Table of content

Iraqi Journal of Science

المجلة العراقية للعلوم

ISSN: 00672904
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Science
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi journal of science is a quarterly specified scientific journal issued by the Faculty of Science at the University of Baghdad. The members of the Editorial Board representing the Departments of Eight Scientific departments, college of science/ Baghdad University and its related units of research, all are professors, scientists with extensive experience and considerable skills in their field of science, as well as an advisory board in support composed of professors and scientists with great reputation in their field of science from other Colleges, universities, or research institutes. The specialty of publication includes the following fields:

1.Pure and Applied Physics.
2.Mathematical Sciences.
3.Computer Science and Information Technology.
4.Science of chemistry.
5.Bio-Science technologies.
6.Earth Sciences, geo-physics, and remote sensing.
7.Astronomy, Space Sciences, and Remote Sensing Unit.
8.Science and Research of tropical area

The visions, goals, and the mechanisms of the Iraqi Journal of Science is to publish scientific research sober in the areas of Applied and Pure Sciences and instructive Iraqi society, scientific research, scientific interest large to contribute to the development of various disciplines, which provides significant support to researchers in all scientific facilities to continue to support the development plans in Iraq.

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Contact info

Baghdad University
College of Science
Baghdad
Iraq
ijs@scbaghdad.edu.iq
07903375590
http://ijs.scbaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2016 volume:57 issue:2C

Article
Synthesis and Characterization of Some New Quinoline-2-one, Schiff bases, Pyrazole and Pyrazoline Compounds Derived From Hydrazide Containing Isoxazoline or Pyrimidine Cycles
تحضير و تشخيص بعض مركبات الكوينولين-2-اون و قواعد شف و بايارازول و بايارازولين الجديدة و المشتقة من الهيدرازيد الحاوي على حلقة الأيزوكسازولين أوالبيرمدين

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Abstract

The work involves synthesis of new quinolin-2-one Schiff bases (XIII)a,b and (XIV)a,b, pyrazoles (XI)a,b and pyrazolines (XII)a,b derivatives containing isoxazoline or pyrimidine cycle starting with chalcones. 3-Aminoacetophenone was reacted with 4-bromobenzaldehyde or 4-N,N-dimethyl aminobenzaldehyde in basic medium to give chalcones (I)a,b by Claisen-Schemidt reaction. These chalcons were reacted with hydroxylamine hydrochloride or with thiourea in basic medium to form isoxazolines (II)a,b or pyrimidine-2-thion (III)a,b ,respectively.Also the pyrimidine-2-thiones (III)a,b and isoxazolines (II)a,b reacted with 4-or 3-substituted benzaldehyde and coumarin to form Schiff bases (IV)a-f (V)a-f and quinoline derivatives (VII)a-d(VIII)a-d, respectively. On the other hand, compounds (V)b,f were reacted with ethylchloroacetate in basic medium to give ester compounds (IX)a,b .The condensation of new esters (IX)a,b with hydrazine hydrate led to produce new acid hydrazides (X)a,b.The later compound refluxing with 4-substituted benzaldehyde in dry benzene to give Schiff bases (XIII)a,band (XIV)a,b while the reaction of acid hydrazides (X)a,b with acetyl acetone or ethyl aceto acetate led to formation of pyrazole (XI)a,b , pyrazoline (XII)a,b ,respectively. The synthesized compounds were characterized by melting points, FTIR,C.H.N.analysis, Mass and 1H NMR spectroscopy(of someof them) Some of the synthesized compounds have been screened for their antibacterial activities using two types of bacteria; E. Coli and Staph. aureus. All the examined compounds did not show any biological activity towards E. Coli but compound (VII)a showed activity towards Staph. aureus.


Article
Comparison of Physical Properties, Energetic, Vibration Frequencies and Normal Coordinates, for Construction Units of Fullerene C60 Using Quantum Mechanical Calculations
مقارنة الخواص الفيزياوية والطاقية وترددات الاهتزاز والاحداثيات المتعامدة لوحدات بنية الفلرين C60 بأستخدام حسابات ميكانيك الكم

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Abstract

PM3 semiempirical method and Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations of the type (B3LYP) and a Gaussian basis set (6-311G) were carried out for fullerene C60 molecule with its construction units (5radialene, 1,2,3-trimethylene indan, and corannulene), to evaluate the geometrical structure (bond lengths, symmetry, and energetic such as heat of formation ΔH0f, total energy Etot., dipole moment μ, EHOMO (highest occupied molecular orbital energy), ELUMO (lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy), energy gap ΔEHOMO-LUMO), the distribution of electron density and vibration frequencies, all at their equilibrium geometries. Assignment of the vibrations modes was done according to the movement of the atoms as a result of DFT calculation using Gaussian program view. Comparison was done for the distribution of electron density with the expense of vibration frequencies and for the relationship of all the physical and electronic properties of fullerene C60 with its construction units


Article
Synthesis and Curing of New Phenolic Resins Containing Pendant TetrachloroPhthalimides
تحضير ومعالجة راتنجات فينولية جديدة تحتوي على رباعي كلوروفثال ايمايدات متدلية

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Four new phenol-formaldehyde resins containing tetrachlorophthalimides in their repeating units were synthesized via condensation of formaldehyde with N-(hydroxy phenyl)tetrachlorophthalimides under conditions similar to those used in novolac preparation. In this work structural modifications were performed first via design and synthesis of new phenolic component represented by phenolic ring linked to thermally stable tetrachlorophthalimide moiety which condense with formaldehyde and second via introducing of phenolic hydroxyl groups present in the new synthesized resins by esterification reaction with acetyl chloride producing the corresponding acetoxy substituted resins. Both the prepared and the cured resins have new properties which may serve different applications.


Article
A Study of the Effect of Some Growth Conditions on Inhibitory Activity of Lactobacillus delbrueckii and Lactobacillus fermentum to reduce Growth of E.coli
دراسة تاثير بعض ظروف النمو على الفاعلية التثبيطية لبكتيريا Lactobacillus delbrueckii و L.fermentum لتقليل نمو E.coli

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Abstract

Aimed this study to testing some of growth conditions on inhibitory activity of Lactobacillus delbrueckii bacteria and L.fermentum at various concentrations (50, 70, 90, 100) % on the growth of E.coli isolate used in this study. The results showed that the bacteria L. delbrueckii and L.fermentum at 100% concentrations gave highest inhibitory activity against E.coli with inhibition zone 27mm , while inhibition zone reached 17 mm at 50% concentration and when using a bacterial filtrate of L. delbrueckii and L.fermentum at 100% concentrations inhibition zone was with diameter 23mm , also stability of bactiriocin was examined against pH values, the results showed that highest stability in acidic PH compared to alkaline PH. The treatment of bacteriocins with salts suchas NaCl and KCl revealed low effect in inhibition zone with 1 & 5% concetrations. However the higher concentration of salt 5% caused high reduction and caused to loss of inhibitory activity of bacteriocins compared to1% with inhibition zone diameter were 16 and 18 mm for Nacl and Kcl at 1% while it decreased to 14 and 15 mm at % 5 . The results showed that stability of bacteriocins at temperature 37 ºC than 25 ºC

Keywords


Article
Effect of electric and heat shock on morphological characteristics for two varieties of wheat
تأثير الصعق الكهربائي والحراري على الصفات المظهرية لصنفين من الحنطة

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Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the Poaceae family (Gramineae). Is momentous for human nutrition, and the stresses can affect strongly on the phenotype characteristics of the plant. The aim of this study was to determine how electric shock on germinated grain (for 2.5, 5, and 7.5 mins.) and heat shock at ( 35 oC, 40 oC and 45 oC) applied after phase out the radical length of 2-5 mm, from the grain of two wheat Varieties: “Baghdad 1” and “Babylon 113”. The electric shock for 2.5 mins., lead to delay of flowering, from day to 50 % flowering was 93 day, as well as, gave lowest value of plant height 64.5cm and lowest spike length was 10.7 cm. While The highest flag leaf area was obtained by electric shock for 5 mins. was 56.6 cm2 compared to control treatment which was 28.9 cm2. The effects of heat shock at 45 oC, gave maximum plant heights was 78.3 cm and highest spike length was 15.3 cm. In response to electric and heat stress in both varieties, clear differences were observed. Baghdad 1 variety gave the minimum days from sowing date to 50% flowering was 84.85 day and maximum plant height rate 73 cm, while highest rate of flag leaf area 48.1 cm2 and highest spike length was 13.8 cm, by Babylon 113 variety. There is significant interaction between varieties and treatments, Babylon 113 for Es 5 minutes, gave highest value of flag leaf area was 65.8 cm2, and highest spike length 16.7 cm,. Whereas Babylon 113 for Es 2.5 minutes, gave maximum days to 50% flowering which was 93 day, lowest value of plant height 60.5 cm, and lowest spike length 10 cm.


Article
Local Study of blaCTX-M genes detection in Proteus spp. by using PCR technique
دراسة محلية للتحري عن جينات blaCTX-M في جنس بكتيريا المتقلبات Proteus spp. بإستخدام تقنية تفاعل الكوثرة

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In this study, 25 clinical isolates of Proteus spp. were collected from urine, wounds and burns specimens from different hospitals in Baghdad city, all isolates were identified by using different bacteriological media, biochemical assays and Vitek-2 system. It was found that 15 (60%) isolates were identifies as Proteus mirabilis and 10 (40 %) isolates were Proteus vulgaris. The susceptibility of P. mirabilis and P. vulgaris isolates towards cefotaxime was (66.6 %) and (44.4 %) respectively; while the susceptibility of P. mirabilis and P. vulgaris isolates towards ceftazidime was (20%). Extended spectrum β-lactamses producing Proteus was (30.7 %). DNA of 10 isolates of P. mirabilis and 4 isolates of P. vulgaris were extracted and detection of (blaCTX-M-1, blaCTX-M-2, blaCTX-M-8 and blaCTX-M-9) was done by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results showed the presence of blaCTX-M-2 gene, which is responsible for resistance to cefotaxime in these isolates, while no other types of , blaCTX-M genes were found in them.


Article
Biological activity of some plants extract against in the survival of rate adult Oryzaephilus surinamensis (Coleopteran Silvanaidae)
الفعالية الاحيائية لبعض المستخلصات النباتية في نسبة بقاء بالغات خنفساء الحبوب المنشارية Oryzaephilus surinamensis

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A laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the effect of crud extracts from seven plant species (Nigella sativa, Eugenia caryophylota, Corianderum sativum, Piper nigrum, Peganum hermala, Achillea santolina, Citrullus colocynthis) belong to different families tested as food feeding toxicity against adult of Oryzaephilus surinamensis. The results of the current study showed that hexane extracts from all plants used were more influential in all used concentrations than, the alcoholic extract, and hexane extract of Hanzal was more effective reaching survival rate of adult to 58.3% at concentration of 10% then the plant yarrow and black pepper about 66.2%, and 67.3% respectively, at the same concentration. While the survival rate was approximate in black bean, cloves, and rue at the same concentration 76.4%, 71.3%, and 77.3%. Respectively. The alcoholic extract of Hanzal was less effects on the survival of the adults it 70.0%, while the coriander plant least in fluently of all plants used in the study, as were 80%. In additional to the toxic action and anti-fed ant effect, preliminary results indicated that many of plant extracts have potential in giving good protections of stored plant from attacking by insect, they are indigenous and many be safe and readily available to protection granaries from attacking by insect pestes.


Article
The Role of Toll Like Receptor -2 in Hepatitis B Infection
دور TLR-2 في خمج التهاب الكبد الفايروسي نوع B

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Abstract

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a global public health problem. It is estimated that there are 240 million HBV carriers in the world, of whom roughly 600,000 die annually from HBV-related liver disease. A total of 150 individuals were included in this study, 130 individuals of them had hepatitis B infection (patients group); HBs-Ag was detected in their sera by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique and was confirmed by real time PCR analysis to detect the viral genetic material, the others were control. Most of HBV patients in this study were located within 20-40 years group with a percentage of 47.7% and within the 40-60 years group with a percentage of 38.5%. Acute infection was confirmed by detection of anti-HBc IgM antibodies, they were significantly higher (P<0.05) in acute hepatitis B patients than other groups in this study. Although there were no significant differences in biochemical tests, TSB, AST, ALT and ALP concentrations between study groups, the concentration levels of TSB, AST and ALT were higher than normal value in acute and chronic without treatment hepatitis B infected groups. Toll like receptor-2(TLR-2) serum levels were upregulated in hepatitis B patients, it was significantly higher (p≤ 0.001) in Hepatitis B infected patients than control. The highest level was in chronic hepatitis B patients without treatment, chronic with treatment, acute, then carrier groups. Indicating that, TLR2 might participate in the pathogenesis of HBV infection, probably through altering the innate immune responses during infection


Article
Optimum conditions for fibrinolytic enzyme (Nattokinase) production by Bacillus sp. B24 using solid state fermentation
تحديد الظروف المثلى لانتاج الانزيم المحلل لليفين (الناتوكاينيز) باستعمالBacillus sp. B24 بوساطة تخمرات الحالة الصلبة

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The present study was aimed to screen the ability of local isolates of Bacillus spp. (56 isolates) for nattokinase production using solid state fermentation, then optimize the nutritional conditions for enzyme production. The isolates were subjected to the primary and secondary screening process to select the Bacillus isolate which give the highest production of enzyme. It was found that Bacillus sp. B24 had the highest productivity of the enzyme (25.58U/mg protein). The optimum conditions for nattokinase production were performed by the solid state fermentation and found that the wheat bran was the best medium at initial moisture ratio 1.0:1.0 (w/v) using distilled water as moisturizing solution with initial pH of 7.0 after inoculation with 5×107 cell/ml for 72 hrs, the enzyme specific activity was 38.65U/mg protein


Article
Measurement of Radon Concentration in Fly Ash Samples from Electric Power Stations in Iraq in The Middle & South by using Nuclear Track Detector CR-39
قياس تركيز الرادون من بعض عينات الرماد المتطاير من محطات توليد الكهرباء في وسط وجنوب العراق باستخدام كاشف الأثر النووي CR-39

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In this study, concentrations of Radon were measured for fifty two samples of Fly Ash taken from five thermal power plants in the middle and south of Iraq [Al-Rashed, Al-Dura, Al-Musaeb, Al-Naserya, Al-Basrah (AlHaretha)]. The radon concentrations in samples measured by registrat alpha-emitting radon (222Rn) by using (CR-39) track detector, The concentrations values were calculated by a comparison with standard samples The results shows that the radon concentrations is between (91.931-30.645 Bq/m3)


Article
Nonlinear Optical Properties of Pure and Ag/Polyaniline Nanocomposite Thin Films Deposited by Plasma Jet
الخواص البصرية غير الخطية لاغشية متعدد الانلين النقي ومتراكبات فضة متعدد الانلين الرقيقة النانوية المرسبة ببلازما النفث

Authors: Hammad R. Humud حمد رحيم حمود
Pages: 1408-1414
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Abstract

In present work, the nonlinear optical properties of pure polyaniline and Ag/polyaniline nanocomposite thin films, deposited by plasma jet on glass substrate, were studied through open and closed Z-scan technique using pulse second harmonic Nd:YAG laser of wavelength 532nm, pulse duration of 30 ns and input energy 30mJ. The nonlinear optical properties of pure polyaniline thin films and silver polyaniline nanocomposite thin films prepared at constant gas flow rate 1lm-1 and different silver weight concentration 4, 5, and 10% were studied. The closed aperture Z-scan data indicates that the sign of the refraction nonlinearity is negative for pure polyaniline thin films n2 =11×10-3 cm2/MW and positive nonlinearity for Ag/polyaniline nanocomposite thin films, n2=72×10-3, 66×10-3 and 96×10-3 cm2/MW for silver weight concentration 4, 5, and 10% respectively. The open Z-scan measurements show two photons absorption β=75×103 cm/MW for 4%wt silver concentration and show saturated absorption for pure polyaniline, 5 and 10%wt silver concentration. The transmission spectra obtained by UV-Visible absorption spectra exhibit interference fringes, for the samples with 4% and 5%wt silver concentration which is an indication of the good uniformity and homogeneity of the films.


Article
Nano -Quartz Extraction from Acidic Activated Iraqi Bentonite
استخلاص النانو كوارتز من البنتونايت العراقي المنشط حامضيا

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The purpose of this study is the activation of natural Iraqi bentonite that has been obtained from Wadi Bashira region, in the Western Desert of Iraq, to obtain the Nano particle sized then Nano-Quartz was extracted. This method included bentonite nano particles preparation by purification with HCl solution, calcination, the planetary ball mill to get bentonite in nanometer size and centrifugation to obtain the Nano-quartz. Results of quartz purification process were characterized by Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), particle size analyzer (PSA) and the X-rays diffraction (XRD). All tests have shown almost a clear decline in the proportion of the high-calcium in crude Iraqi bentonite in conjunction with an increase in high rates of silica in Quartz phase.


Article
Elastic Electron Scattering From 52Cr, 58Fe and 64Ni Nuclei in the Framework of the Coherent Density Fluctuation Model
الاستطارة الالكترونية المرنة من النوى 52Cr، 58Fe و 64Ni باستخدام أنموذج تموج الكثافة المترابط

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Coherent density fluctuation model (CDFM) has been used to calculate the proton momentum distributions (PMD) and elastic electron scattering form factors, F(q), of the ground state for some even mass nuclei of fp-shell, such as 52Cr, 58Fe and 64Ni nuclei. Both of the PMD and F(q) have been expressed in terms of the weight function which is determined by means of the charge density distributions (CDD) of the nuclei and determined from theory and experiment. The feature of the long-tail behavior at high momentum region of the PMD’s has been obtained by both the theoretical and experimental weight functions. The calculated form factors of these nuclei are in reasonable agreement with those of the experimental data.


Article
Variation of Residual Chlorine Concentration in Some Regions of Al_Rassafa
تغاير تراكيز الكلور المتبقي في بعض مناطق الرصافة

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This study was done to examine the concentration of residual chlorine from different regions at AL Risafa side. The samples were collected from Baghdad AL- Jadida, Shareaa Phlistain, AL- Shaab and AL- Habibea, Al-Karrada, Al-Jadria, Al-Adamia at April-August/2013 .The Electrical Conductivity (Ec) and total dissolve solid (TDS), hang about its normal rate according to (WHO) but the Turbidity go beyond it’s limit to reach (11NTU) where the highest peak was recorded in Baghdad AL Jadida. The results show that chlorine concentration were decreased in the August compared with April because of high Temperature, and long in sun shine duration. It is found that there is inverse proportionality between residual chlorine and temperature. Same trend was found between residual chlorine and turbidity. The Conductivity and total dissolved solids of drinking water was within the permitted level according the Iraqi Standers (IQS, 2009).


Article
Computation of Climatic Water Balance for Greater Musaiyab Project Site in Babylon Governorate- Central of Iraq
حساب الموازنة المائية المناخية لموقع مشروع المسيب الكبير في محافظة بابل– وسط العراق

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The meteorological data recorded in Al-Hilla station for the period (1984-2014) were used to describe the climatic condition of the Greater Musaiyab Project lies in Babylon Governorate, 90Km southern of Baghdad City, central of Iraq. This study found that the summation of rainfall is (112.323 mm), average of relative humidity (47.44%), temperature (25.55 C◦), sunshine (8.748 h/day) and the total of evaporation is (2268.463 mm). In this research, three classifications were applied to find the type of climate in the study area. The results of the climate classification show that, the climate of study area is characterized by dry and relatively hot in summer, and cold with low rain in winter. Thornthwiat equation was used to determine the values of the potential evapotranspiration. This study shows that, there is water surplus of (39.12 %) of the total rainfall amount which is equivalent to (112.323 mm).


Article
Validity of Dujaila River Water within Wasit Governorate - Central Iraq
صلاحية مياه نهر الدجيله في محافظة واسط - وسط العراق

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Dujaila River is one of the Tigris River branches, its length is 69.45 km, 15 m width and 2.80 m depth, and discharge rate is 42.15m3/Sec. The river provides the water share for 396 thousand Acres. The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the suitability of water resources, for various purposes in the Dujaila River, Wasit Governorate-central Iraq. Physical and chemical properties have been investigated for 9 surface samples of the period August 2015- March 2016. The tests have been taken for the water major ions, total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity and acidity .Results indicated that the river water is classified as fresh water, according to the total dissolved solid (TDS), which its value ranges between (665-688) ppm in low water season, too (520-575) ppm in high water season, and showed that the Dujaila River water suitable for all purposes. Moreover, all of the water sample types were (Ca+2- sulfate).


Article
Micropaleontological aspects of the "Calcite Eyes" phenomenon in the family Orbitolinidae
المظاهر المستحاثية لظاهرة "العيون الكلسية" لعائلة الاوربتوليندي

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The presence of the "calcite eyes" is related to an internal physiological reason rather than genetically reason or parasite inhabitation. The individual of this family tries to create open spaces in the areas of its body intensively crowded by the main partition or its branches to avoid oxygen scarcity (dysoxic condition). This mechanism keeps the living matter in touch each to the other as well as continuity of the animal life. After death and burial, these created spaces are filled with pure calcite, as it is the case in the chamber passage. This phenomenon took place in both megalospheric and microspheric generations.


Article
Using Computer Processing Interpretation (CPI) Technique to Evaluate Mishrif Formation in Garraf Oil Field, Southern Iraq
استخدام تقنية تفسير المعالجة الحاسوبية لتقييم تكوين المشرف في حقل الغراف النفطي, جنوب العراق

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The aim of this study is to determine and evaluate the units and subunits of Mishrif Formation in Garraf oil field 85 km north of Nasiriyah city depending mainly on the geophysical well logging data and other amiable geological information. The sets of the geophysical well logs data acquired from GA-4, GA- AIP, GA- B8P, GA-3 and GA-5 wells of Garraf oil field are used to determine the petrophysical and lithological properties for each zone in Mishrif Formation to locate, define and evaluate hydrocarbon production from each zone in the reservoir which is also known as formation evaluation. The digitization was done by using Didger software and the interpretations were made using Interactive Petrophysics Program v 3.5 and Petrel software. It is found that middle and Lower parts of Mishrif Formation include several reservoir units (M 1.2, L 1, L 1.2, L 2, L 2.2, L 2.3 and L 2.4) that have been sealed by two cap layers (M 1 and M 2). M 1.2, L 1 and L 1.2 are considered as high quality reservoir units, because they have high values of porosity and hydrocarbon saturation.


Article
Effects of Land Use and Land Cover on Concentrations of Heavy Metals in Surface Soils of Lesser Zab River Basin, NE Iraq
تأثيرات استخدام الأرض و غطاء الأرض على تراكيز الفلزات الثقيلة في التربة السطحية لحوض نهر الزاب الأسفل، شمال شرق العراق

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To investigate and assess the effects of land use and land cover (LULC) on concentrations of heavy metals in the surface soils of Lesser Zab River Basin (LZRB), 25 surface soil samples were taken from different LULC classes. Heavy metals concentrations were measured and their enrichment factors were calculated. Most of the LZRB soil samples are moderately alkaline with pH>8 and characterized by low organic content. The average abundance of the major oxides follow the decreasing order of SiO2 % > CaO % > Al2O3 % > Fe2O3 %> MgO > K2O % > TiO2 % > Na2O % > SO3 % > P2O5 %. A correlation matrix revealed that clay and feldspar minerals, Fe and Mn oxides / hydroxides are the most important carrier phase for several heavy metals as their correlation of high significant values. The average values of the heavy metal contents are arranged in the following decreasing order: Mn> Cr> Ni>Zn> Cu> Co>Pb>Cd. The LZRB soils exhibits concentration higher than direct geochemical background (DGB), and lower than indirect geochemical background (IGB) and there is a clear difference in the accumulation of heavy metal in soils under different LULC classes. The highest accumulation of heavy metals has been found in agricultural land and next highest concentration in urban and built up land. Assessment of soil contamination is conducted using enrichment factor (Ef), contamination factor (Cf), and contamination degree CD. According to these factors the soils of LZRB showed no or minimal contamination for most metals in different LULC classes


Article
Petrology, Mineralogy and Diagenesis of the Rus and Jil Formations (l- Eocene) in Najif and Samawa areas, Southern Iraq
الصخارية والمعدنية والعمليات التحويرية لتكويني الرص والجل في مناطق مختارة جنوب العراق

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This research deals with study of the Petrology and mineralogy of the Rus and Jil Formations at Najif and Al-Muthanna Governorates, Southern Iraq. The Rus Formation consists mainly of evaporites and subordinate carbonates. The evaporites are characterized by nodular structure (compound wispy, wispy, structureless and mosaic structures) with some laminated structure at the studied sections. Compound wispy to wispy structure are the dominant structures. The Jil Formation consists almost entirely of carbonate. The carbonate rocks are dolomitic limestone and dolomite beds, massive, fossiliferous, cavernous sometime friable and bioturbated in its lower part. The Jil Formation contains evaporites as thin beds, sometimes nodular and contains selenite gypsum and very thin veins of satin-spar. X-ray diffractometry reveals that the non-clay minerals are dominantly dolomite, gypsum and calcite. The clay minerals present in the Rus Formation are: illite, smectite, chlorite and kaolinite. In the Jil Formation the main clay minerals are illite and smectite. The clay minerals are referring to climate arid to semi arid


Article
On Nano Generalized Semi Generalized Closed Sets
مجموعات النانو المعممة شبه المعممة المغلقة

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In this paper we introduced a new class of N-CS called Ngsg-CS and study their basic properties in nano topological spaces. We also introduce Ngsg-closure and Ngsg-interior and study some of their fundamental properties.


Article
The Continuous Classical Optimal Control of a Couple Nonlinear Hyperbolic Partial Differential Equations with Equality and Inequality Constraints
مسألة السيطرة الامثلية التقليدية من النمط المستمر لزوج من المعادلات التفاضلية الجزئية الغير خطية من النمط الزائدي بوجود قيدي التساوي والتباين

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This paper is concerned with the existence of a unique state vector solution of a couple nonlinear hyperbolic equations using the Galerkin method when the continuous classical control vector is given, the existence theorem of a continuous classical optimal control vector with equality and inequality vector state constraints is proved, the existence of a unique solution of the adjoint equations associated with the state equations is studied. The Frcéhet derivative of the Hamiltonian is obtained. Finally the theorems of the necessary conditions and the sufficient conditions of optimality of the constrained problem are proved.


Article
Efficient text in image hiding method based on LSB method principle
طريقة كفوءة لاخفاء نص في صورة بالاعتماد على أصل طريقة البت الاقل اهمية

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The steganography (text in image hiding) methods still considered important issues to the researchers at the present time. The steganography methods were varied in its hiding styles from a simple to complex techniques that are resistant to potential attacks. In current research the attack on the host's secret text problem didn’t considered, but an improved text hiding within the image have highly confidential was proposed and implemented companied with a strong password method, so as to ensure no change will be made in the pixel values of the host image after text hiding. The phrase “highly confidential” denoted to the low suspicious it has been performed may be found in the covered image. The Experimental results show that the covered image pixel (after text hiding) was perfectly match the original image pixels through the use of well-known quantify error metrics like rote mean square MSE and signal to noise ratio PSNR measurements. The experimental results are showed in table for various text sizes to the same cover image. Two digital images types (i.e., low and high details) were used in system evaluation.


Article
Steganography Based on Arabic Language Texts by Kashida Using STRI As RNG
اخفاء النصوص العربية بالاعتماد على اللغة العربية بواسطة الكاشيدة باستخدام طرح صورتين عشوائية كتوليد الارقام العشوائية

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Abstract

One of the primary problems in internet is security, mostly when computer utilization is increasing in all social and business areas. So, the secret communications through public and private channels are the major goal of researchers. Information hiding is one of methods to obtain a security communication medium and protecting the data during transmission. This research offers in a new method using two levels to hide, the first level is hiding by embedding and addition but the second level is hiding by injection. The first level embeds a secret message in one bit in the LSB in the FFT and the addition of one kashida. Subtraction of two random images (STRI) is RNG to find positions for hiding within the text. The second level is the injection of one or two random kashida within the text. Linguistic steganography covers all the techniques that deal with using written natural language to hide secret message. This research presents a linguistic steganography for scripts written in Arabic language, using kashida and Fast Fourier Transform on the basis of a new technique entitled subtraction of two random Images (STRI) as location to hide a secret message. The proposed approach is an attempt to present a transform linguistic steganography using levels for hiding to improve implementation of kashida, and improve the security of the secret message by using subtraction two random Images (STRI). This method was tested in terms of security and capacity, transparency, and robustness and this is way better than previous methods. The proposed algorithms ideal for steganographic properties.


Article
Feature Extraction of Human Facail Expressions Using Haar Wavelet and Neural network
استخلاص معالم تعابير وجه الانسان باستخدام تحويلات هار المويجيه والشبكه العصبيه الصناعيه

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One of the challenging and active research topics in the recent years is Facial Expression. This paper presents the method to extract the features from the facial expressions from still images. Feature extraction is very important for classification and recognition process. This paper involve three stages which contain capture the images, pre-processing and feature extractions. This method is very efficient in feature extraction by applying haar wavelet and Karhunen-Loève Transform (KL-T). The database used in this research is from Cohen-Kanade which used six expressions of anger, sadness fear, happiness, disgust and surprise. Features that have been extracted from the image of facial expressions were used as inputs to the neural network to recognize the facial expression .The recognition rate in this research was 90.5%.


Article
Compression of Astronomical Image Using Five Modulus Method
ضغط الصورة الفلكية باستخدام طريقة خمسة معاملات

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Abstract

The computer vision branch of the artificial intelligence field is concerned with developing algorithms for analyzing image content. Data may be compressed by reducing the redundancy in the original data, but this makes the data have more errors. In this paper image compression based on a new method that has been created for image compression which is called Five Modulus Method (FMM). The new method consists of converting each pixel value in an (4x4, 8×8,16x16) block into a multiple of 5 for each of the R, G and B arrays. After that, the new values could be divided by 5 to get new values which are 6-bit length for each pixel and it is less in storage space than the original value which is 8-bits.


Article
Determination the density of cometary nucleus material using gamma ray attenuation
تحديد كثافة مواد نواة المذنب بأستخدام توهين أشعة كاما

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Abstract

In this work, the technique of attenuation of gamma ray to calculate the density of comet nucleus materials (C/2009 P1 (GARRADD) at different range of energy (0.2- 0.9 MeV). also, the single scattering model for gamma rays has been assumed that photons reaching the detector with scattered only once in the material. The program has been designed and written in FORTRAN language (77 – 90) to calculate the density for molecules using Monte Carlo method was used to simulate the scattering and absorption of photons in semi- infinite material. Gamma ray interacts with the matter by three mainly interactions: Photoelectric effect, Compton scattering and Pair production (electron and positron). On the 137Cs source energy (662 keV), Compton scattering is the dominant interaction. at energies below about 150 keV the Photoelectric effect is significant , While Pair production occurs at energies above twice the electron rest mass energy (1.022 MeV). Both these processes have mass attenuation coefficients that are heavily dependent on elemental composition, which is why only those source energies within the "Compton window" are useful for densitometry. The calculation of our results of the density were compared with the real density and the comparison is very good.


Article
The Electron Temperature and The Electron Density measurement by Optical Emission Spectroscopy in Laser Produced Aluminum Plasma in Air
قياس درجة حرارة الالكترون والكثافة الالكترونية بواسطة تحليل طيف الانبعاث الضوئي لبلازما الالمنيوم المنتجة من الليزر النبضي في الهواء

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Abstract

In this work the Aluminum plasma in Air produced by Nd: YAG pulsed laser, (λ = 1064 nm, τ = 6 ns) has been studied with a repletion rate of 10 Hz. The laser interaction in Al target (99.99%) under air atmosphere generates plasma, which is produced at room temperature; with variation in the energy laser from 600-900 mJ. The electron temperature and the electron density have been determined by optical emission spectroscopy and by assuming a local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) of the emitting species. Finally the electron temperature was calculated by the Boltzmann plot from the relative intensities of spectral lines and electron density was calculated by the Stark-broadening of emission line.


Article
The Suggested Mutual Correlation between Ionospheric Parameters for Long Distance Radio Wave Communications
أقتراح علاقة تبادلية بين المعاملات الأيونوسفيرية للأتصالات الراديوية بعيدة المدى

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Abstract

In this research, the mutual correlations between ionospheric parameters (MUF, OWF and LUF) have been suggested. The datasets of the MUF and OWF parameters have been generated using ASAPS international communication model, while the LUF parameter has been calculated using the REC533 model. The calculations have been made for the connection links between the capital Baghdad and many other locations that spread over the studied zone (Middle East region). The annual time of the years (2009 & 2014) of solar cycle 24 has been adopted to make the investigation in order to get the mutual correlation between ionospheric parameters. The test results of the annual correlation between ionospheric parameters showed that the mutual correlation between MUF & OWF is simple and can be represented by a linear regression equation, while the mutual correlations between (MUF & LUF), (OWF & LUF) can be represented by a fourth order polynomial equation (Quartic Polynomial Equation). The results of the conducted study showed that there was a good fit between ionospheric parameter values that have been generated using the suggested mutual correlation equation and the results generated from the international communication models and the international recommended criterion.


Article
Determination local geoid Heights Using RTK-DGPS/Leveling and transformation methods
تحديد الارتفاعات الجيوديسية المحلية باستخدام (الرصد المتحرك اللحظي - بجهاز التموضع التفاضلي العالمي ) للمناسيب و طرق التحويل

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Abstract

Geodesy is concerned with the relative positioning of points and the gravity field of the earth. For this task, a well-defined coordinate system is needed on which measurements are normally tied to a set of reference points called a geodetic datum (geoid or ellipsoid). The Global Positioning System GPS gives accurately the three-dimensional position of a point (latitude, longitude, and ellipsoidal height) and can measure under all weather conditions. The coordinates of the GPS reference to the World Geodetic System1984 (WGS 84), a global ellipsoid having its origin as the mass center of the earth, and height, referenced to the surface of the ellipsoid . In this research , using RTK-DGPS technique Data collection for study local and leveling, and Earth Gravitational Models (EGM2008,EGM96 ) for determined to geoid undulation utilized 2D polynomial models , and then Using a surface interpolation (kriging) approach, the coordinate and the computed geoidal heights of some well selected points .


Article
New Tasseled Cap Classification Technique using Landsat-8 OLI Image Bands
تقنية جديدة للتصنيف بالاعتماد على تحويل الغطاء الخضري

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Abstract

The tasseled cap transformation (TCT) is a useful tool for compressing spectral data into a few bands associated with physical scene characteristics with minimal information loss. TCT was originally evolved from the Landsat multi-spectral scanner (MSS) launched in 1972 and is widely adapted to modern sensors. In this study, we derived the TCT coefficients for operational land imager (OLI) sensor on-board Landsat-8 acquired at 28 Sep.2013. A newly classification method is presented; the method is based on dividing the scatterplot between the Greenness and the Brightness of TCT into regions corresponding to their reflectance values. The results from this paper suggest that the TCT coefficient derived from the OLI bands at September is the most appropriate for harness these features to calculate the acreage of rice and compare them with the declared areas by the Iraqi Ministry of Agriculture to make sure of their accuracy.

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