Table of content

Iraqi Journal of Science

المجلة العراقية للعلوم

ISSN: 00672904
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Science
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi journal of science is a quarterly specified scientific journal issued by the Faculty of Science at the University of Baghdad. The members of the Editorial Board representing the Departments of Eight Scientific departments, college of science/ Baghdad University and its related units of research, all are professors, scientists with extensive experience and considerable skills in their field of science, as well as an advisory board in support composed of professors and scientists with great reputation in their field of science from other Colleges, universities, or research institutes. The specialty of publication includes the following fields:

1.Pure and Applied Physics.
2.Mathematical Sciences.
3.Computer Science and Information Technology.
4.Science of chemistry.
5.Bio-Science technologies.
6.Earth Sciences, geo-physics, and remote sensing.
7.Astronomy, Space Sciences, and Remote Sensing Unit.
8.Science and Research of tropical area

The visions, goals, and the mechanisms of the Iraqi Journal of Science is to publish scientific research sober in the areas of Applied and Pure Sciences and instructive Iraqi society, scientific research, scientific interest large to contribute to the development of various disciplines, which provides significant support to researchers in all scientific facilities to continue to support the development plans in Iraq.

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Contact info

Baghdad University
College of Science
Baghdad
Iraq
ijs@scbaghdad.edu.iq
07903375590
http://ijs.scbaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2016 volume:57 issue:2A

Article
Theoretical Study of New Derivative of Cefotaxime-Amic Acid as a Corrosion Inhibitor
دراسة نظرية لمشتق جديد لحامض سيفوتاكسيم آميك كمثبط تآكل

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Abstract

PM3 and DFT quantum mechanical calculations were employed to give further insight into the inhibition efficiency of the newly prepared cefotaxime amic acid derivative. The calculated physical properties and quantum chemical parameters correlated to the inhibition efficiency such as EHOMO (highest occupied molecular orbital energy), ELUMO (lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy), the energy gap (ΔE(HOMO-LUMO)), hardness (η), softness (S), dipole moment (μ), electron affinity (EA), ionization potential (IE) and active site absorption..…etc., all studied and discussed at equilibrium geometry in the gas phase and at its right symmetry (C1). Experimentally the newly prepared cefotaxime derivative could be absorbed on carbon steel surface with good inhibition efficiency by offering electrons from rich hetero-atoms such as nitrogen and oxygen to unoccupied d-orbitals of Fe metal and forming antibonding orbital-feedback bonds.


Article
The Correlation of Lipocalin-2 and Retinol Binding Protein-4 with the Inflammatory State in Iraqi Patients with T2DM
العلاقة بين مستويات Lipocalin-2 و Retinol binding protein-4والحالة الالتهابية في العراقيين المصابين بمرض السكري من النوع الثاني

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Abstract

Adipokines are associated with insulin resistance and obesity-related metabolic disorders in many diseases. The levels of Lipocalin-2 and Retinol binding protein-4 were evaluated in sera of patients with Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) to study the association between them and the inflammatory state as established by high levels of C - reactive protein and with atherogenicity. Serum Lipocalin-2 and Retinol binding protein-4 levels measured in 73 subjects: 48 patients with T2DM with the mean level of C- reactive protein 23.989 mg/dL. For comparison, 25 age- and gender-matched control participants enrolled with C- reactive protein CRP level 1.476 mg/dL. The results showed that circulating Lipocalin-2, and Retinol binding protein-4 levels were significantly higher in T2DM patients when compared with that of the control group (78.688vs.38.463ng/mL) and (0.0499vs.0.041μg/mL; P<0.05) respectively. Serum lipocalin-2 levels of patients group were negatively associated with RBP-4 (r= -0.248; P<0.039), and positively correlated with CRP (r=0.512; P<0.005) and with atherogenic index (AIP). Lipocalin-2, but not RBP-4, was independently associated with inflammatory state and atherogenicity that confirm the presence of cardiovascular diseases risk. A study with a large number of patients is needed to determine serum lipocalin-2 value as an early predictor for the development of cardiovascular diseases in type 2 diabetes patients.

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Article
Molecular Identification of Yeast Candida glabrata from Candidemia Patients in Iraq
التشخيص الجزيئي للخميرة Candida glabrata المعزولة من مرضى داء مبيضات الدم في العراق

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Abstract

This study aimed for isolation and identification of Candida glabrata from specimens of blood collected from national center of hematology /Al - mustansiriya University of immunocompromised patients infection of candidemia after diagnosis by doctor. Results showed the morphological features on many media SDA and Corn meal and differential CHROMagar. Colonies appear small and pink pale to dark. Microscopic exam of show that C. glabrata not form pseudohyphae and not produce germ tubes, the cell size 2 - 3 microns, on the other hand, Biochemical test of C. glabrata have high ability for fermentation of glucose within three hours and trehalose given false positive within two hrs., and the Urease test given negative result, on the other hand , The results indicated that the DNA of isolated strains was extracted successfully. The results of PCR amplification which was performed on that DNA extracted from all isolates were confirmed by the electrophoresis analysis. The primer amplified of the ribosomal DNA in all strains tested, resulting in amplified products of approximately 610 bp in C. glabrata.


Article
Preparation of Nanoliposomes by Size Exclusion Chromatography to Entrap Soluble Antigens from Leishmania Donovani
تحضير الجسيمات الدهنية النانوية باستخدام كروموتوكرافيا الترشيح الحجمي لاقتناص المستضدات الذائبة لطفيلي اللشمانيا دونفاني

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Abstract

In this study, we investigated the ability of nanoliposomes preparation, as a nanoadjuvant, to entrap soluble Leismania donovani antigens (SLAs) and release in vitro. The parasite reactivation was carried out when inoculated into Rosewell park memorial institute media (RPMI) and incubated at 23 °C for 4 days. L. donovani promastigote inoculum (104 cell / ml) of 4 days was used to inoculate modified medium of Saline - Neopeptone and Blood agar 9 (SNB 9) to produce promastigote mass. SLAs were extracted from the promastigotes ghost membrane after fourth passages of subculturing in SNB. The membrane pellet obtained was suspended in 5 mM Tris buffer (pH 7.6) and sonicated three times at 4 °C and entrapped in freshly prepared nanoliposomes. Lipids mixture of 4mM Phosphatidylcholine, 2.2 mM Cholesterol and 0.55 mM Phosphatidylethanolamine in a ratio of 7:2:1 were used to prepare nanoliposome. Physio-chemical characterizations of prepared nanoliposomes was performed by using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) , Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) and Zeta Potential assays to determine the size, morphology and charge. The efficiency of freshly prepared nanoliposoms to entrap SLAs was determined by measuring the nanoliposome efficiency entrapment (EE). The percentage of EE was 50 and 27.5 of SLAs entrapped nanoliposomes prepared by Sephadex G25 and Sephadex G75, respectively. Moreover, stability of SLAs entrapped nanoliposomes was examined at 4 and 37 °C as a storage temperature.


Article
Using of Species-Specific Primers for Molecular Diagnosis of in Vitro Promastigotes of Leishmania donovani
استخدام بادىء متخصص للتشخيص الجزيئي لطفيلي اللشمانيا الاحشائية للاطوار المسوطة خارج الجسم الحي

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Abstract

Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is a disseminated protozoan infection caused by Leishmania donovani parasites which affects almost half a million persons annually. Classical diagnosis methods of VL still not very sensitive and time consuming. In this study, we reported the success of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method to identify L. donovani based on kinetoplast deoxyribonucleic acid (kDNA) for the diagnosis of the parasite using in vitro promastigote cultures. LdI species - specific primer was used to identify L. donovani and the result showed a single band of about ~600bp. It can be recommended that this primer is to be used for detection the visceral L. donovani

Keywords

L. donovani --- PCR --- specific primers


Article
Risk Factors for Varicella Prevalence Among Primary School Children in Al-Dora City (Southern Baghdad)
عوامل خطورة أنتشار جــدري المـــاء بين أطفال المدارس الأبتدائية فــي مدينــة الــدورة جنــوب بـــغداد

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Abstract

Chickenpox is a viral disease caused by a virus called varicella zoster (VZ). Chickenpox cases were counted in Al-Dora city (southern Baghdad). Data of disease was obtained from the records of Bilat Al-Shuhadaa health center at the period from January to July 2012. Diagnosis of cases was achieved by the physicians of the health center. Studied risk factors were including the gender, address, school and age. Total of cases recorded was 73cases (66.9 per 100,000) populations for seven months. Males reported cases were 48 (65.7%) while female’s cases were 25(34.3%). The highest reported cases were signed in Al-Mhdia-1 sector (24.6%).Also highest reported cases were signed in Al-Mhdia primary school (17.8%). Most VZ cases were reported in the age group of (7-10) years (49.3%). The aim of the study is to determine the occurrence of chickenpox cases in Al-Dora city and try to know the causes of disease prevalence.


Article
Potential Using of Mixed Microalgae in the Bioremediation of Domestic Effluents
امكانيه استخدام مزيج الطحالب في المعالجه الحيويه لمياه الصرف المنزلي

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Microalgae widely used for bioremediation of inorganic (NH4and PO4) nutrients as single isolates. This study aims to use a mix microalgae isolated from Dijlah river for bioremediation of municipal waste water .The experiments had been start with two different concentrations of nutrients. NH4-N values were 23.4 and 31.7mg/l, phosphorus PO4-P 6.7and 10.7 mg/ l and BOD5 were 66 and 83 mg/l. both cycles of treatment showed complete removal for NH 4-N and PO4-P levels after treatment were 1.7 and 0.7 mg/l for both of treatment cycle .Biological oxygen demand reduced to lowest value were18.9 in 2nd cycle while in 1st cycle of treatment reduced to21.3mg/l.The results showed that mix microalgae have the ability to remove nutrients and organic pollutants at different levels even at pH variation during experiment.


Article
Purification of Red Wasp Vespa orientalis and Yellow Wasp Polistes olivaceaus Toxin and Estemating Some of its Biological Characteristics
تنقية بروتين سم الزنبور الأحمر Vespa orientalisوالأصفر Polistes olivaceaus وتحديد بعض صفاته الحيوية

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Abstract

This study included the collecting of 390 gland toxicity of the Red Wasp Vespa orientalis and 418 gland toxicity of yellow wasp Polistes olivaceaus from different areas of Baghdad city. It was classified depending on taxonomic keys in order to diagnose and identify the general characteristics of each species, and then extract gland toxicity to get poison. The poison was purified by gel filtration throw Sephacryl S-200 obtain three peaks of proteins. The activity of lysis and clotting was estimated for peaks separate P1, P2 and P3 for wasp red toxin, the lysis activity of separate P1 was 98% of the poison origin activity and the clotting time was 47.3 minutes, while when estimating the activity of lysis and clotting for peaks separate P1, P2 and P3 for wasp yellow toxin, the lysis activity of separate P2 was 91% of the poison origin activity and the clotting time was 43.8 minutes. The molecular weight of P1 and P2 wasp was 22387 and 22382 Da respectively by using the gel filtration Sephacryl S-200, while the carbohydrates content were 60.057 and 44.460 mg/ ml respectively, The percentage of iron was 0.88 and 0.44 ppm respectively, the optimum pH of lysis and clotting activity for P1 and P2 was 6.5, and noted that they stable at range 6-7.5 and 5.5 -8 respectively, the optimum temperature of lysis and clotting activity for P1 and P2 was 35oC, and noted that they stable at 35oC for 30 minutes.

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Article
Study of the Relationship Between Blood Group and Group A Beta -Hemolytic Streptococci Isolated from Patients with Tonsillitis
دراسة العلاقة بين فصائل الدم ومجاميع بكتريا المسيحيات العنقودية المحللة للدم نوع بيتا لمرضى التهاب اللوزتين

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Abstract

The aim of this study is the relationship between blood group and group A Beta-Hemolytic Streptococci, Ninety patients with tonsillitis were included in this Study from both genders and different age group for blood group study. They were attended at Ramadi Teaching Hospital during the period extended from January 2011 to June 2011. Their ages range from 3-35years.The control group included 20apparently healthy persons, while patient divided into, chronic and recurrent acute tonsillitis. Diagnostic tools were Bacteriological methods (Bacitracin method to identify and count Streptococcus pyogenes group A beta hemolytic streptococci (GABHS ).Results of blood grouping showed a reduced frequency of blood group AB- with tonsillitis and increased frequency of blood group O + with tonsillitis.

Keywords

GABHS --- tonsillitis --- blood group


Article
Study of the effects of Trigonella foenum graecum and Elettaria cardamom against Tribolium Castaneum
دراسة تأثير زيتي نبات الحلبةTrigonella foenum graecum والهيل Elettaria cardamomum في هلاك حشرة خنفساء الطحين الصدئية الحمراء Tribolium castaneum

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Oils were extracted from seeds of Trigonella foenum graecum as well as from seeds of Elettaria cardamomum, then separated and characterized by Gas Chromatography with Mass spectra GC/MC twelve different compounds of Trigonella foenum graecum oil were identified, the highest rate was for the compound 9, 12-Octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z) which was found with rate of 38.97 %،then accompanied with 31.85% of 9-Octadecenoic acid (Z)-, methyl ester. On other hand fifty four (54) different compounds were separated from fixed oils of Elettaria cardamomum , the highest rate for the compound 3-Cyclohexene-1-methanol, .alpha.,.alpha.,4-trimethyl-, acetate which was 22.88% then the compound Butyl 9,12-octadecadienoate with a rate of 21.22 % . The lethal effect of oils against Tribolium castaneum was studied for several periods, the results clarify that the oils of Trigonella foenum graecum and Elettaria cardamomum , significant effects on insect mortality reached to (96.9 and 92.5 )% when they were used with concentration 700 ppm after72 hours of treatment


Article
Morphological Study of the Pollen Grains of Some Species belong to Genera Urtica L. and Parietaria L. (Urticaceae) in Iraq
دراسة مورفولوجية لحبات اللقاح لأنواع تعود للجنسينUrtica L. وPartieria L. من العائلة القراصية Urticaceae في العراق.

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The paper comprise comparative palynological study of six species belong to the genera Urtica L. and Parietaria L.(P.alsinifolia Del., P.lusitanica L., P.judaicaL., U.urens L., U.dioica L., and U.pilulifera L.) of the Family Urticaceae in Iraq. All pollen grains were small size and found to be porate, Stephanoporate, Zonoporate. Characters such as shape of pollen grain, number and Dimention of pores, and Sculpturing of pollen grains were overlapped between species and of limited taxonomic value.


Article
Water Quality Assessment of Al-Gharraf River, South of Iraq by the Canadian Water Quality Index (CCME WQI)
تقييم نوعية مياه نهر الغراف, جنوب العراق بواسطة دليل نوعية المياه لمجلس وزراء البيئة الكندي (CCME-WQI)

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Water quality of Al-Gharraf River, which considered the main branch of Tigris River south of Iraq was examined using the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment Water Quality Index (CCME-WQI) for aquatic life protection and irrigation. Water samples were collected monthly from five sampling stations during 2013-2014 and 17 physicochemical parameters were analyzed: Temperature, hydrogen ion concentration (pH), electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, alkalinity, chloride, calcium, magnesium, sulfate, phosphate, nitrate, sodium, lead, cadmium, nickel and zinc. The model classified water of Al-Gharraf River as poor for aquatic life protection and fair for irrigation with seasonal overall WQI value of 30-39 and among stations was 38-39.


Article
Spectral Properties, Reconstitution and Kinetics of Paracoccous denitrificans Isovaleryl-CoA Dehydrogenase
الصفات الطيفية وأعادة تشكيل وتقدير الثوابت الحركية لأنزيم Isovaleryl-CoA Dehydrogenase من بكتريا Paracoccus denitrificans Pd1222

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Isovaleryl CoA dehydrogenase (IVDH) is a flavoprotein that introduce a trans-double bond between C2 and C3 of the isovaleryl CoA substrate, an intermediate in leucine catabolism pathway. Interrogation of the Paracoccus denitrificans Pd1222 genome has identified Pden_3633 gene as a candidate to encode for IVDH. In previous study by Rafid et al (under the publishing), this putative IVDH was expressed in E. coli and purified as N-terminal Strep-tagged protein. In current study, spectral properties of the purified IVDH were conducted and the results showed that the enzyme was obtained as an apoprotein. For this reason, IVDH has been reconstituted by incubation with flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and the experiment showed that the ratio 1: 20% (IVDH: FAD molar excess) was achieved fully reconstitution. Furthermore, kinetic parameters of the reconstituted IVDH were studied and the enzyme exhibited a specific activity for isovaleryl-CoA substrate while Vmax and KM were estimated to be 600 mU mg-1 and 7.13 μM respectively. Finally, gel filtration by using HiLoad 16/60 Superdex 200 column was performed to investigate the quaternary structure of the recombinant IVDH. An apparent molecular weight of 171640 Da was determined.


Article
Investigating the Adjuvanticity of K. pneumoniae Capsular Polysaccharide with Formalin-Killed S. aureus Against Live S. aureus Infection in Mice
التحقق من تأثير متعدد السكريد لكبسولة Klebsiella pneumoniaeكمساعد مناعي مع Stapthylococcus aureus المقتولة بالفورمالين ضد الاصابه ببكتريا S. aureus المخمجه للفئران

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Klebsiella pneumoniae capsular polysaccharide (CPS) antigen was evaluated for their capability to increase immune responses. And, CPS neutralizing antibodies were approved as the main response to vaccination in many disease. Therefore, killed Stapthylococcus aureus bacteria was employed to evaluate K. pneumoniae CPS adjuvanticity. The mice groups were immunized (orally, intra-peritoneally and by swab skin)with a dose of (25µl of formalin killed S. aureus (1.5 x 108) with a CPS at dose 175µl/kg at a conc.50 µg/ml) vaccination occurred in first day then recurrent vaccination as booster dose beyond seven days. After first 7 days, the results revealed elevation of IL2,4,10,12 and IgG levels occurred mainly in oral and swab skin groups, and the obvious elevation seen in all treated groups especially oral and swab skin groups after booster dose compared with the negative control. On the other hand these results were in concordance with the challenge test which elucidated the treated groups were survived compared with the negative control one. Thus, the formalin killed- CPS vaccine induce immune response against live S. aureus compared to CPS alone as positive control and Freund's incomplete adjuvant, therefore this suggest that CPS have adjuvant effect on immune responses against S. aureus bacteria which is important in clinical treatment of S. aureus disease.


Article
Study of the Effect of Raphanus Sativus, Urtica dioica and Curcuma longa Plant Extracts for Pollution Treatment by Fish's Provender
دراسة تأثير مستخلصات نبات الفجل و القريص والكركم في معالجة التلوث بواسطة عليقة الأسماك

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This study was conducted to estimate the activity of crude extracts of the horseradish and nettles, turmeric plant and a combination of these combined plants extracts for the treatment of heavy metal pollution like zinc and cobalt that accumulate in fish by adding them to fish provender. This experiment was carried out during the September, October, November months, by using 40 gold fish that distributed in five basins, the heavy metals ratio (zinc and cobalt) were determined in the bodies of fish before the pollution in each basin. It has been added salts of zinc and cobalt to the basins in order to getting the concentration ratio 10 mg/L for each of the metals in the basins water, after 14 days have been re-determining of the concentration of metals in the basins and before the treatment. Attended three crude plants extract by using alcohol and water, as well as detection of the active compounds that may exist in plant extracts That showed the horseradish extract contains alkaloids , terpenes , saponins , flavonoids, resins , glycosides , coumarins and tannins, while the nettles extract and turmeric extract contains the alkaloids , flavonoids , saponins, resins, tannins and glycosides. also, the toxicity test was carried out for determine the toxicity of extracts, which proved that the crude extracts were non-toxic, then, from the crude extracts were prepared a different concentrations with the singly form and blended to remove a pollution from the bodies of the fish in the four basins, while, The fifth basin was used as a control basin that a provender was added to it only. After 14 days, the concentration of zinc and cobalt were determined in bodies of fish, the concentration of zinc was ranging from 1.7810 mg/L to 2.4527 mg/L, while the cobalt concentration was ranging from 0.0582 mg/L to 1.436 mg/L. The treatment was continued for 21 days, after that, heavy metal salts were determined in the bodies of fish. The concentration of zinc was from 0 mg/L to 2.0950 mg/L and cobalt was 0 mg/L. These results showed the existence of significant differences among the heavy metals concentrations in bodies of fish for different basins after 21 days of treatment. As it is shown by the results that the nettle extract was more efficient in the removal of zinc from the fish tissue. While, the horseradish extract was more efficient in the removal of cobalt from the fish tissue.

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Article
Pre-equilibrium and Equilibrium Energy Emission Spectrum of Nucleons and Light Nuclei Induce Nuclear Reactions on 63Cu Nuclei
طيف الانبعاث الطاقي لما قبل الاتزان والاتزان للنيوكليونات والنوى الخفيفة التي تؤدي الى التفاعلات النووية لنوى النحاس 63Cu

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The differential cross sections of the pre - equilibrium stage are calculated at different energies using the Kalbach Systematic approach in Exciton model with Feshbach, Kerman and Koonin (FKK) statistical theory of Multistep Compound and direct reactions. In this work, the emission rate of light nuclei with emission energy in the centre of mass system in the isospin mixed case is considered in calculations to predict the cross-sections at the pre-equilibrium and equilibrium stages. The nucleons and light nuclei (2D and 3T) have been used as a projectile at the target 63Cu nuclei and at different incident energies (4MeV, 14 MeV and 14.8MeV). The comparisons between the present calculated results with other, theoretical and experimental works, show an acceptable agreement for certain emission energies for the reactions 63Cu (n, n)63Cu , 63Cu (p, n) 63Zn, 63Cu (p, D) 62Cu , 63Cu (p, p) 63Cu and 63Cu (p, 4He)60Ni.


Article
Crude Oil Spillage and the Impact of Drilling Processes on the Soil at Rumaila Oil Field- Southern Iraq
انسكاب النفط الخام و اثر عمليات الحفر في التربة في حقول الرميلة النفطية - جنوب العراق

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The demand on energy sources throughout the world have led to an increase in the production processes of crude oil which is considered to be the main source of energy, without considering the impact on the environment. The objective of this study is to evaluate the environmental impact of drilling processes and crude oil spillage on soil in the Rumaila oil field, Basra, Southern Iraq. An investigation was undertaken to determine the content of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals in the soil. Ten soil samples were collected near oil wells and analyzed. The results showed a high concentration of PAHsin the soil, particularly (Acenaphthene, Fluorene, Anthracene, Fluoranthene and Pyrene) due to crude oil spillage. The heavy metals content (i.e. As, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, V and Zn) and (B) of the analysed soil samples were compared with one standard soil sample taken from an urban area far from the pollution sources as a background. High concentrations of Co, Cr, Ni, Pb, V and B were observed in all soil samples, and therefore, exceeded the international standard limits in soil. This study documented high concentration of PAHs and heavy metals in the chosen area.


Article
Application of 2D Electrical Resistivity Imaging Technique for Detecting Soil Cracks: Laboratory Study
تطبيق طريقة المقاومة النوعية الكهربائية التصويرية ثنائية البعد في تحديد تشققات التربة: دراسة مختبرية

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Cracking of soils affects their geotechnical properties and behavior such as soil strength and stability. In this paper, 2D Electrical Resistivity Imaging Method, as a non-invasive technique, was adopted to investigate the effect of soil cracks of a centemetric scale on resistivity of sandy soil. The electrical resistivity measurements were carried out using ABEM SAS 300C Terrameter system at a laboratory scale using Wenner array. The measurements were interpreted using horizontal profiles, forward modeling and 2D inverse resistivity sections. The results showed that soil cracks cause significant changes in soil resistivity. These changes can be attributed to the high resistivity contrast between the highly resistive air-filled cracks and the surrounding intact soil. The results indicate the visibility of the method to detect cracking of soils which is of high importance in the geological and geotechnical investigations.


Article
Yamama Reservoir Characterization in the West Qurna Oil Field, Southern Iraq
الخواص المكمنية لتكوين اليمامـة في حقل غرب القرنة النفطي، جنوبي العراق

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Yamama Formation (Valanginian-Early Hauterivian) is one of the most important oil production reservoirs in southern Mesopotamian Zone. The Yamama Formation in south Iraq comprises outer shelf argillaceous limestones and oolitic, pelloidal, pelletal and pseudo-oolitic shoal limestones. The best oil prospects are within the oolite shoals. Yamama Formation is divided into seven zones: Upper Yamama, Reservoir Units YR-A & YR-B separated by YB-1, and YR-B Lower & two Tight zones: low (porosity, permeability and oil saturation) with variable amounts of bitumen. These reservoir units are thought to be at least partially isolated from each other.


Article
Water Balance for Ali AL-Gharbi-Northeast of Missan Governorate- Southeast of Iraq
الموازنة المائية لعلي الغربي- شمال شرق محافظة ميسان – جنوب شرق العراق

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Ali AL-Gharbi area lies to the northeast of Missan Governorate, southeast of Iraq. The meteorological data recorded in Ali AL-Gharbi station for the period (1994-2014) were used to assess the climatic condition of the study area, it was found that the monthly mean of rainfall is (15.35 mm), relative humidity (43.95 %), the temperature (24.50 C◦), wind speed (4.35 m/sec) and the strongest and most frequent winds are the northwest, sunshine (8.54 h/day) and evaporation (305.73 mm).The results of the data analysis show that, the climate of study area is characterized by dry and relatively hot in summer, and cold with low rain in winter. This study shows that, there is water surplus of (35.69 %) of the total rainfall amount which is equivalent to (184.28 mm), and the amount of surface runoff is (5.12mm), and the amount of groundwater recharge is (60.65mm) from the total rainfall.


Article
Engineering Geological Assessment for Rock Slope Stability of Chosen Areas from SW of Haibat Sultan Mountain, Kalkasmak-Koisanjaq Road / Iraq
التقييم الجيولوجي الهندسي لاستقرارية المنحدرات الصخرية لمناطق مختارة من الجزء الجنوبي الغربي لجبل هيبت سلطان على طريق كلكسماك-كويسنجق/ العراق

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Engineering geological study of rock slope stability in two stations lying in the SW of Haibat Sultan mountain, along the Kalksmaq - Koisanjaq road was carried out. At each station, rock slopes and discontinuities were comprehensively surveyed and the relationships with failures were determined. The limestone rock was described in engineering terms, the types of failures recorded during field study were rock roll and toppling whiles the probable failures were sliding, toppling, and rock roll. The study also revealed that the factors affecting slope stability in the study area were slope angle, height, dip of strata, and discontinuities (which are almost perpendicular to the bedding plane). The laboratory test, of the rock samples (point-load test) showed that the average value of compressive strength of the rock for the study area is about 192 M.Pa. Landslide possibility index (LPI) classification of Bejerman (1998) is applied to the study area, it shows that slopes of both stations lie in the category IV of moderate (LPI). The hazards related to the (LPI) are also moderated (LPI). Some remedial measures were suggested to slopes, such as remove of unstable blocks, to avoid further failure problems and safeguard the slopes in the future.


Article
Results in Projective Geometry ,
نتائج في الهندسة الاسقاطية

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In projective plane over a finite field , a conic is the unique complete arc and any arcs on a conic are incomplete arc of degree less than . These arcs correspond to sets in the projective line over the same field. In this paper, The number of inequivalent incomplete arcs; , on the conic in and stabilizer group types are found. Also, the projective line has been splitting into two 12-sets and partitioned into six disjoint tetrads.


Article
On The Dependent Elements of Reveres Bimultipliers
حول العناصر المعتمدة للدوال ثنائية المضروبات المعكوسة

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Abstract

The objective of this paper is to study the dependent elements of a left (right) reverse bimultipliers on a semiprime ring. A description of dependent elements of these maps is given. Further, we introduce the concept of double reverse (σ, τ)-Bimultiplier and look for the relationship between their dependent elements


Article
ON ECS modules
حول المقاسات ECS

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Abstract

Let R be commutative ring with identity and let M be any unitary left R-module. In this paper we study the properties of ec-closed submodules, ECS- modules and the relation between ECS-modules and other kinds of modules. Also, we study the direct sum of ECS-modules


Article
Utilization of Edge Information in Handwritten Numerals Recognition
أستخدام معلومات الحافة في تمييز الأرقام المكتوبة بخط اليد

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Abstract

The recognition of handwritten numerals has many applications in automatic identification and cognition. This research contains three experimented scenarios to recognize the handwritten English (i.e. Arabic) numerals. In the first scenario the bilinear interpolation of the image is used, while in the second scenario and after the bilinear interpolation is being applied, the Sobel operators are applied on the resulted interpolated image. In the third scenario which represents the last one, the effect of normalization of image dimensions is tested. 550 images of handwritten numerals were tested. Three types of tests were conducted for each scenario namely: trained-set test, not-trained-set test and comprehensive-set test. Depending on the results obtained from the comprehensive-set test, the best scenario is the second scenario of bilinear interpolation followed by Sobel operators which leads to excellent success rate reaches to 97.63%.


Article
The Design of Efficient Algorithm for Face Recognition Based on Hybrid PCA-Wavelet Transform
تصميم خوارزمية تتسم بالكفاءة للتعرف على الوجوه بالاعتماد على طريقة هجينة لطريقة تحليل المكونات الاساسية و تحويلة المويجات

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Abstract

In modern times face recognition is one of the vital sides for computer vision. This is due to many reasons involving availability and accessibility of technologies and commercial applications. Face recognition in a brief statement is robotically recognizing a person from an image or video frame. In this paper, an efficient face recognition algorithm is proposed based on the benefit of wavelet decomposition to extract the most important and distractive features for the face and Eigen face method to classify faces according to the minimum distance with feature vectors. Faces94 data base is used to test the method. An excellent recognition with minimum computation time is obtained with accuracy reaches to 100% and recognition time decreases to 87.5%.

Keywords

Face Recognition --- PCA --- DWT.


Article
Diagnoses System of Varicose Disease
نظام تشخيص مرض الدوالي

Authors: Mays M. Hoobi ميس محمد هوبي
Pages: 1007-1013
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Abstract

The diagnoses system of varicose disease has a good level of performance due to the complexity and uniqueness in patterns of vein of the leg. In addition, the patterns of vein are internal of the body, and its features are hard to duplicate, this reason make this method not easy to fake, and thus make it contains of a good features for varicose disease diagnoses. The proposed system used more than one type of algorithms to produce diagnoses system of varicose disease with high accuracy, in addition, this multi-algorithm technique based on veins as a factor to recognize varicose infection. The obtained results indicate that the design of varicose diagnoses system by applying multi- algorithms (Naïve Bayes and Back-Propagation) produced new system with high accuracy and low (FAR & FRR) as soon as possible.


Article
Spectral Analysis of Remote Sensing Data
التحليل الطيفي لبيانات الاستشعار عن بعد

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Abstract

In the present work, different remote sensing techniques have been used to analyze remote sensing data spectrally using ENVI software. The majority of algorithms used in the Spectral Processing can be organized as target detection, change detection and classification. In this paper several methods of target detection have been studied such as matched filter and constrained energy minimization. The water body mapping have been obtained and the results showed changes on the study area through the period 1995-2000. Also the results that obtained from applying constrained energy minimization were more accurate than other method comparing with the real situation


Article
Comparison of Various Gradient Types for Biological Image with Morphological Operations
المقارنة بين مختلف أنواع التدرج للصورة البيولوجية مع عمليات التشكيل

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Abstract

Biological image edge detection preserving the important structural properties in an image. Detecting accurate edges are very important for analyzing the basic properties associated with a biological image. Gradient operator plays very important role in edge detection. In this paper the images had been using are color biological images taken from microbiology laboratory at the biological department college of science Al-MustansiriyhUniversity and the effect of gradient operation have applied on around 10 different biological color images but view only two. In our proposed approach comparative of various gradient of biological image include (gradient of image, gradient of image using first order derivative edge detection (Soble,Prewitt,Roberts)and gradient image using morphological operation and The comparative output images using quality assessment include (MSR, PNSR, l2rat, maxerr, entropy). The software tool that has been used is MATLAB 7.0 from the results we found that morphological and Robert gradient edge detection algorithm better performs than the others and are important with extraction features of biologic images.


Article
The Relationship Between Solar Indices and Electron Density of D- Region over Baghdad City During the Ascending and the Descending Phases of Solar Cycle 23
العلاقة بين المعاملات الشمسية والكثافة الالكترونية لمنطقة D فوق مدينة بغداد خلال الطورين المرتفع والمنخفض من الدورة الشمسية 23

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Abstract

This research dedicated to make an investigation for the variation of electron density concentration of D- region(NmD), at a characteristic height of 81 km throughout solar cycle 23, with solar activity(represented by sunspot number indices: international sunspot number(Ri), Northern hemisphere sunspot number(Rn) and Southern hemisphere sunspot number(Rs), as well as, the correlation between these indices for Baghdad city(lat.: 33.3o N, long.: 44.4o E) at local noon time during the ascending and the descending phases of solar cycle 23. A very strong directly relationship were found between Ri, Rn and Rs with NmD, as well as, the correlation coefficient between these parameters have been calculated and it has been found it is equal, i.e., the three solar indices can be depend on them for predicting NmD.

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