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Al-Nahrain Journal of Science

مجلة النهرين للعلوم

ISSN: (print)26635453,(online)26635461
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University
Faculty: Science
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

ANJS(Al-Nahrain Journal of Science) has been published by College of Science since 1996. This Journal consists of the latest researches in both English and Arabic Languages within the Specializations of the scientific departments in the College.

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Al-Nahrain Journal of Science
P.O. Box: 64055, Al-Jadriah, Baghdad, Iraq .
Email: alnahrain-sci@hotmail.com
Webmaster Email: webmaster@jnus.org

Table of content: 2017 volume:20 issue:1

Article
Synthesis of Pro Drug Polyester and Control Release

Authors: Abeer Abd Alrazaak M.
Pages: 1-6
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Abstract

Lactic acid was used as difunctional spacer could reacted with glycerol gave its corresponding ester derivative with remain the hydroxyl groups of lactate units which reacted with carboxyl group of Mefenamic acid forming ester attachment, the prepared pro drug have many development, it could enhanced the drug with easier hydrolysis through ester-ester groups with extended the arm pendant substituted drug. The action of polymeric drugs depends on hydrolytic and cleavage of the drug moiety from the polymer, this give advantages of late and sustained release of drug over long time with decrease of side effects, the modification percentage test was carried out, also it was characterized by FTIR and 1H-NMR spectroscopes. Controlled drug release was deliberate by using different pH values at 37℃. Thermal stability of the drug polymer was observed, indicated the protection of drug with longer expire date. [DOI: 10.22401/JUNS.20.1.01]


Article
Using Statistical Analysis Approach to Evaluate the Groundwater Quality in Jisser Diyala Area

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Abstract

Multivariable statistical approach were applied to evaluate groundwater quality in Jisser Diyala area, this technique was used to find the relation between physco-chemical properties of water and pattern of changing the groundwater quality in this area. Cluster and Factor analysis were applied in two type R-mode and Q-mode to identify the grouping of chemical properties and identify the factors controlling the change in quality. [DOI: 10.22401/JUNS.20.1.02]


Article
Flow Injection Spectrophotometric Determination of Baclofen in Pharmaceutical Formulation Using Prussian Blue Reaction

Authors: Ghadah Fadhil
Pages: 17-24
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Abstract

A simple, rapid and sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determination of baclofen in pharmaceutical preparations were developed by combining a spectrophotometric detector with Flow injection analysis. This method based on the oxidation of iron (II) to iron (III) by baclofen and formation of complex between iron (III) and potassium hexacyano ferrate (II) in acidic solution. The absorbance from prussian blue dye is recorded at 700 nm. Chemical and physical parameters of this system were investigated. The linearity of baclofen is ranged from (0.05-25) mmol.L-1 with correlation coefficient r = 0.9972. The limit of detection (S/N=3) was equaled 0.01 mmol.L-1 the L.O.Q was 1.05 mmol.L-1 and a relative standard deviation for 6 replicate determinations of baclofen in 10 mmol.L-1 solution was 1.3 % using 100 µL sample volume. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of baclofen in pharmaceutical formulation with recovery 99%. Using paired t-test it was shown that there was no significant difference between the proposed method and official method on that basis the proposed method can be accepted as an alternative analytical method. [DOI: 10.22401/JUNS.20.1.03]


Article
An Overview on Lignocellulosic Fibers Ienforced Polymer Composite Materials

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Abstract

In polymer science lignocellulosic fiber-reinforced polymer composite materials have appeared in a wide range area. The composite made from those varieties of materials are low density, low value, comparable certain properties, and most importantly they're environmental friendly. Although a number of the properties linked to composites generated from oil palm fibers and polymers (namely, those that are accessible through commerce) display aspects of commonality when compared to conventional synthetic fiber composites, such properties depend to a significant degree on the extent to which the fibers and matrix phase is compatible with the capacity to absorb moisture. Importantly, this emerges as a key concern and, moreover, disadvantages of Lignocellulosic fibers polymer composites and studies have suggested that it has a considerable impact on the composites’ physical and mechanical properties. The central aim of the current paper is to provide an overview of the extant research relating to Lignocellulosic fibers reinforced polymer composites, and particular attention will be directed towards the physical structure and constituent chemical components of Lignocellulosic fibers. [DOI: 10.22401/JNUS.20.1.04]

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Article
Adsorption Removal of Rhodamine-B Dye from Aqueous Solution Using Rhamnus Stone as Low Cost Adsorbent

Authors: Khudhair. A. Al-Rudaini
Pages: 32-41
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Abstract

In this study, low-cost Rhamnus stone was used as adsorbents for the adsorption of Rhodamine-B (RhB) dye from aqueous solution by batch experiments under different condition of adsorbent weight, contact time, pH and initial dye concentration. Kinetic data obeyed to Ho-Mckay pseudo second order equation. Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms were used to test the equilibrium data and the results shows better fit with Langmuir isotherm with maximum adsorption capacity 39mg/g. Thermodynamic parameters show the adsorption of RhB onto Rhamnus stone was spontaneous and endothermic. [DOI: 10.22401/JNUS.20.1.05]


Article
Preparation of Cetane Improver for Diesel Fuel and Study It's Performance

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Cetane improver is an additive that improves the cetane number of diesel fuel. Now the world focus on using cetane improvers which are friend to environmental that biodegradable and reduce exhaust of gases such as carbon monoxide and oxide of nitrogen. Cetane improver was prepared by reacting methyl ethyl ester of long chain fatty acids with nitric acid in the presence of acetic anhydride in nitration process, while the ester can be produced from castor oil through transesterification. In this work the optimum conditions of nitration reaction which includes mole ratio of nitric acid, temperature and time of reaction were studied according to the results of percent of yield and absorbance peak area of OH group of starting materials. It was found that 10 is best mole ratio of nitric acid to esters, 10-20˚c temperature for 3hours time. The nitrated products were analyzed as cetane number enhancers adding it to diesel fuel at 0.1 and 0.05% concentration and it was found that the cetane number of diesel fuel was increased at 25% percentage. [DOI: 10.22401/JNUS.20.1.06]


Article
Preparing Light Weight Concrete with Reinforced Fibers

Authors: Rami Joseph Aghajan Sldozian
Pages: 51-57
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Abstract

This paper is study to prepare the lightweight concrete by chemical way, and this is by adding (2%) aluminum powder by the weight of cement to obtained bubbles inside the mix of concrete. Also replace fine aggregate by the hollow ceramic powder called (Cenosphere) by ratio (25%, 50%, 75% and 100%) from the weight of fine aggregate. Adding glass fibers to concrete mix by ratio the (1%, 1.5% and 2%) from the weight of cement, to enhance the mechanical properties of the samples. The results show increase in compressive and tensile strength by increase the ratio of cenosphere instead fine aggregate, and the best ratio was (50%) and (2%) aluminum, and the best ratio of fiber glass was (1.5%). Generally, decrease the density of samples when increase the ratio of bubbles and the ratio of cenosphere instead the fine aggregate, the density was (0.868 gm/cm3) float on the water at ratio (100% cenosphere). Decrease the thermal conductivity by increase the ratio of aluminum bubbles and the replacement of ceramic powder (cenosphere) instead fine aggregate. Observed also increase the high of samples from (25.26 mm) normal sample to (57.51mm) for the sample contain 100% ceramic powder and 2% aluminum powder. [DOI: 10.22401/JNUS.20.1.07]


Article
Antibacterial Activity of Boehmite Nanoparticles Synthesized by Arc Discharge in Deionized Water Technique

Authors: Halah H. Rashed
Pages: 58-65
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Abstract

In this work, boehmite AlO(OH) nanoparticles were synthesized by arc discharge technique. The structural, surface morphology and optical properties were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) and Ultraviolet-Visible-Near In far Red spectrophotometer respectively. XRD results show pure orthorhombic crystalline structure of gamma-AlO(OH). FTIR absorption spectrum shows that the boehmite nps have the octahedron region which extends from (400–800 cm-1) corresponding to the vibrational frequencies of Al–O bonding. The AFM shows that boehmite NPs are spherical in shape and the average diameter is around 89 nm. Finally the optical properties results show that the boehmite nps have absorption peak at 210 nm and an optical band gap of 4.1 eV. Boehmite nps was examined susceptibility to effect on the different types of bacteria, Escherichia coli (Gram-negative) and Staphylococcus aurous (Gram-positive) strains bacteria. Boehmite NPs showed excellent antibacterial activity against two types of bacteria. Also, Staphylococcus aurous exhibited the highest sensitivity to boehmite NPs while Escherichia coli were the least sensitive. [DOI: 10.22401/JNUS.20.1.08]


Article
Anti-Corrosion Activity of Ephedrine on Mild Steel in Acidic Medium

Authors: Shaimaa Basim Khalaf Al-Baghdadi
Pages: 66-69
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Abstract

Anti-corrosion activity of ephedrine "2-(methylamino)-1-phenylpropan-1-ol" was investigated by Gravimetric strategy and completed with mellow steel samples in 1M HCl as corrosive solution at different temperatures. The target compound displayed greatest efficiency of 84% at 500mg/L. The outcomes of weight loss method revealed that the target compound represents a one of the best inhibitors for mild steel and these efficiencies expanded with expansion in the concentrations of the ephedrine. SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) was utilized examine the steel surface at the most noteworthy erosion hindrance investigated concentration. [DOI: 10.22401/JNUS.20.1.09]


Article
ZnO Nano Particles (NPs) Properties Prepared by Liquid Phase Laser Ablation (LPLA)

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In this work a ZnO NPs have been prepared by liquid phase laser ablation technique from Zn target immersed in ethanol solution. The effect of laser energy and the number of laser pulses of LPLA technique which includes the optical, morphological and structural measurement were investigated. The XRD measurements confirm the presence of ZnO nano size and particle size of average of 41 nm; this has good agreement with TEM measurement. The optical measurements show the increases in the number of the laser pulses as well as increase the laser energy lead to increase the energy band gap, however the absorptions peaks appears to be at the average of 298 nm which yield an energy band gap of 3.5 eV. [DOI: 10.22401/JNUS.20.1.10]


Article
Studying the Effect of MgO Addition on the Thermal and Electrical Properties for Iraqi Porcelain

Authors: Duraid Fawzi Mahdi
Pages: 78-86
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Abstract

The research was studied effect of addition Magnesium Monoxide (MgO) on the thermal and electrical properties of Iraqi Porcelain with different weight percentages were (0%, 5%, 10%, 17%, 23% and 30%). The Porcelain was hard type and consist of (50%wt) Kaolin, (25%wt) Potassium Feldspar and (25%wt) Flint and sieving process was achieved for all powders and the particle sizes were (<125µm with 50%wt), (<75µm with 35%wt) and (<250µm with 15%wt) for Kaolin. The other particle sizes were (<75µm) for Potassium Feldspar, (<75µm) for Flint and (<63µm) for MgO. The powders were formed into disc shapes with diameters (10mm) and (40mm) by semi-dry pressing with (3 ton) applied pressure and Glycine (organic material) was added to powders through forming process with one drop to one gram from powder as a binder. The specimens were sintered in electrical furnace of (1250OC) for (2 hrs) as soaking time with increasing rate 7OC for one minute. The Bulk Density, Apparent Porosity, Specific Heat Capacity, Thermal Conductivity, Thermo- Compressive Strength and Dielectric Strength were studied. The best results for Specific Heat Capacity and Thermal Conductivity are F mixture with (30%MgO), Thermo- Compressive Strength is E mixture (23%MgO) and Dielectric Strength is C mixture (10%MgO). [DOI: 10.22401/JNUS.20.1.11]


Article
Study of DC Breakdown Voltage in Low Pressure Argon and Nitrogen Gases for Several Electrode Gap

Authors: Waleed Ibrahim Yaseen
Pages: 87-90
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In this paper the breakdown of Argon and Nitrogen in DC electric field are studying at different electrode gaps d. The discharge system consists of two electrodes; Cathode electrode is made from Aluminum with 7cm diameter, whereas Anode electrode made from molybdenum metal with 7 cm diameter. Electrode gap ranges between 2-5 cm. Pressure vacuum varies from 0.08 mbar to 0.2 mbar and DC power 750 W. The breakdown voltage Vb is shown to depend on the product (p.d), for lower values of pressure, p or gap, d. This work represents the investigation of the dependence of the breakdown voltage on the gas pressure and on the distance between electrodes and the type of gas. The minimum value of breakdown voltage increases with increases gap d and this value for Argon gas is lower than Nitrogen gas and from this value can determine pressure and current sputtering, while the discharge current increases with pressure. [DOI: 10.22401/JNUS.20.0.12]


Article
Detection of Trace Explosive Materials by Standoff Raman Spectroscopy System

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Standoff Raman spectroscopy SRS technique is one of the most powerful technologies that can identify trace amount of explosive materials. The Raman scattered signal collected by reflective telescope and a spectrograph is used to analyze the Raman scattered light. In order to view the spectrum, the spectrograph is equipped with charge coupled device CCD detector which allows detection of very weak stokes line. In order to test the capability of SRS system of detecting explosives trace, detection of C4 and AN explosives have been achieved with limit of detection (LOD) about 20 µg for C4 and 40 µg for AN. [DOI: 10.22401/JNUS.20.1.13]


Article
Detoxification of inorganic contaminants in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana

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In detoxification, the plant takes up the contaminant of concern from soil, water, or a mixture of both, converts it to a volatile form, and releases it to the atmosphere, usually through the leaf stomata. This technique is only suitable for contaminants that do not pose a significant air pollution hazard. Contaminants taken up by the roots pass through the roots to the leaves and are volatized through stomata where gas exchange occurs. This experimental work examines the ability of transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana with P4502E1 gene from rabbit to detoxify for many soil contaminants. The P450 2E1 enzyme controls the rate-limiting step in the metabolism of multiple environmental pollutants. The percentage of transformation increased at the less diluted cultures of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The ability of transgenic plants were tested for their potential in remediation of metals such as Sodium (Na), Magnesium (Mg), Potassium (K), Calcium (Ca), Manganese (Mn), Iron (Fe), Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), and Nickel (Ni). In the present work, transgenic plants were more efficient achieving 31, 46, 42, 48, 33, 51, 35, 29 and 39% contribution of each to the total value of detoxification contaminants. [DOI: 10.22401/JNUS.20.1.14]


Article
The Effect of Fish Oil and Omega-3 Fatty Acid on Some Physiological and Biochemical Criteria in Male Rabbits

Authors: Israa Seger Salman
Pages: 108-113
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Fish oil and omega-3 have many benefits and effects on human and animals health, such heart diseases, lipids, liver and many other diseases, so the aim of the this study was to investigate the effect of fish oil and omega-3 on complete blood picture test (CBC), Lipid profile, some liver enzymes and kidney parameters in male rabbits. Twelve adult male rabbits were used in this study that divided into two groups: (Six rabbits for each group) and treated daily for 4 weeks. Group 1: 0.2 ml/Kg B.W fish oil dose orally. Group 2: 0.2 ml/Kg B.W omega-3 dose orally. Blood samples were collected and divided from both two groups at the end of the experiment and then parameters were measured. Results explained that fish oil and omega-3 had the same effect in male rabbits. The level of complete blood picture (CBC) showed a significant decrease (p<0.05), but did not go beyond the normal reference value. The study explained that there were significant reduction in total cholesterol, serum triacylglycerol (TAG), serum low density lipoprotein (LDL) and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) while the high density lipoprotein (HDL) was elevated significantly as compared with control. Significant increase in serum level of glutamic oxalic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic pyruvic transferees (GPT) in fish oil and omega-3 treated animals as compared with the control. While the effect of fish oil and omega-3 on kidney parameters (Uric acid, Creatinine) showed non-significant changes or a slight increase significant in kidney parameters as compared with the control. [DOI: 10.22401/JNUS.20.1.15]


Article
Cytological Effects of Mutagenic Agents and NaCl on Mitotic Division in Two Iraqi Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Genotypes

Authors: Rasha K. Mohammed1 --- Kadhim M. Ibrahim
Pages: 114-119
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This study was carried out to determine the effects of NaCl (0.00, 50, 100, 150, 180 or 200) mM and two different types of mutagens chemical mutagen ethyl methyl sulphonate (EMS) at 0.5% and physical mutagen UV-B irradiation (40 min time exposure), on mitotic division in two Iraqi rice genotypes Amber 33 (A33) and Amber Baghdad (AB). Different concentrations of NaCl were used. Mitotic index (MI %) was decreased significantly by increasing NaCl concentration, however the highest mitotic index was recorded in mutated genotypes with EMS and UV-B. Different abnormal chromosomes were noticed in mutated plants. Results showed high percentage of abnormal chromosomes in EMS mutated genotypes. In addition no significant differences between genotypes in mean of mitotic index with respect to all experiments. [DOI: 10.22401/JNUS.20.1.16]


Article
Increasing Cellulose Production from Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae

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Bacterial cellulose (BC) is a type of biopolymer produced as primary metabolism product by many genera of bacteria such as Acetobacter, Rhizobium, Agrobacterium, Psuedomonas and Sarcina. This article aimed to study the effect of some factors on cellulose production from Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae which isolated from root nodules of Vicia faba plant collected from Abu-Ghraib in Baghdad. Some environmental and nutritional factors were examined including : carbon and nitrogen sources, pH, temperature and incubation period. Results showed that maximum production of cellulose was gained by Hestrin-Schram medium (HS medium) containing 2% fructose as carbon source, 1% yeast extract as nitrogen source, as well as optimum pH, temperature, and incubation period were (5, 30°C for 7 days) respectively .Cellulose dry weight was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) technique and the results showed the presence of the functional groups of bacterial cellulose. [DOI: 10.22401/JNUS.20.1.17]


Article
In Silico and in Vitro Evaluation of Real Time PCR Assay for Detection of Staphylococcus aureus

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Many research groups developed real time PCR assays for identification of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). They designed different primers and probes in their assays. Gene mecA is the target identification of MRSA by PCR assay. The aim of this study is using in silico approach to identify the best primers and probe for real time PCR identification mecA gene. Published primers and probes were analyzed in silico to select the best for real time PCR identification of mecA gene. The selected primers and probe successfully used for real time amplification of twenty MRSA tested. This study reveals the importance of in silico approach for designing diagnostic assays shorten the cost and the time. [DOI: 10.22401/JNUS.20.1.18]


Article
Analysis of Robotic Vision by Using Image Processing Trying to Find the Shortest Path to Goal Using Voronoi Diagram

Authors: Amani Y. Noori --- Suhad F. Majeed
Pages: 132-138
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In this paper we present a method to navigate a mobile robot for finding the path to his goal. This method determines the shortest path for robot to transverse to its target location while detecting and avoiding obstacles of different shapes in indoor environment. The vision of robot is first captured as an image using laptop cam, the image analysis is based on image processing in Matlab to identify the existence of obstacles within the environment. Voronoi diagrams (VDS) is a roadmap method that provides all possible paths in an environment containing stationary obstacles. By using a distance formula we get the shortest path for robot among three paths. The program is written in Matlab 2010 with image processing toolbox, the proposed technique does not make use of any other type of sensor other than laptop cam. [DOI: 10.22401/JNUS.20.1.19]


Article
New Address Shift Linear Feedback Shift Register Generator

Authors: Kholood J. Moulood
Pages: 139-145
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In this paper we introduced a design of new pseudo random generator, which generate binary sequences that would be used as an encryption key in Stream Cipher Cryptosystem (SCC). The proposed generator consists of number of Linear Feedback Shift Registers (LFSR's), which are considered the basic unit of SCC and some nonlinear functions. The proposed cryptosystem called Address Shift LFSR (ASLFSR) cryptosystem. Lastly, ASLFSR generator subjects to set of Basic Efficient Criteria (BEC) to examine its output to prove its efficiency. [DOI: 10.22401/JNUS.20.1.20]

Table of content: volume:20 issue:1