 nm. The optical energy gap of the prepared NiO samples was determined to be 3.75 eV and the maximum value of refractive index was determined to be 2.1 at 350 nm.


Article
Radionuclides Activity and Radiological Hazard Assessment in Bananas Samples Exported to Iraq
النظائر المشعة وتقييم المخاطر الاشعاعية في عينات الموز المصدر الى العراق

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Abstract

The average concentration of radionuclide’s in the various banana samples were collected from being the most popular markets in Baghdad city - Iraq were measured by use Sodium Iodide Thallium [NaI(Tl)] detector. The radionuclide’s observed with reliable regularity belonged to the series-decay naturally occurring radionuclide’s headed by 232U and 232Th as well as the non-series nuclide, 40K and 137Cs. The average concentration of 40K was found the least average concentration value recorded as876.74625Bq kg-1.The average concentration of 238U was 28.6425Bqkg-1for ²³²Th, it was found to have the average concentration 14.1805 Bqkg-1. The cesium concentration in the sample was found in the healthy range.

Keywords

Banana --- radioactivity --- specific activity --- 23U --- 232Th --- 40K --- 137Cs


Article
Determining the Level of Radioactivity and Hazard Index of the Soil of Babylon Batteries Second Plant in Waziriya
تحديد مستوى النشاط الاشعاعي ومعاملات الخطورة لتربة معمل البطاريات بابل الثاني في الوزيرية

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Thisre search was used in the short term method has been employed to determine the radioactive contamination from elements of natural and artificial radioactive.So, the natural gamma ray spectrum analysis technique using NaI(Ti) have been used to measure the The specific activity of the radioactoctive isotopes as following, U-238,Th-232 series of (Pb214,Pb212) respectively as wall as K-40 and industrial radioactive isotope Cs-137 was determined in the studied samples ,which are consisted of 30 samples from different locations and depth(10-50)cmthe samples of the soil batteries plant in Waziriya in Baghdad, as wall as Hazard index its found it within the permissible internationally.


Article
Core Polarization Effects on the Inelastic Longitudinal Electron Scattering Form Factors of and nuclei
تأثيرات استقطاب القلب على عوامل التشكل للاستطارة الالكترونية الغير المرنة للنوى و

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In this paper, inelastic longitudinal electron scattering form factors C2 and C4 transitions have been studied in and nuclei with the aid of shell model calculations. The core polarization transition density was evaluated by adopting the shape of Tassie model togther with the derived form of the ground state two-body charge density distributions (2BCDD's). The following transitions have been investigated; and of , and of , and of and and of nuclei. It is found that the core polarization effects, which represent the collective modes, are essential for reproducing a remarkable agreement between the calculated inelastic longitudinal C2 and C4 form factors and those of experimental data.


Article
Application of the Elevation and Residual Static Correction methods on a selected Seismic data of West Luhais area in the South of Iraq
تطبيق طريقة التصحيح الثابت للتضاريس والتصحيح الثابت المتبقي على بيانات زلزالية مختارة من منطقة غرب اللحيس في جنوب العراق

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The present study deals with processing of one seismic line (2WL2) with a length of (37km) for (2D) seismic data of west Luhais area that is located within the administrative borders of the province of Muthanna in south of Iraq. The quality of the recorded data of this line is in general weak due to the effect of noise mainly. The study was made up in oil Exploration Company by utilizing OMEGA software which consists of a great number of the processing programs. The elevation static correction and residual static correction were applied on the studied line and the final section were resulted after completing the treatment processes that proceed followed of the static correction process and the result of elevation static correcting was good and accept in department of interpretation.


Article
The Effect of Expected Water Shortage on Net Primary Productivity and Rain Use Efficiency in the Tigris-Euphrates Basin
تأثير النقص المتوقع للمياه على صافي الإنتاجية الأولية وكفاءة استخدام مياه الامطار في حوض نهري دجلة والفرات

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Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, originating in Turkey and cutting through both Syria and Iraq, have experienced drastic reductions in water flows in recent years due to increasing water demand, hydro-engineering projects, and climate change. The decline in water flows has led to decreased agricultural yields. Iraq reported its worst cereal harvest in a decade in 2009, indicating that with a decline in water supplies, a potential food security problem emerges. This study, therefore, addressed the effect of water availability on (1) Net Primary Productivity (NPP) and (2) Rain Use Efficiency (RUE) in the Tigris-Euphrates (T-E) basin. Results displayed that NPP increases significantly from the arid and semi-arid sites in the south to the wetter sites in the north, meaning that NPP increases with precipitation, evaporation, and growing season and decreases with temperature. In contrast, RUE decreases significantly from the arid and semi-arid sites in the south to the wetter sites in the north.


Article
Pre-Planning of Casing Seat Position to Choose Optimum Equivalent Circulation Density to prevent lost circulation
التخطيط المسبق لموقع تجليس البطانة لاختيار كثافة التدوير المكافئة المثلى لمنع فقدان سوائل الحفر

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Loss of drilling fluid in the Nasiriyah oil field can be considered as a big, serious, and expensive problem at the same time, therefore accurate and integrated program must be prepared before start drilling in layers that are likely to get loss circulation. From the available data of well Ns-13, the area of loss was detected in five layers, which are Dammam, Um- radoma, Tayarat, Shiranish and Hartha since these layers contain natural cracks and high porosity represented by vugs. Methods of prevention have been identified by specifying the minimum values of drilling parameters to reduce hydrostatic pressure, thus reducing equivalent density of drilling mud during the circulation, depths of casing shoes is determined (2500 ft, 3550ft, 5300ft and 6894.5ft) to strengthen the wall of the well and prevent losses.


Article
Setting-up a 3D Integrated Petrophysical Model Using Petrel software for Mishrif Formation in Garraf Oil Field, Southern Iraq
بناء موديل بتروفيزيائي متكامل ثلاثي الابعاد باستخدام برنامج البتريل لتكوين المشرف في حقل الغراف النفطي، جنوب العراق

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Setting-up a 3D geological model both from field and subsurface data is a typical task in geological studies involving natural resource evaluation and hazard assessment. In this study a 3D geological model for Mishrif Formation in Garraf oil field has been set-up using Petrel software. Mishrif Formation represents the most important reservoir in Garraf oil field. Four vertical oil wells (GA-4, GA-A1P, GA-3 and GA-5) and one directional well (GA-B8P) were selected in Garraf Oil Field in order to set-up structural and petrophysical (porosity and water saturation) models represented by a 3D static geological model in three dimensions. Structural model shows that Garraf oil field represents a domal structure that shows continuous growth as indicated by the structural maps at top of reservoir units. The structural closure is shifted from GA-3 well to GA-A1P well. Mishrif Formation was divided into ten zones (top Mishrif, M1, M1.2, M2, L1, L1.2, L2, L2.2, L2.3 and L2.4.). Petrophysical model (porosity and water saturation) for Mishrif Formation was set-up from values of porosity and water saturation using Sequential Gaussian Simulation algorithm. According to data analyses and the results from modeling the units (M1.2, L1 and L1.2) are considered as high quality reservoir units due to the high PHIE and low water saturation. Units (L2, L2.2, L2.3 and L2.4) are considered as poor reservoirs because of low PHIE and high water saturation, and non-reservoir units include (Top Mishrif, M1 and M2) therefore, they represent cap units. Cross sections of petrophysical model were conducted to illustrate the vertical and horizontal distribution of porosity and water saturation between wells in the field.

Keywords

Setting-up a 3D geological model both from field and subsurface data is a typical task in geological studies involving natural resource evaluation and hazard assessment. In this study a 3D geological model for Mishrif Formation in Garraf oil field has been set-up using Petrel software. Mishrif Formation represents the most important reservoir in Garraf oil field. Four vertical oil wells (GA-4 --- GA-A1P --- GA-3 and GA-5) and one directional well (GA-B8P) were selected in Garraf Oil Field in order to set-up structural and petrophysical (porosity and water saturation) models represented by a 3D static geological model in three dimensions. Structural model shows that Garraf oil field represents a domal structure that shows continuous growth as indicated by the structural maps at top of reservoir units. The structural closure is shifted from GA-3 well to GA-A1P well. Mishrif Formation was divided into ten zones (top Mishrif --- M1 --- M1.2 --- M2 --- L1 --- L1.2 --- L2 --- L2.2 --- L2.3 and L2.4.). Petrophysical model (porosity and water saturation) for Mishrif Formation was set-up from values of porosity and water saturation using Sequential Gaussian Simulation algorithm. According to data analyses and the results from modeling the units (M1.2 --- L1 and L1.2) are considered as high quality reservoir units due to the high PHIE and low water saturation. Units (L2 --- L2.2 --- L2.3 and L2.4) are considered as poor reservoirs because of low PHIE and high water saturation --- and non-reservoir units include (Top Mishrif --- M1 and M2) therefore --- they represent cap units. Cross sections of petrophysical model were conducted to illustrate the vertical and horizontal distribution of porosity and water saturation between wells in the field.


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In this paper an eco-epidemiological system has been proposed and studied analytically as well as numerically. The boundedness, existence and uniqueness of the solution are discussed. The local and global stability of all possible equilibrium point are investigated. The global dynamics is studied numerically. It is obtained that system has rich in dynamics including Hopf bifurcation.


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Abstract

We presented in this paper a new class W(a,b,c,γ,β) containing analytic univalent functions defined on unit disk. We obtained many geometric properties , like , coefficient inequality , distortion and growth theorems, convolution property, convex set, arithmetic mean and radius of starlikness and convexity by using Gaussian hypergeometric function for the class W(a,b,c,γ,β).


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Abstract

Studying extreme precipitation is very important in Iraq. In particular, the last decade witnessed an increasing trend in extreme precipitation as the climate change. Some of which caused a disastrous consequences on social and economic environment in many parts of the country. In this paper a statistical analysis of rainfall data is performed. Annual maximum rainfall data obtained from monthly records for a period of 127 years (1887-2013 inclusive) at Baghdad metrology station have been analyzed. The three distributions chosen to fit the data were Gumbel, Fréchet and the generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distribution. Using the maximum likelihood method, results showed that the GEV distribution was the best followed by Fréchet distribution.


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This research introduces a proposed hybrid Spam Filtering System (SFS) which consists of Ant Colony System (ACS), information gain (IG) and Naïve Bayesian (NB). The aim of the proposed hybrid spam filtering is to classify the e-mails with high accuracy. The hybrid spam filtering consists of three consequence stages. In the first stage, the information gain (IG) for each attributes (i.e. weight for each feature) is computed. Then, the Ant Colony System algorithm selects the best features that the most intrinsic correlated attributes in classification. Finally, the third stage is dedicated to classify the e-mail using Naïve Bayesian (NB) algorithm. The experiment is conducted on spambase dataset. The result shows that the accuracy of NB with IG-ACS is better than NB with IG only


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Abstract

Automatic document summarization technology is evolving and may offer a solution to the problem of information overload. Multi-document summarization is an optimization problem demanding optimizing more than one objective function concurrently. The proposed work considers a balance of two significant objectives: content coverage and diversity while generating a summary from a collection of text documents. Despite the large efforts introduced from several researchers for designing and evaluating performance of many text summarization techniques, their formulations lack the introduction of any model that can give an explicit representation of – coverage and diversity – the two contradictory semantics of any summary. The design of generic text summarization model based on sentence extraction is modeled as an optimization problem redirected into more semantic measure reflecting individually both content coverage and content diversity as an explicit individual optimization models. The proposed two models are then coupled and defined as a multi-objective optimization (MOO) problem. Up to the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to address text summarization problem as a MOO model. Moreover, heuristic perturbation and heuristic local repair operators are proposed and injected into the adopted evolutionary algorithm to harness its strength. Assessment of the proposed model is performed using document sets supplied by Document Understanding Conference 2002 (DUC 2002) and a comparison is made with other state-of-the-art methods using Recall-Oriented Understudy for Gisting Evaluation (ROUGE) toolkit. Results obtained support strong proof for the effectiveness of the proposed model based on MOO over other state-of-the-art models.


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Abstract

In this paper, a method for data encryption was proposed using two secret keys, where the first one is a matrix of XOR's and NOT's gates (XN key), whereas the second key is a binary matrix (KEYB) key. XN and KEYB are (m*n) matrices where m is equal to n. Furthermore this paper proposed a strategy to generate secret keys (KEYBs) using the concept of the LFSR method (Linear Feedback Shift Registers) depending on a secret start point (third secret key s-key). The proposed method will be named as X.K.N. (X.K.N) is a type of symmetric encryption and it will deal with the data as a set of blocks in its preprocessing and then encrypt the binary data in a case of stream cipher.


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Establishing complete and reliable coverage for a long time-span is a crucial issue in densely surveillance wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Many scheduling algorithms have been proposed to model the problem as a maximum disjoint set covers (DSC) problem. The goal of DSC based algorithms is to schedule sensors into several disjoint subsets. One subset is assigned to be active, whereas, all remaining subsets are set to sleep. An extension to the maximum disjoint set covers problem has also been addressed in literature to allow for more advance sensors to adjust their sensing range. The problem, then, is extended to finding maximum number of overlapped set covers. Unlike all related works which concern with the disc sensing model, the contribution of this paper is to reformulate the maximum overlapped set covers problem to handle the probabilistic sensing model. The problem is addressed as a multi-objective optimization (MOO) problem and the well-known decomposition based multi-objective evolutionary algorithm (MOEA/D) is adopted to solve the stated problem. A Multi-layer MOEA/D is suggested, wherein each layer yields a distinct set cover. Performance evaluations in terms of total number of set covers, total residual energy, and coverage reliability are reported through extensive simulations. The main aspect of the results reveals that the network's lifetime (i.e. total number of set covers) can be extended by increasing number of sensors. On the other hand, the coverage reliability can be increased by increasing sensing ranges but at the expense of decreasing the network's lifetime.


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Abstract

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Article
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Abstract

In this paper, the solar attraction effect on the Moon orbital elements had been studied. The solar attraction considered a third body perturbation. The initial values of the Moon orbital elements at 2015-1-21.5 which are used (semi major axis=380963.78 km, eccentricity =0.056o, Eular angles (Ω=30°, ω=40°, , i=18.4°). The Moon in a perigee of its orbit at the initial time. A program which designed, was used to calculate the Moon position ,velocity and orbital elements through the years (2015-2035). The position and velocity components of the Moon were calculated by solving the equation of Kepler for elliptical orbit using Newton Raphson's method for (1000) periods and hundred steps of time for each period. The results show a secular changes for the Moon orbital elements with solar attraction, and they will deviate from the initial values with many years.


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Abstract

This paper presents a new and effective procedure to extract shadow regions of high- resolution color images. The method applies this process on modulation the equations of the band space a component of the C1-C2-C3 which represent RGB color, to discrimination the region of shadow, by using the detection equations in two ways, the first by applying Laplace filter, the second by using a Kernel Laplace filter, as well as make comparing the two results for these ways with each other's. The proposed method has been successfully tested on many images Google Earth Ikonos and Quickbird images acquired under different lighting conditions and covering both urban, roads. Experimental results show that this algorithm which is simple and effective too increase the precision rate of shadow detection, can be colored the result, and also reduces the error rate of detecting non- shadows as shadows. In this technical didn't need to morphological filters

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