Table of content

Iraqi Journal of Science

المجلة العراقية للعلوم

ISSN: 00672904
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Science
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi journal of science is a quarterly specified scientific journal issued by the Faculty of Science at the University of Baghdad. The members of the Editorial Board representing the Departments of Eight Scientific departments, college of science/ Baghdad University and its related units of research, all are professors, scientists with extensive experience and considerable skills in their field of science, as well as an advisory board in support composed of professors and scientists with great reputation in their field of science from other Colleges, universities, or research institutes. The specialty of publication includes the following fields:

1.Pure and Applied Physics.
2.Mathematical Sciences.
3.Computer Science and Information Technology.
4.Science of chemistry.
5.Bio-Science technologies.
6.Earth Sciences, geo-physics, and remote sensing.
7.Astronomy, Space Sciences, and Remote Sensing Unit.
8.Science and Research of tropical area

The visions, goals, and the mechanisms of the Iraqi Journal of Science is to publish scientific research sober in the areas of Applied and Pure Sciences and instructive Iraqi society, scientific research, scientific interest large to contribute to the development of various disciplines, which provides significant support to researchers in all scientific facilities to continue to support the development plans in Iraq.

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Contact info

Baghdad University
College of Science
Baghdad
Iraq
ijs@scbaghdad.edu.iq
07903375590
http://ijs.scbaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2016 volume:57 issue:2B

Article
Theoretical Studies of Corrosion Inhibition Efficiency of Two New N-Phenyl-Ethylidene-5-Bromo Isatin Derivatives
دراسة نظرية لكفاءة تثبيط تآكل حديد الصلب الكاربوني بفعل مشتقين جديدين من مشتقات N -فنيل أثيليدين-5-برومو إيساتين

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PM3 and DFT (B3LYP) with a 6-311++G (2d, 2p) level of theoretical quantum mechanical calculations were employed to give investigation into the inhibition efficiency of the two new N-phenyl-ethylidene-5-bromo isatin derivatives which are N-phenyl-ethylidene-5-bromo-3[(imine aceto) urea]-2-oxo indole (NPEO) and N-phenyl-ethyeidine-5-bromo-3[(imine aceto) thiourea]-2-oxo indole (NPES). The calculated physical properties and quantum chemical parameters correlated to the inhibition efficiency all are studied and discussed at the equilibrium geometry in a vacuum, dimethyl sulfoxide and aqueous at their correct symmetry.


Article
Determination of Mefenamic Acid Using a New Mode of Irradiation (Array of Six Identical LEDs) and Detection( Twin Solar Cells) Through Turbidity Measurement by CFIA
تقدير حامض الميفيناميك باستخدام نمط جديد من التشعيع (مصفوفة متشابهة لستة ثنائيات وصلة باعثة) والتحسس ( اثنان من الخلايا الشمسية) خلال قياس التعكرية بوساطة التحليل بالحقن الجرياني المستمر

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A newly developed analytical method characterized by its speed and sensitivity for the determination of mefenamic acid (MFA) in pure and pharmaceutical preparation is established via turbidimetric measurement (0-180o) by Ayah 6SX1-ST-2D Solar cell CFI Analyser . The method was based on the reaction of phosphomolybdic acid with mefenamic acid in aqueous medium to form blue color precipitate as an ion-pair complex . Turbidity was measured via the reflection of incident light that collides on the surface precipitated particles at 0-180o . The chemical and physical parameters were studied and optimized. The calibration graph was linear in the range of 0.3-7 or 0.3-10 mMol.L-1, with correlation coefficient r = 0.9907 or 0.9556 respectively. The limit of detection 4.92 µg/sample from the step wise dilution for the minimum concentration in the linear dynamic ranged of the calibration graph with RSD% lower than 0.3% for 3 and 5 mMol.L-1 ( n= 6,10 respectively ) concentration of mefenamic acid. The method was successfully applied to the determination of mefenamic acid in four pharmaceuticals . A comparison was made between the newly developed method analysis and the classical method , in addition to between four different pharmaceutical preparations (UV- spectrophotometry at wave length 288 nm) using the standard additions method via the use of t-test. It was noticed that there was no significant difference between two methods at 95 % confidence level and significant difference between four drugs.


Article
Some Metal Complexes of a New Carboxylate Derivative of L-Ascorbic Acid
تحضير ودراسات تركيبيه لمعقدات بعض الأيونات الفلزية مع مشتق جديد لمشتقات الكاربوكسيلات–L – حامض الاسكوربيك

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(4R)-2, 3-(2`-chloro-2`- carboxyl)-1, 3-dioxolano-4- (2- dimethyl –dioxolane -yl) ascorbic acid (HL), a derivative of L-ascorbic acid was prepared by the reaction of 5,6-O-isopropylidene–L-ascorbic acid with trichloroacetic acid in alkaline medium. Seven new metal ion complexes of this ligand (HL) were prepared through its direct reaction with the chlorides of Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II) ions respectively. The new ligand and its ion metal complexes were characterized applying elemental analyses,1H and 13C NMR, IR as well as UV-Visible spectra. Spectroscopic data showed that the ligand (C11H11O8Cl) was coordinated to the metal ions through the two oxygen atoms of the carboxyl group as abidentate ligand. Electrical conductivity and magnetic measurements were done at room temperature. Based on the obtained analytical data, the following molecular formulas for the prepared complexes are suggested; {[M(L)2(H2O)2]. xH2O where x = 0 for Mn(II), Ni(II), Cu(II);x = 2 for Co(II)}; [M(L)Cl(H2O)3] for Zn(II) and Cd(II); and [Hg(L)ClH2O]. Octahedral geometry is suggested for all the complexes, except for the (Hg) complex which shows a tetrahedral geometry. Theoretical calculations of the molecular structure of the new ligand (HL) and its metal complexes were carried out too, applying the semi-empirical computation methods PM3 and PM6.The calculation results confirmed the suggested structures of all complexes.


Article
Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Activity of Flaxseed Oil
الفعالية الضد بكتيرية و ضد الغشاء الحياتي لزيت بذور الكتان

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Abstract

The present study aimed to explore the antibacterial and antibiofilm activity of flaxseed oil on some locally isolated bacterial pathogens. No inhibitory effect was noticed against Escherichia coli or Enterococcus faecalis. However, variable effects were developed against Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), Klebsiella pneuminae and Staphylococcus epidermidis. The flaxseed exhibited antibiofilm activity against all tested bacterial isolates (MSSA, MRSA, S. epidermidis and K. pneumoniae) and showed various degrees of inhibition against them. Experimental wounds were healed by application of flaxseed oil. In conclusion, flaxseed oil is a good alternative medication can be used to treat wound infection caused by bacteria.

Keywords

Flaxseed --- MSSA --- MRSA --- Antibacterial --- Antibiofilm


Article
Vehicle Indoor Air pollution with Fungi Generated by Air Conditioning Systems (AC) and Treatment by Using Aqueous Extracts Mushroom (Ganoderma lucidum)
تلوث الهواء الداخلي للسيارات بالفطريات المتولده في انظمه تكييف الهواء ومعالجته باستخدام المستخلص المائي للفطر Ganoderma lucidum

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Vehicle Air Conditioning (AC) systems are used in countries that suffer high temperature degrees during the summer season, one of these countries is Iraq. Most passengers suffer manifestations which may lead to Allergic or Respiratory diseases as they inhale polluted air produced by AC systems. In this study 10 vehicle were selected randomly on the basis of noxious odors emitted from AC systems. Indoor air samples were collected by using impaction method and using Sabouraud's dextrose agar to grow and isolate dominant fungi species accompanied with AC polluted air. Dust particle diameters aggregated in AC filters were measured because the particles work as transporters to carry fungi then get inhaled by the passengers. After isolating and identifying air fungi, frequency, occurrences percentage calculated. The Ganoderma lucidum extract was used as inhibitor agent and antifungal growth by using different concentrations: (10, 15, 20, 25) mg/ml. The results showed that the dominant species air fungi related to AC systems are: Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium and Rhizopus . The highest occurrences percent 80%, and highest frequency percent 33.3% was recorded to Aspergillus niger ,while the lowest occurrences percent 30%, and lowest frequency percent 12.5% was records to Rhizopus . Microscopic examination for dust particles showed that the particles size ranged between (1 µm to 10 µm), and the highest distribution percentage was 43% for particles of less than 5µm in size which are respirable and can cause allergic and respiratory diseases .The Ganoderma lucidum in concentration of 25mg/ml have highly inhibition zone than other concentrations .


Article
Evaluation of Tinospora cordifolia Willd. Extracts Against Algal Growth
تقييم فعالية مستخلصات نبات القنقينة Tinospora cordifolia Willd. على نمو بعض الطحالب

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The present study has been conducted to evaluate the antialgal activities of Tinospora cordifolia leaves extracts, these extracts included Terpens, Alkaloids, and Phenols of that plant against 3 algal isolates: Anabaena circinalis, Scenedsmus quadricauda and Mougeotia scalaris. The agar well diffusion method was used to evaluate the inhibitory actions of these extracts with 3 concentrations: 5, 10, and 20 mg/ml. The experiments were conducted and analyzed as factorial experiments with three replications using a completely Randomized Design, Means were compared according to L.S.D. values at 5% significant level. Results showed that A. circinalis was the most sensitive to alkaloid extract and the diameterinhibitionzone was 40 mm in 20 mg/ml concentration, while this alga was less sensitive to phenol extract anthe inhibition zone was 17 mm. also the results showed that alkaloids extract was most active against all algae usedin this study followed by terpens extracts, while the phenols extracts had lower antialgal activity.


Article
Influence of Cutting Position with IBA Hormone for Different Dipping Times on Rooting of Cassia tree Cassia surattensis Burm. Stem Cuttings
مع فترات تنقيع مختلفة في تجذير نبات الكاسيا IBA تأثير مواقع العقل الساقية ومنظم النمو Cassia surattensis Burm

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The present study was carried out in the experimental in the nursery at Al – Dorah (Baghdad). During spring 2015 under natural environmental conditions in plastic house to evaluated the effect of different concentrations of IBA (100, 300, 500, 700 and 1000( mg/1 on different cutting position (basal, sub terminal and terminal) for different dipping times (24, 48) hours, on Cassia surattensis Burm. stem cuttings rooting. After 2 months of planting the results demonstrated that the basal cutting treated with 1000 mg/l IBA in 48 hours dipping time showed the earlier rooted period (4) weeks compared with control treatment 8 weeks. The same treatment also gave the highest mean rooting numbers 1.56per cutting and the highest mean rooting lengths 2.88 cm compared with other treatments. The 1000 mg/l IBA treatment with basal and sub terminal gave the highest mean value of rooting percentage 55.5% in both dipping times compared with control treatment that gave 0.0%.


Article
Role of Kefir Milk on The Pathogenesis of Entamoeba histolytica
دور لبن الكيفر(الفطر الهندي) على أمراضية طفيلي الأميبا الحالة للنسيج

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Kefir is fermented milk made from kefir grains consist mainly of lactic acid bacteria and yeast, it has several health-promoting properties, such as antimicrobial ,antitumoral, and immunomodulating effects. However, there are few scientific reports about the effects of kefir on parasites. This work, studied the biological activity of kefir fermented against Entamoeba histolytica parasite in mice at concentration (100% and 50%) compared with the metronidazole (flagyl) drug at concentration (30 mgml). The results showed that infected mice treated with kefir(100% and 50%) complete the eradication of parasite after (6th and 8th day) respectively post inoculation while in metronidazole treated group the complete the eradication occur after (8th day) compared with control group which maintain shedding parasite until the end of experiment. The percentage of reduction parasite of treated groups were : kefir 100%was (81.1%) , kefir 50% was (76.4%) and for metronidazole was(75.1%). Histopathological it was study found that the parasite and metronidazole cause mucosal damage and inflammation while kefir reparation of the parasite damage in addition ,notice an increase in INF-γ levels was noticed in serum mice treated with both concentration of kefir and metronidazole reaching (428.8 , 419.8and 442) pg ml respectively compared with a range of positive and negative control, reaching (386.2, 233.2) pg ml. It also caused an increase of the concentration of secretory IgA in the intestinal tissue as it was in kefir groups and metronidazole (5.31 ,4.76 and4.14) ng ml respectively , compared with the positive and negative control groups, reaching (2.91 and 0.72) ng ml respectively. These results indicated that kefir could help in reducing the effect of Entamoeba histolytica or treating the parasite in patients especialy in immune suppressed patients .


Article
Using PCR for detection of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Baghdad
استخدام تفاعل البلمرة المتسلسل للكشف عن الإصابة باللشمانيا الجلدية في بغداد

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Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) is an endemic disease and one of the major health problems in Iraq. Leishmania tropica is known as the causative agent of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Baghdad.The classical serological methods of diagnosing leishmaniasis is a poor sensitivity especially for the sub genus and time consuming Here we have investigated two primer pairs, one specific for Leishmania as genus and the primer specific for the species of L. tropica to be detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR).Samples were collected from (AL-karama Teaching Hospital) and whole genomic DNA was extracted from axenic promastigotes.The extracted DNA was amplified by PCRwith two KDNA primer pairs, for genus specific (13A/13B) and (Lmj4/Uni21) to identify the specific species of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Amplified PCR products then run on gel electrophoresis and two visible bands of the two primers were seen, 120 and 800 bp, respectively. Our results indicate that the PCR technique is sensitive and specific for the detection and differentiation of cutaneous leishmaniasis agents and can be recommended to applied in hospitals and research centers.


Article
Heavy Metal Resistance of Aeromonas hydrophila Isolated from Raw and Drinking Water in Baghdad City
مقاومة المعادن الثقيلة لبكتريا Aeromonas hydrophila المعزولة من المياة الخام ومياه الشرب في مدينة بغداد

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A total of 551 water samples (drinking and raw water) were collected In this study, Aeromonas.hydrophila, were detected by biochemical tests and PCR (16s rRNA gene). The results of identification showed that A.hydrophila had recovery rate 63 isolates (49.21%). The results revealed that all A.hydrophila isolates were PCR positive or the 16S rRNA gene and the results of sequencing showed that two isolates of A.hydrophila(local isolates) had percentage similarities 100% with A. hydrophila ATCC 7966 in GenBank database .All strains had a minimal Inhibitory Concentration(MIC) distribution pattern for lead cetate rranged (900-1200 μg/ml), and mercury chloride ranged (40-80 μg /ml).


Article
The Spatial Distribution of Dubas Bug Egg Parasitoid Pseudoligosita babylonica Viggiani (Hymenoptara:Tropiduchidae) on Date Palm Trees
التوزيع المكاني لمتطفل بيض حشرة الدوباس Pseudoligosita babylonica Viggiani ) Hymenoptera:Trichogrammatidae) على أشجار النخيل

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The spatial distribution of dubas bug egg parasitoid Pseudoligosita babylonica Viggiani, within and among different heights of date palm trees (2.5-3,4.5-5 and 5.5-6 m) , have been studied to evaluate the ability of this parsitoid to respond the spatial distribution of its host .The results revealed that the highest percentage of parasitized eggs was found on the mid rows, and it was 13.32 % and 12.07% for Summer and winter generation , respectively.While, it was varied on the old and young fronds of a trees . Results also showed that the highest percentage of parasitism for Winter generation was found on the trees with height of 2.5-3 m , and the highest for Summer generation was found on a trees with height of 4.5-5m . While, the lowest percentage of parasitism for both generations was found on a trees with height of 5.5-6m.

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Article
Cloning, Expression and Purification of Putative Isovaleryl-CoA Dehydrogenase from Paracoccus denitrificans Pd1222
أستنسال وتعبير وتنقية الانزيم المفترض Isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase من بكتريا Paracoccus denitrificans Pd1222

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In Paracoccus denitrificans Pd1222 bacterium, Pden_3633 encoding gene has been nominated to encode for Isovaleryl CoA dehydrogenase (IVDH) [1], the enzyme which involve in leucine catabolism pathway. In this study, this putative IVDH was investigated. IVDH encoding gene from P. denitrificans Pd1222 in addition to desired features for cloning, expression and purification have been designed and synthesized. The synthetic coding sequence was expressed in Escherichia coli. The enzyme was purified as a Strep-Tagged protein with a total protein 220.5 mg. An apparent molecular weight of 42.9 kDa was determined on SDS gel. Amino acid alignment showed a very high similarity (91-96%) with corresponding IVDH from several other Paracoccus species. As for genera other than Paracoccus; Roseovarius mucosus, Catellibacterium nectariphilum and Oceanicola nanhaiensis recorded the highest similarity (85-86%), Suggesting that these mentioned species all have similar IVDH.


Article
Molecular Characterization Aminoglycosids Resistance Pseudomonas aeruginosa
التشخيص الوراثي للزوائف الزنجارية المقاومة للمضادات الامينوكلايكوسيدية

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Resistance to aminoglycosids is a great problem to therapeutics. Aminoglycoside acetyltransferase producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa have been reported to be important cause of nosocomial infections. The purpose of this study was to determine the occurrence of aminoglycoside acetyltransferase. A total of 200 clinical and environmental samples were collected over period of five months. The P. aeruginosa isolates were confirm their identification, antibiotic susceptibility profile according to vitek2 compact system. The isolates were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays with specific primers for aac (6')-I, aac (6')-Ib, aac (3')-I . Only 32 (16.%) P. aeruginosa isolates were recovered from the samples. in present investigation. Gentamicin seemed to offer more resistance (31.3%) than tobramycin (28.1%), which itself is slightly more resistance than amikacin (25%).In PCR experiments using specific primers for genes. aac(6')-I , and aac(6')-Ib were present in 12 (37.5%) and 15 (46.9%) of the isolates, respectively. While the aac (3')-I were negative among all isolates.


Article
Detection of Genetic Polymorphism in Iraqi Barley using SSR-PCR Analysis
الكشف عن تعدد الأشكال الوراثية في الشعير العراقي باستخدام تحليل التكرار التسلسلي البسيط

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Nine Iraqi varieties of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) has been differentiated and diagnosed using simple sequence repeat markers to detect their genetic polymorphism. Six SSR primers were used for genetic screening of barley samples (IPA 265, IPA 99, Tuwaitha, Hitra, Rayhan, Shuaa, Bawadi, Samir and Al_khair). These primers generated total PCR product (11) bands divided to 8 polymorphic bands 3 monomorphic bands. the percentage of polymorphism 80% ranged between (50-100%). a mean value of polymorphic band per primer was 1.6 . these primers produced amplification fragment at Molecular weight between 75-900 bp. One unique band was generated at size 200bp, this band can be used as a DNA profiling of all studied genotypes. These results appeared genetic distances ranged between (0.01098-0.99708) among studied varieties. Using the unweighed pair-group method using arithmetic averages (UPGMA) cluster analysis, nine barley landraces were clustered into two main clusters depending on their ancestors and to their spike type (two-row and six-row barley). These results will be useful for barley germplasm management in terms of biodiversity protection and breeder’s rights protection.


Article
Production, Purification and characterization of bioactive compounds from locally Streptomycesrochei M78
انتاج تنقية وتوصيف المركبات الفعالة حيويا من عزله محليه لبكتريا StreptomycesrocheiM78

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The aim of the current study was to optimize different cultural and environmental conditions for production the antibacterial bioactive metabolites by Streptomyces rochei M78 isolated from agriculture soil, in Baghdad, Iraq. The effect of various parameters such as, culture media, incubation time, pH, carbon and nitrogen sources, C: N ratios and inducers on antibacterial metabolite production was studied by varying single parameter at a time. It was found from the results that higher metabolite production by isolate observed using starch casein broth (SCB) as the best production medium, at initial pH 7.0.Starch andcasein +yeast extract + peptone appeared to be the best carbon and nitrogen sources respectively and C: N ratio of 4: 1 after 72 h of incubation for optimal production of antibacterial metabolites.Optimization studies indicated that antibacterial metabolites production was associated with bacterial growth, and that the presence of inducers, such asedible oils and diesel oil as well as amino acids in the medium also enhanced antibacterial metabolites production.The most bioactive compounds were produced with soybean oil as the sole carbon source, and leucine as amino acid, yielding an inhibition zone more than 35 mm against all tested pathogenic bacteria.Among different solvents used for the extraction of antibacterial metabolite, ethyl acetate was found to be the best for solvent extraction of the metabolites yielding 2.18 g /l of red to brown extract with oily nature. The antibacterial activity of different extraction fractions of the metabolites showed that the ethyl acetate extract was the most active agent against tested pathogenic bacteria.Physiochemical characteristic of antimicrobial metabolites revealed that the antimicrobial metabolite was red to brown in color, having gummy and oily nature. The purified metabolite was soluble in different solvents, with a melting point of 150 °C. The metabolites of isolate M78 were stable at pH that varies from 4 – 11, maximum antibacterial activity was found at pH 7 and at temperatures ranging from 25 to 100 °C, maximum at 25 °C. Higher bactericidal concentration (BC) of the compound against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria was determined as 250 µg/ml. The results showed that MBC values of the active metabolite had an impact at lower concentrations than those of standard antibiotic against tested pathogenic bacteria, suggesting that the metabolite was more effective.Theminimum inhibitory concentration value of compounds was 500 µg/ml against all tested bacterial isolates. Thin layer chromatography analysis of active metabolites showed two spots having an Rf value = 0.72 and 0.80.The FTIR spectrum of antibacterial compounds exhibited the presence of OH, C=O functional ester group, and C-H and CH3 groups in the structure. GC-MS analysis of active metabolites detected a total of 23 peaks; two major hydroxylated fatty acids were then identified as octadecanoic acid, 2-(2-hydroxy ethoxy) ethyl ester and tridecanoic acid, 3 methyl-, methyl ester with relative abundance of 100 and 33.63 % respectively.


Article
Identification of genetic mutations associated with autism in GABRB3 gene in Iraqi autistic patients
التحري عن الطفرات الوراثية ضمن الجين GABRB3 و المرتبطة بالتوحد في مرضى توحد عراقيين

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This study was aimed to detect and identify genetic mutations in γ-aminobutyric acid receptor β3 subunit encoding gene (GABRB3) and its association with autism spectrum disorders. Forty autistic patients and 25 non-autistic as control group (5 unaffected sibling and 20 unrelated) with age range from 3 – 10 years were included in this study. Chromosomal DNA was extracted from blood samples followed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of two targeted regions which include: (exon2-intron2-exon3) region and (exon 6) region of GABRB3 for subsequent DNA sequencing. Identical bands related to the targeted regions were present in all samples. A sample of PCR products of patients and controls were sequenced. Sequencing results revealed the presence of four different single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) in four autistic patients (one SNP in exon2, two SNPs in intron 1 and one SNP in the beginning of intron 3) while four different autistic samples and three from control group had no mutations along this region. Exon 6 showed 100 % sequence identity in all samples (seven autistic and three from control group). The translation of nucleotides sequences into amino acid sequence revealed that the SNP in exon 2 caused a change of amino acid in the polypeptide sequence by changing the codon (AGA) which codes for arginine to (AAA) which codes for lysine. The online software tool, RaptorX was used for the prediction of the three dimensional structure of the polypeptides in which exon 2 carrying one SNP (30 a.a.) showed that 5 (16%) positions predicted as disordered, while the structure prediction of polypeptide translated from exon 3 was not obtained due to its small length (22 a.a.). Structure prediction of polypeptide of exon 6 (46 a.a.) showed that (0%) positions predicted as disordered, considering its lack of mutations. These results suggest the association of the detected SNPs with autism, especially the SNP located in exon 2 considering that it changed the polypeptide three dimensional structure, thus it could possibly alter its function. All SNPs are reported for the first time in this study except the one in intron 3 (rs755863611) which was previously reported.


Article
The concentrations of Natural Radioactivity in Fly Ash Released from Al-Dura thermal Power Plant in The south of Baghdad City
تركيز النشاط الاشعاعي الطبيعي ومعاملات الخطورة لبعض عينات الرماد المتطاير من محطة كهرباء الدورة الحرارية في جنوب مدينة بغداد

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The concentrations of naturally radioactive made occurring and technically enhanced radioisotopes of fly ash samples, collected from Al-Dura thermal power Plant- south of Baghdad, have been investigated using the NaI(Tl) gamma-ray spectroscopy. The average Activity concentrations of the radio elements 238 U, 232Th and 40K in Fly ash samples are measured accurately and found to be 33.860, 32.6 and 644.64Bq/kg respectively. On the whole the radionuclide's concentrations are still below the global average of 50 Bq/kg for 238U and 232Th, but are much higher in 40K, relative to the global average, about 500 Bq/kg. The absorbed gamma doses in air, due to naturally occurring radionuclides in fly ash samples, are measured and found within the range; from 46.863 to 86.358 nGy h-1, which is higher than the world average, about 43 nGy h-1. As well as Fly Ash samples have had Radium equivalent activity (Raeq) with an average is about 138.82 Bq/kg. The radiation hazard indexes are calculated based on the above results and found lower than the maximum value. The overall average values of the Hex and Hin indices have been found to be 0.37and 0.32 respectively. Also, the overall average value of the representative gamma index (Iγr) for all fly ash samples is about 1.037, which are greater than the unity (>1). In this case, treatments to the NORM released from that station must be done.


Article
Growth and Characterization of CdTe Nanorods Flower-like shape
تنمية و تشخيص القضبان النانومترية للكادميوم تيلوريد بشكل زهرة

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CdTe nanorods were prepared by using aqueous chemical synthesis. The influences of reaction time (1-3 hours) on the optical and structural properties were studied. The UV-visible absorption spectrum reflects a wide absorption range in the visible spectrum. The energy gap calculations show decrease in the energy gap with increasing reaction time. The SEM images show that the CdTe appears as flower of nanorods-like.


Article
Formation Silver Nanoparticles of Different Size Using Different Reductants with AgNO3 Solution
تكوين جسيمات الفضة النانوية ذات الاحجام المختلفة باستخدام مختزلات مع محلول نترات الفضة

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In this study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are synthesized using different chemical routes to obtain different sizes and shapes of nanoparticles by colloid chemistry with using stabilizing and reducing agent, which make them interesting for variety of physical applications. The morphology and structure of the synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV-VIS spectra, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Zeta potential to demonstrate that different sizes and shapes can by synthesized by different reductants in the presence of various stabilizing agents.


Article
The Engineering Properties and Geochemical Relationship For The Volcaniclastic Rocks Of The Muqdadiya Formation In Hemrin Area, NE. IRAQ
الخواص الهندسية والعلاقات الجيوكيميائية لصخور الرماد البركاني لتكوين المقدادية في منطقة حمرين شمال شرق العراق

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Volcaniclastic rocks of Al Muqdadiya Formation (Pliocene) in Injana area, southern Hemrin anticline, NE of Iraq, were studied ( petrographically, physically, mineralogically and geochemically , as well as the engineering properties) to assess the suitability of volcaniclastic rocks to use them in industry as refractories. The results show that the physical and engineering properties change with the temperature change. The bulk density and the specific gravity increase by increasing temperature while the apparent porosity, water sorption and the linear shrinkage decrease. On the other hand the compressive strength increase by increasing temperature. The volcaniclastics have very low thermal conductivity. The petrography, mineralogy and geochemistry of these rocks show that there are positive and negative correlations between the major oxides as well as the minerals that make it suitable for refractory industry.


Article
Ostracoda as a paleoecological indicators for the Maastrichtian – Upper Eocene succession in North and Western Iraq
الأوستراكودا كدليل بيئي قديم لتتابع الماسترختي – الأيوسين الأعلى في شمال وغرب العراق

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Abstract

Ostracode assemblages have been utilized for the study of the paleoecology of the Maastrichtian – Upper Eocene succession (Hartha, Shiranish, Aaliji, Kolosh, Jaddala and Avanah formations) in North and Iraq, represented by five sections, including four boreholes, Anah well-2, Mityaha well-1, Makhul well-2, Chemchemal well-2 and Jabel Sinjar outcrop section. According to the different environmental factors affecting on the ostracode ecology, such as salinity, depth, temperature, oxygenation, substrate and food supply; and depending on the distribution of ostracode assemblages within the studied sections, nine ecofacies have been recognized indicating shallow brackish or brackish- marine water, neritic marine, inner shelf, inner to middle shelf, inner to outer shelf, middle shelf, middle to outer shelf, outer shelf, and outer to upper bathyal environments. So, the depositional palaeoenvironment of the formations of the study area are determined. The presence of the genera Leptocythere and Callistocythere within the Jaddala Formation in Mityaha well- 1 section indicate to the rising of the Khlesia- Mosul uplift during the Late Eocene, which is separating the basin of deposition into two bio-provinces; the Mediterranean Bio-province in the west and the Indo - Pacific Bio-province to the east – southeast.


Article
Evaluation of Tiger-Therthar channel and groundwater on the quality of Tigris river water at meeting point
تقييم تأثير مياه ذراع دجلة-الثرثار والمياه الجوفية على نوعية مياه نهر دجلة في منطقة التقاء الذراع مع النهر

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Abstract

This study was done to find the effect of Tigris-Therthar channel on the water quality of Tigris River to face the climate change which causes decreasing in water resources, in addition to decreasing in its quality. Nine stations were chosen located on Tigris River, Tigris-Therthar channel, Groundwater, and Therthar lake. The results indicated that the TDS increased in summer season, and the effect of Tigris-Therthar cannel was limited, also the effect of groundwater was limited, but there was an indication refers of possibility of increasing these effects on the quality of water. The study recommends observing the Tigris River through a programme to identify any change in water in future.


Article
Radon concentrations in dwellings of Baghdad city- Iraq
تراكيز الرادون في المنازل في مدينة بغداد- العراق

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Abstract

In this study, radon concentrations were measured in dwellings at specified locations in Baghdad city using ionization chamber radon monitor (ALPHA GUARD PQ2000 PRO). The measurements were carried out at different locations of these dwellings (living rooms, bed rooms, bath rooms, and kitchens). The results of the survey showed that the overall minimum, maximum average and mean average radon concentrations in dwellings were 5.77±0.73 Bq/m3, 23.27±13.57 Bq/m3, and 10.67±4.14 Bq/m3 respectively. The lowest average radon was found in (Ameryia) city, while the highest average radon concentration was found in (Kadmiya) city. Also, the results showed that the highest average radon concentration was found in the kitchens, while the lowest average radon concentration was found in the living rooms. The maximum annual effective dose in dwelling in Baghdad city in current study is 0.59 mSv.

Keywords

Radon --- Baghdad --- dwellings --- effective dose.


Article
Some New Species of the Subfamily Trachyleberidinae (Ostracoda) from the Maastrichtian – late Eocene of the Middle East
بعض الأنواع الجديدة لتحت العائلة Trachyleberidinae (أوستراكودا) من العمر الماسترختي - الأيوسين المتأخر في الشرق الأوسط

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Abstract

Five new ostracod species belonging to the subfamily Trachyleberidinae have been described. They are Paragrenocythere monilis and Peloriops levisulcata from the Maastrichtian of Iraq; Oertliella petraensis from the early Palaeocene (middle – late Danian) of Jordan; Reticulina syriaensis from the Palaeocene of Syria and Reticulina ninurta from the middle – late Eocene of Iraq.


Article
Stresses and Displacements Analyses around Tunnel Opening Under Water Body Using Finite Element Method (FEM) in Baghdad City/Middle of Iraq
تحليل الاجهادات والهبوط حول فتحة نفق تحت جسم مائي باستخدام طريقة العناصر المحددة (FEM) في مدينة بغداد/ وسط العراق

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Abstract

In this study, the stresses and displacement around a tunnel opening under water body in Baghdad city, middle of Iraq, during excavation and lining are discussed. For this purpose, the finite element method (FEM) was adopted as an effective approach to analyze the problem using (SIGMA/W) program. The research includes the study of the behavior of soil due to excavation of a tunnel by calculating the displacements and stresses in three positions of the tunnel (crown, wall, and invert) during the various stages of construction. The surface settlement is also studied. The finite element analyses were carried out Using (Elastic- plastic) and (linear elastic) models for the soil and the concrete liner respectively.


Article
Notes on Relative Contact Equivalence of Complex Analytic Map-Germs
ملاحظات حول علاقة الاتصال النسبية لبذور الدوال التحليلية العقدية

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Abstract

In these notes, our goal is to give some results on criterion for complex analytic map-germs by their tangent spaces with respect to Θ^K-equivalence where Θ is the module of complex analytic vector fields on 〖(₵〗^n,0).In addition, we give some results about Θ^K-trivial analytic family, the direct product and direct sum of map-germs.


Article
On Truncated of General Family of Baskakov –Type Operators
حول قطع تعميم عائلة من نوع مؤثر باسكاكوف

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Abstract

Recently, in 2014 [1] the authors introduced a general family of summation integral Baskakov-type operators B_(n,k,r) (f;x) . In this paper, we investigate approximation properties of partial sums for this general family


Article
A Secured End to End Voice Transmission in Smartphone
نقل صوت آمن من طرف الى طرف في الهاتف الذكي

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Abstract

The traditional voice call over Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) and Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) is expensive and does not provide a secure end to end voice transmission. However, the growth in telecommunication industry has offered a new way to transmit voice over public network such as internet in a cheap and more flexible way. Due to insecure nature of the public network, the voice call becomes vulnerable to attacks such as eavesdropping and call hijacking. Accordingly, protection of voice call from illegal listening becomes increasingly important. To this end, an android-based application (named E2ESeVoice application) to transmit voice in a secure way between the end users is proposed based on modified RC4. The performance of the proposed E2ESeVoice application is evaluated in terms of Mean Opinion Score (MOS) and computation time. The MOS score of E2ESeVoice application is measured with encrypted and unencrypted calls and resulted in values of 4.25 (Good) and 4 (Good) respectively. The result shows that the MOS of both tests is comparable and the encryption has not affect the quality of voice.

Keywords

RC4 --- Voice encryption --- VOIP


Article
Image Compression based on Adaptive Polynomial Coding of Hard & Soft Thresholding
طريقة مطورة لضغط الصور باستخدام متعدد الحدود للعتبة القاسية والسهلة

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Abstract

In this paper, an adaptive polynomial compression technique is introduced of hard and soft thresholding of transformed residual image that efficiently exploited both the spatial and frequency domains, where the technique starts by applying the polynomial coding in the spatial domain and then followed by the frequency domain of discrete wavelet transform (DWT) that utilized to decompose the residual image of hard and soft thresholding base. The results showed the improvement of adaptive techniques compared to the traditional polynomial coding technique


Article
Image Watermarking using Integer Wavelet Transform and Discrete Cosine Transform
العلامة المائية للصورة بأستخدام تحويل المويجة الصحيح و تحويلة الجيب تمام .

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Abstract

In the current research work, a system of hiding a text in a digital grayscale image has been presented. The algorithm system that had been used was adopted two transforms Integer Wavelet transform and Discrete Cosine transformed. Huffman's code has been used to encoding the text before the embedding it in the cover image in the HL sub band. Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) was used to measure the effect of embedding text in the watermarked image; also correlation coefficient has been used to measure the ratio of the recovered text after applying an attack on the watermarked image and we get a good result. The implementation of our proposed Algorithm is realized using MATLAB version 2010a.

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