Table of content

Iraqi Journal of Science

المجلة العراقية للعلوم

ISSN: 00672904
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Science
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi journal of science is a quarterly specified scientific journal issued by the Faculty of Science at the University of Baghdad. The members of the Editorial Board representing the Departments of Eight Scientific departments, college of science/ Baghdad University and its related units of research, all are professors, scientists with extensive experience and considerable skills in their field of science, as well as an advisory board in support composed of professors and scientists with great reputation in their field of science from other Colleges, universities, or research institutes. The specialty of publication includes the following fields:

1.Pure and Applied Physics.
2.Mathematical Sciences.
3.Computer Science and Information Technology.
4.Science of chemistry.
5.Bio-Science technologies.
6.Earth Sciences, geo-physics, and remote sensing.
7.Astronomy, Space Sciences, and Remote Sensing Unit.
8.Science and Research of tropical area

The visions, goals, and the mechanisms of the Iraqi Journal of Science is to publish scientific research sober in the areas of Applied and Pure Sciences and instructive Iraqi society, scientific research, scientific interest large to contribute to the development of various disciplines, which provides significant support to researchers in all scientific facilities to continue to support the development plans in Iraq.

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Contact info

Baghdad University
College of Science
Baghdad
Iraq
ijs@scbaghdad.edu.iq
07903375590
http://ijs.scbaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2016 volume:57 issue:3B

Article
Synthesis, Characterization and Study of The Liquid Crystalline Behavior of Four and Six Heterocyclic Compounds
تحضير , تشخيص ودراسة السلوك البلوري السائل لمركبات رباعية وسداسية الحلقة غير المتجانسة

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Abstract

The new compounds synthesized by sequence reactions starting from a reaction of 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde with 1,5-dibromo pentane to produce dialdehyde)I( .Then compound )I( reacted with different aromatic amines to give schiff bases )II-IV(,thereafter added acetyl chloride to schiff bases to yield N-acyl derivatives)V-VII(.While1,3-diazetine derivatives)VIII-X( were synthesized from the reaction of N-acyl derivatives with sodium azide.The reaction of thiourea with N-acyl compounds led to formation of thiourea derivatives (XI-XIII).Finally, the pyrimidine compounds )XIV-XVI( were synthesized by ring closure reaction of compounds(XI-XIII) with diethyl malonate.The synthesized compounds were characterized by measurements of melting points,FTIR,1H-NMR and mass spectroscopy for some prepared compounds.The liquid crystalline properties were studied by hot stage polarizing microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry DSC for compound (IX). The compounds)VI(, (IX),(XII) and (XV) display enantiotropic nematic mesophase, while other compounds(V),(VII),( VIII),(X),(XI),(XIII),(XIV) and( XVI) did not show any liquid crystalline properties.


Article
Isolation and identification of Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella specious from raw beef and lamb meat in Baghdad by PCR.
عزل و تشخيص جراثيم المكورات العنقودية الذهبية ,اللستيريا ,الاشريشيا القولونية والسالمونيلا من لحوم الابقار والأغنام النيئة في مدينة بغداد بواسطة تفاعل سلسلة البلمرة المتعدد

Authors: Zena K. Khalil زينة قاسم خليل
Pages: 1891-1897
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The study designed to determine the distribution of a major important food pathogens including Staphylococcus aureus , Listeria monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp from raw beef and lamb meat by using multiplex pcr . A total of 90 raw beef and lamb meat samples were collected from different butcher's shops in Al-Karkh side of Baghdad city and analyzed for the presence of these types of bacteria and their susceptibilities to some antibiotics was investigated ,the results showed that the prevalence of S. aureus (5.6%), L. monocytogenes (3%), E. coli O157:H7 (7.8 %) and Salmonella spp (5.6%) from the total samples .The result of the susceptibility test showed that S. aureus isolates were susceptible to Amikacin (80%) ,while L. monocytogenes isolates were susceptible to the most used antibiotics as following Amikacin, Erythromycin, Oxytetracycline, Nalidixic acid ,Cephalothin, Gentamycin, Ampicillin and Streptomycin (100%). E. coli O157:H7 isolates were susceptible to Nalidixic acid and Gentamycin (100%) and Salmonella spp isolates were susceptible to Nalidixic acid ,Cephalothin and Gentamycin (80%) .


Article
A comparative study between the effect s of Arctium lappa L. leaves extract and Pentoxifylline on DNA of sperms rats treated with Gentamicin
دراسة مقارنة بين تأثير مستخلص اوراق الأرقطيون والبنتوكسيفيلين على الحمض النووي للحيوانات المنوية في الجرذان المعاملة بالجنتامايسين

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Abstract

This study were designed to make comparison between the influence alcoholic extract of Arctium lappa L. leaves and Pentoxifylline on treatment the adverse effect of gentamicin on DNA of sperms. Thirty five male rats were divided into 5 groups: the 1st group (T1) was made as negative control group, the 2nd group (T2) was given distilled water and gentamicin 5mg/kg (positive control group), the 3rd group (T3) was given a dose 600 mg/kg of Arctium lappa L and gentamicin, the 4th group (T4) was given dose 100mg/kg of pentoxifylline and gentamicin, the 5th group (T5) was given a dose 300mg/kg of Arctium lappa extract with dose 50mg/kg of pentoxifylline and gentamicin. The results of DNA damage% and agglutination % in T3, T4 and T5 appeared an important increase as compared with T2. Testosterone level in T3 and T5 showed an important arise when made comparison with T2 and T4. The section of testis in (T2) showed several destructions in the testis and sever necrosis of the seminiferous tubules, while the section of testis in (T3) showed slight odema in the interstitial tissues and decrease degenerative changes of the somniferous tubules. The section in (T4) showed odema in the interstitial tissues and blood vessels congestion, while the section in (T5) group showed development in tissue of testis, there is healthy spermatids and mild changes in the testis when compared with section of rat testis treated with pentoxifylline only. In this study concluded the Arctium lappa leaves extract and pentoxifylline have the ability to lessen the adverse action of gentamicin on DNA of sperms and Arctium lappa leaves caused improvement the action of pentoxifylline in improvement fertility.


Article
Histopathological changes of mice liver induced by an Aloe vera whole leaf extract
التغيرات النسجية المرضية لكبد الفئران الناجمة عن مستخلص نبات الصبار

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Abstract

Plants commonly used in traditional medicine are assumed to be safe. This safety is based on their long usage in the treatment of diseases according to knowledge accumulated over centuries. One such plants is Aloe vera which has been used medicinally for centuries. Recent widespread importance of commercial Aloe vera has encouraged scientists to scientifically assess these products since it contains the anthraquinones which associated with considerable risks. In present study oral administration of 20 µl of Aloe vera extract (experimental group) (G) was given for 21 days to immature male Swiss Webster mice at weaning period. While the control groups (C) were given by the same dose and rout of administration with normal saline only. After six weeks (around puberty) the male were sacrificed to get their liver, then fixed with 10% formalin, and histological sections with a thickness of 5 microns were prepared. Aloe vera whole leaf extracts treatment resulted in liver necrosis, hepatocellular dissociation with lymphocytic cell aggregation and increase of cytoplasmic vacuolation. The sinusoids of animals fed Aloe vera whole leaf extracts were found to be widened. This study was designed to assess the histopathological changes of liver tissues of male mice administered low dose of fresh whole leaf Aloe vera extract.


Article
Estimation the levels of some heavy metals in the soil and vegetables irrigated with wells water in some agriculture fields at Al- Dora district – Baghdad
تقدير مستويات بعض العناصر الثقيلة في التربة والخضار المروية بمياه الابار لبعض الحقول الزراعية في منطقة الدورة – بغداد

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Abstract

Heavy metals are currently of much environmental concern. The contamination by heavy metals in plants and water is one of the major issues to be faced throughout the world. This research is tried to estimate levels of heavy metals in vegetative crops and soil irrigated with well water (as alternative source for irrigation). Samples of well water, soil and vegetative crops were collected from agriculture fields at Al-Dora district in Baghdad. Physico-chemical parameters (pH, EC, TDS and Salinity) were measured for water and (pH, EC and salinity) for soil samples. Estimation of Lead (Pb), Nickle (Ni), Zinc (Zn) and Iron (Fe) concentrations in water, vegetable crops (Raphanus sativus, Apium graveoleus, Beta vulgaris, Allium ampeloprasum, Lepidium sativum, Eruca sativa and Petroselinum hortense) and soil samples were done. The results shows that the pH values ranged between 5.1- 6.4, EC 870-2760 µs/cm, TDS 430– 1390 mg/l and 0.5568- 1.7664 ppt for salinity of well water samples, while for soil samples the readings were 6.9-7.5, 200-1820 µs/cm and 0.128-1.1648 ppt for pH, EC and salinity, respectively. For heavy metals concentrations in wells water, the values were ranged between 1.636- 1.884 ppm, 1.068- 1.512 ppm, 0.292- 2.148 ppm and 1.404- 9.756 ppm for Pb, Ni, Zn and Fe, respectively. It was found that the samples of soil were contained Pb in the range 12.4- 58.2, Ni 144.5-214.83, Zn 83.07- 286.09 and Fe 16905.37- 22259.56 ppm, whereas the heavy metals concentrations in the vegetable crops were 0.92- 8.91, 11.78-82.82, 11.16- 77.44 and 628.44- 7977.07 ppm for Pb, Ni, Zn and Fe.


Article
Molecular and Bacteriological Detection of Some Bacterial Vaginosis Associate Bacteria in Women
التشخيص الجزيئي والبكتريولوجي لبعض أنواع البكتريا المرتبطة بالتهابات المهبل عند النساء

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Abstract

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is one of the most common genital infections among women in the childbearing age. Many novel, fastidious and uncultivated bacterial species are related with BV. These are called bacterial vaginosis associated bacteria (BVAB), present in trace amount and have a significant role in the infection. A total of 80 vaginal swabs were obtained from 80 pregnant and non-pregnant women. Samples were collected from different hospitals in Baghdad city and Al-Kut city. Clinically, 60 sample among 80 were gave positive results depending on Nugent score and Amsel criteria ,the Bacteriologicall test showed the percentages of gram negative bacteria (E.coli ,K.pneumoniae, P.mirabilis, Ps.aeruginosaand A. baumanniiwere) were (38.3 ,28.3, 26.6,20,16.6,15)% respectively, while, the percentages of gram positive bacteria ( Lactobacillus spp., S. epidermidis , S. aureus, S. agalactiae and S. faecaliswere( 100, 46.6, 38.3,18.3 ,11.6)% respectively. The results of molecular detection revealed that the specific primers amplified in 48 sample of vaginal swabs and produced a single band with a molecular weight of 210 bp for G. vaginalisgene, and 9 samples of vaginal swabs for Leptotrichia/Sneathia gene and produced a single band with a molecular weight of 320bp,3While negative results for other bacteria such as Atopobiumvaginae and Bacterial Vagionosis Associated Bacteria 1,2,3 ( BVAB1, BVAB2 and BVAB3) . The results of LactobacillusSpp., showed that among 60 samples of LactobacillusSpp., 28 isolates (46.66%) were L. acidophilus and the PCR product appeared as a single DNA band with a molecular weight of 192bp,while 32 isolates (53.33%) were L. fermentum,the PCR product appeared as single DNA band with a molecular weight of 600 bp. Sequencing of 16s rRNA of G.vaginalisand L.fermentumwasagreed with PCR identification give similar identity in percentages (87.5 and 100)% respectively with the standard strains in NCBI web site. While for Leptotrichia spp. it differs and related to modified nucleic acid bacteria in comparison with NCBI web site and hence is considered as a novel BV associated bacteria in vagina.


Article
Genotyping of Klebsiella spp. isolated from different clinical sources
التنميط الجيني لبكتريا Klebsiella spp المعزولة من مصادر سريرية مختلفة

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Abstract

A total of 172 clinical were obtained over 6 months. Klebsiella spp. was detected in 58 (33.7%) samples with a high percentage 29 (50%) in urine in female and low percentage 1(1.7%) in pus and burn swabs in male, and the vaginal swab was 1(1.7%). The female to male ratio was 3.1:1. PCR detection showed that 51(87.93%) out of 58 produce 108 bp. product with rpoB specific primer that represented K. pneumonia. Whereas 7(12.07%) showed PCR product with 343 bp by K. oxytoca specific primer (peh X), furthermore, the sequences of two selected isolates showed that the species related to K. oxytoca strain CAV1335, and to K. oxytoca strain CAV1374. Five selected isolates were re-tested by the gyr A primer, all were showed specific band product with 441bp. Sequencing blast analysis for these isolates showed that one was related to K. pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae strain RJF999, two isolates related to K. pneumoniae strain 17265 GyrA, one related to K. oxytoca strain 7102 GyrA and one related to K. pneumonia isolate 103 GyrA gene. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed the relation of 3 K. pneumoniae isolates to USA and UK strains and one with the Asian strains, and 2 K. oxytoca isolates have a relation within the Iranian strains and one has a genetic variation.

Keywords

K.oxytoca --- PCR --- sequencing --- phylogeny


Article
Micronuclei Formation and Comet Assay in Women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS)
تكوين النويات الصغيرة وفحص المذنب في النساء التي تعاني من اعراض تكيس المبايض المتعدد

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Abstract

Recently the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has been linked with DNA damage and genomic instability. Amis of this study to evaluated some parameters of genetic instability such as micronuclei and comet assay score in women with PCOS. Genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of DNA damage were evaluated by measured of micronuclei and comet assay in 25 patients with PCOS and 15 normal menstrual women as control group. The results showed higher significant differences in the level of micronuclei and comet score in patients with PCOS compared with normal women. We concluded that, the genetic instability more occurred in patients with PCOS when compared with control group.

Keywords

MN --- comet assay --- PCOS


Article
Preparation and Characterization of γ-Al2O3/Al Composite
تحضير ودراسة خصائص المتراكب –Al2O3/Alγ

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Abstract

A cermet (ceramic-metal) composite have been prepared from alumina (γ-Al2O3) reinforced with aluminum (Al) for the concentrations of (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, & 50) wt. %Al. The cermet was formed by single axial pressing, sintered in vacuum atmosphere. Compaction behaviors were studied in solid state sintering at sintering temperatures (400, 450, & 550) °C, sintering times (2, 4, & 6) hrs., and forming pressures (5, 10, 15) MPa, also in liquid phase sintering at (800 °C). The cermet was characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and by scanning electron microscope (SEM), also physical and mechanical properties have been studied. SEM results showed the Al flowing inside the ceramic body due to uniform distribution of Al particles and due to sintering temperature (800 °C) have been used. XRD results showed that there is no new phase formed between Al and Al2O3 after sintering due to there is no chemical reaction but physical reaction between them. The existence of Al enhanced the physical properties as the sintering (time & temperature) and pressure increase. Hardness values increased to 30 wt. % Al then decreased due to Al ductility. The oxide layer on the friction surfaces played important role for increasing wear rate.

Keywords

cermet --- composite --- ᵞ-alumina


Article
Effect of Gamma irradiation on The Optical properties of (PVA: CuCl2) films
تاثير التشعيع باشعة كاما على الخواص البصرية لآغشية بوليمر فينال الكحول المشوبة بوكلوريد النحاس

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The study effect irradiation on optical properties of film (PVA: CuCL2) prepared by casting method, with thickness of (30±1) µm. And used Cs137 to obtained Gamma ray with energy (662)keV and time irradiation(5,6 and 7) weeks and affectivity (4.3) ci. The spectra absorbance and transmittance register in range (300-1100) nm. Results show that the optical band gap for (PVA: CuCl2) decreasing after irradiation with gamma ray from (3.2,3.1,3 and 2.7)eV, urbach energy values increase with the increasing time radiation. And the absorption constants (α,k,n,) and the optical conductivity are changing after irradiated with gamma ray


Article
Study of the Influence of Different Optical Properties on the Image of Compound light microscope
دراسة تأثير الخصائص البصرية على صور المجهر الضوئي المركب

Authors: Ghada Sabah Karam غادة صباح كرم
Pages: 1975-1985
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Abstract

Microscope images are characterized by a number of specific parameters, the influence of such parameters (intensity, magnification, numerical aperture, diaphragms aperture, segmentation, and edge detecting technique) on measurement in optical microscope images have been determined with using a powerful image processing methods. As one of the most widespread techniques in biological investigation and dynamic process, light compound microscopy has used to analyze the optical properties of biological images. The results indicate that a wide aperture allows maximum resolution and depth of field, but decreases the contrast. While a small aperture improve visibility and contrast but decreases the resolution. The results also show the best performance in focus with image that have a wide diaphragm aperture at high intensity. The analysis of statistical properties of images is acceptable, and there is unnoticeable changes in correlation coefficients between images at high intensity.


Article
Effect of Excitation Energy and Mass number on Most probable exciton number
تاثير طاقة الاثارة والعدد الكتلي على عدد الاكسايتونات الاكثر احتمالا

Authors: Ali. D. Salloum علي داود سلوم
Pages: 1986-1991
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Exciton model describes the excitation of particles in pre-equilibrium region of nuclear reaction by exciton. In pre-equilibrium region there is a small probability for occurring emission and the number of excitons be the probability of the emission of it possible more is called most probable exciton number MPEN. In this paper the MPEN formula was derived for protons and neutrons separately and so MPEN formula derived with taking into account the non equidistant spacing between the energy states. The MPEN was studied with the mass number where it is noticed the MPEN increases with increasing the mass number. Also, MPEN studied for different isotopes of Al, the MPEN increases with increasing mass number of isotopes. MPEN for neutron is compared with that of protons and found that the MPEN for neutrons is larger than that of protons. MPEN in case of one component is compared with MPEN of proton and neutron it is found that the MPEN of one-component is greater than the MPEN for both protons and neutrons. Finally the MPEN in case of equidistant spacing model ESM is compared with that of non equidistant spacing model non-ESM where it is noticed the MPEN of ESM is greater than that of non-ESM.


Article
The calculation of the charge density distributions of the 1f-2p shell nuclei using the occupation numbers of the states
حساب توزيعات كثافة الشحنة لنوى تقع ضمن القشرة النووية 1f-2p باستخدام حالات اعداد الملئ

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The charge density distributions (CDD) and the elastic electron scattering form factors, F(q), of the ground state for some 1f-2p shell nuclei, such as 74Ge, 76Ge, 78Se and 80Se nuclei have been calculated based on the use of occupation numbers of the states and the single particle wave functions of the harmonic oscillator potential with size parameters chosen to reproduce the observed root mean square charge radii for all considered nuclei. It is found that introducing additional parameters, namely β1 and β2 which reflect the difference of the occupation numbers of the states from the prediction of the simple shell model leads to a remarkable agreement between the calculated and experimental results of the charge density distributions throughout the whole range of r. The calculated elastic electron scattering form factors from 74Ge, 76Ge, 78Se and 80Se nuclei are very good agreement with the fitted to the experimental data throughout all values of q.


Article
Microscopic calculations of effective charges and quadrupole transition rates in Si, S and Ar isotopes
في نظائر سيلكون,الكبريت والااركون حسابات مجهرية للشحنات الفعالة و معدلات الانتقال الرباعية

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Quadrupole transition rates and effective charges are calculated for even-even Si, S and Ar isotopes based on sd and sdpf -shell model spaces. Shell model calculations are performed with sd shell-model space for neutron number (N) ≤ 20 and sdpf shell-model space for N > 20. Excitation out of major shell space are taken into account through a microscopic theory which allows particle-hole excitation from the core and model space orbits to all higher orbits with 2 excitation. Effective charges are obtained for each isotope. The results show a systematic increase in the B(E2) values for N ≥20. Shell model calculation predicts the erosion of the N=28 magicity in the neutron rich 42Si. No clear indications about the erosion of the shell gap closure in 44S and 46Ar isotope.


Article
Determination of the shape for (54Xe and 82pb) nuclei from deformation parameters (β_2, δ)
(β_2, δ)خلال معاملات التشوه من (54Xe و 82pb ) تحديد شكل نوى

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The shape for even-even (54Xe 118≤ A ≤ 140 and 82Pb 204 ≤ A ≤ 210 ) nuclei have been studied and investigated through the deformation parameters β_2 and δ , these deformation parameters were calculated by two different methods. The first one is nucleus quadrupole deformation parameter β2 from reduced transition probability B(E2)↑ for 0+→2+1 transitions and the second is nucleus quadrupole deformation parameters δ from quadrupole moment Qo.The relationship between two deformation parameters (β_2 , δ) and neutrons magic number (N=82 & 126) was studied through plotting the deformation parameters (β_2 , δ) as a function of neutrons number , from this relationship we can see very cleary that the deformation of nucleus decreased when the neutrons number approaches to magic number. In the present work, another relationship was studied, this was the relationship between two deformation parameters β_2 and δ which is obtained by getting the ratio of δ/β_2 . To achieve our mean purposes (determine the nuclear shape from deformation parameters) and come to a decision if the nucleus under the study has prolate , oblate or spherical shape through calculating the minor and major ellipsoid axises (a ,b) and plotted the nucleus shape depending on the value of (a ,b).


Article
Mineralogical and Geochemical analysis of the sediments surrounding the Main Drain Area, Middle of Iraq
التحليل المعدني والجيوكيميائي لرواسب المنطقة المحيطة بالمصب العام, وسط العراق.

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Fifty five surface and subsurface soil samples were taken from the area between Tigris and Euphrates Rivers along the Main Drain course from north Baghdad to Basrah to evaluate the geochemical, physical characteristics and the probability contamination of these samples. The study area is covered by Quaternary sediments of complex alternation of sand, silt and clay. Significant variation in the textural content of the present soils is observed, where the northern and southern parts are characterized by silt predominance, while sand is prevailing in the central parts as a result of the extensive spreading of aeolian deposits represented mostly by sand dunes. Mineralogical analysis explains wide variations in the heavy minerals distribution of different origins and that all of these minerals reflect the same distribution patterns. Calcite and quartz are the minerals of non-clay fraction, whereas montmorellonite, kaolinite, and chlorite are the key clay mineral in the present soils. No geochemical anomalous concentration of the trace elements in the soils can be detected except of few locations revealing potential pollutions. Clustering technique of the surface and subsurface soils shows presence of five and six groups respectively. This confirms the complexity and diversity nature of the sedimentary environment. Discriminante analysis of the surface soils indicates that salinity and sand content are the main discriminating variables responsible for grouping the soils, whereas sand, salinity and the main oxides are the discriminating variables for grouping subsurface soils. These statistical analysis and other relations results confirm that no clear indication concerning trace element pollution can be detected in the study area soils


Article
Natural Attenuation Modelling of Heavy-Metal in Groundwater of Kirkuk City, Iraq
موديل التوهين الطبيعي للمعادن الثقيلة في المياه الجوفية لمدينة كركوك، العراق

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This study deals with the shallow alluvial aquifer situated beneath the urban area of kirkuk city. The ancient part of the city (Shorja) is affected by seepage from local agricultural areas causing relatively high heavy metals concentration in groundwater. The selection of polluted site depended on the highest TDS value (3856 mg/L) associated with the highest heavy metal concentrations (Pb, Ni, Co and Zn) in groundwater. This study focuses on the evaluation of natural attenuation effectivity for long-term protection of groundwater quality using realistic three-dimensional reactive-transport groundwater model. The requirements of 3-dimensional reactive transport model were obtained from field observation and laboratory works, in addition to aquifer stratigraphy, minerology and hydrochemistry. The simulations were achieved by using PHAST program that is depended on the HST3D flow and transport code and the hydrochemical PHREEQC code. The modeling results explained the ability of natural attenuation in consuming the concentration of heavy metals, where Long-term (20 year) simulation results show that heavy metal adsorption on hydrous ferric oxide, effectively capture the movement of heavy metals in groundwater down gradient of source areas, resulting in an basically immobile groundwater plume.


Article
Reservior Characterization of The Hartha Formation, Southern Iraq
الصفات المكمنية لتكوين الهارثة جنوب العراق

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Well log analysis of selected sections in southern Iraq revealed that primary porosity is the most effective parameters. Secondary porosity seems to be related mainly to dissolution and dolomatization. The Hartha Formation has good water saturation and low production except in the eastern and central part of the study area. Two reservoir units were recognized in Mj-2 whereas only one in Ga-1. The values of velocity deviation in most wells show high positive deviation, this may indicate relatively high velocity in regard to porosity where pores are commonly not connected such as in interaparticle or moldic porosity. A positive deviation also may indicate low permeability. Negative deviation zone (Only in Ak-1) may represent caving or irregularities of the borehole wall despite the fact that fracture porosity has always been included in the secondary porosity. The primary porosity of the upper reservoir unit shows a clear increase to the southeast mainly towards the deep outer ramp area where deep and baisnal facies dominated. It is located within the Highstands Systems Tract (HST) where the effect of mixing dolomitization is present. The effective porosity values show little variation in the whole study area with a clear increase eastward.


Article
ON SN-SPACES
حول الفضاءات من النوع SN

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The aim of this paper is to introduce and study the concept of SN-spaces via the notation of simply-open sets as well as to investigate their relationship to other topological spaces and give some of its properties.


Article
Generalized Strong Commutativity Preserving Centralizers of Semiprime Rings
التمركزات الحافظة للابدالية القوية المعممة على الحلقات شبه الاولية

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Let R be a semiprime ring with center Z(R) and U be a nonzero ideal of R. An additive mappings f,g:R→R are called right centralizer if f(xy)=xf(y) and g(xy)=xg(y) holds for all x,yϵR. In the present paper, we introduce the concepts of generalized strong commutativity centralizers preserving and generalized strong cocommutativity preserving centralizers and we prove that R contains a nonzero central ideal if any one of the following conditions holds: (i) f(x)x=xg(x), (ii) [f(x),g(y)]=0, (iii) [f(x),g(y)]=±[x,y], (iv) f(x)og(y)=0, (v) f(x)og(y)=±xoy, (vi) [f(x),g(y)]=±xoy, (vii) f(x)og(y)±xyϵZ(R), (viii) f(U)⊆Z(R) for all x,yϵU.


Article
Generalized-hollow lifting modules
مقاسات الرفع المجوفه- المعممة

Authors: Wasan Khalid Hasan وسن خالد حسن
Pages: 2089-2093
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Let R be any ring with identity, and let M be a unitary left R-module. A submodule K of M is called generalized coessential submodule of N in M, if N/K⊆ Rad(M/K). A module M is called generalized hollow-lifting module, if every submodule N of M with M/N is a hollow module, has a generalized coessential submodule of N in M that is a direct summand of M. In this paper, we study some properties of this type of modules.


Article
An Image Coding and Embedding Strategy Based on Channel Variations and DNA Sequences
ستراتيجية ترميز صوره وطمرها بالاعتماد على اختلافات القناة وسلاسل الحمض النووي

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Abstract

The digital multimedia systems become standard at this time because of their extremely sensory activity effects and also the advanced development in its corresponding technology. Recently, biological techniques applied to several varieties of applications such as authentication protocols, organic chemistry, and cryptography. Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) is a tool to hide the key information in multimedia platforms. In this paper, an embedding algorithm is introduced; first, the image is divided into equally sized blocks, these blocks checked for a small amount color in all the separated blocks. The selected blocks are used to localize the necessary image information. In the second stage, a comparison is between the initial image pixel and the watermark bit pixel is done to select the key that represents the location of a specific bit location that exist in all channels with its most dominant. If the compared bits are equal then (0) is added in least significant bit of least dominant color channel otherwise (1) is added. In the last stage, a regeneration process for the key is done. DNA based cryptographic algorithm has been suggested to develop secures image encryption techniques. This algorithm gives a good results, the MSE was (0.0007) for one test also the key generation method is successful.


Article
Design of an Efficient Face Recognition Algorithm based on Hybrid Method of Eigen Faces and Gabor Filter
تصميم خوارزمية تتسم بالكفاءة للتعرف على الوجوه بالاعتماد على طريقة هجينة للوجوه المميزة و مرشح غابور

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Abstract

Face recognition is one of the most applications interesting in computer vision and pattern recognition fields. This is for many reasons; the most important of them are the availability and easy access by sensors. Face recognition system can be a sub-system of many applications. In this paper, an efficient face recognition algorithm is proposed based on the accuracy of Gabor filter for feature extraction and computing the Eigen faces. In this work, efficient compressed feature vector approach is proposed. This compression for feature vector gives a good recognition rate reaches to 100% and reduced the complexity of computing Eigen faces. Faces94 data base was used to test method.


Article
An Evolutionary Bi-clustering Algorithm for Community Mining in Complex Networks
خوارزمية تطورية ذات تصنيف ثنائي الأبعاد لكشف الجاليات في الشبكات المعقدة

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Abstract

A network (or formally a graph) can be described by a set of nodes and a set of edges connecting these nodes. Networks model many real-world phenomena in various research domains, such as biology, engineering and sociology. Community mining is discovering the groups in a network where individuals group of membership are not explicitly given. Detecting natural divisions in such complex networks is proved to be extremely NP-hard problem that recently enjoyed a considerable interest. Among the proposed methods, the field of evolutionary algorithms (EAs) takes a remarkable interest. To this end, the aim of this paper is to present the general statement of community detection problem in social networks. Then, it visits the problem as an optimization problem where a modularity-based (Q) and normalized mutual information (NMI) metrics are formulated to describe the problem. An evolutionary algorithm is then expressed in the light of its characteristic components to tackle the problem. The presentation will highlight the possible alternative that can be adopted in this study for individual representation, fitness evaluations, and crossover and mutation operators. The results point out that adopting NMI as a fitness function carries out more correct solutions than adopting the modularity functionQ. Moreover, the strength of mutation has a background role. When coupled with non elite selection, increasing mutation probability could results in better solutions. However, when elitism is used, increasing mutation probability could bewilder the behavior of EA.


Article
A Load Balancing Scheme for a Server Cluster Using History Results
توزيع مهام مجموعة خوادم بأستخدام النتائج القديمة

Authors: Husam Ali Abdulmohsin
Pages: 2121-2130
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Abstract

Load balancing in computer networks is one of the most subjects that has got researcher's attention in the last decade. Load balancing will lead to reduce processing time and memory usage that are the most two concerns of the network companies in now days, and they are the most two factors that determine if the approach is worthy applicable or not. There are two kinds of load balancing, distributing jobs among other servers before processing starts and stays at that server to the end of the process is called static load balancing, and moving jobs during processing is called dynamic load balancing. In this research, two algorithms are designed and implemented, the History Usage (HU) algorithm that statically balances the load of a Loaded Web Server (LWS) and the Massage Passing Optimization (MPO) algorithm. HU algorithm is used at the Domain Name System (DNS) side is to minimize the time required to execute the client requests based on using history results available in one of the Web servers in the server cluster. The MPO is for optimizing the message passing between the Web servers and the DNS. This message optimization will lead to optimize the processing time in the DNS cluster required to find under-loaded Web servers that will perform the request.


Article
The Accuracy of Prediction for the Models IRI- 2012 and VOACAP in Measurements foF2 Over Iraq during High Solar Activity Level
دقة تنبؤ موديلي IRI- 2012 وVOACAP في قياسات foF2 فوق العراق خلال مستوي النشاط الشمسي العالي

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Abstract

The accuracy of IRI- 2012 and VOACAP models during high solar activity level have been tested to know which of them is more accurate in predicting hourly foF2 values for three Iraqi cities (Baghdad, Mosul and Basrah). The results indicated that the accuracy of them increases for all hours during Spring and Summer and decreases during Winter and Autumn especially at hours near to sunrise; i.e., both of two models have the same accuracy. And that the foF2 values predicted by VOACAP model are higher than that predicted by IRI- 2012 model for all seasons.


Article
Low computations in compression image schemes using Cache codebook based on Weber's law
خفض الحسابات في طرق ضغطُ الصور باستخدام كتاب تشفير Cacheبالاستناد على قانونِ ويبير

Authors: Maha Ahmed Hameed مها احمد حميد
Pages: 2141-2145
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Abstract

In this paper, we have employed a computation of three technique to reduce the computational complexity and bit rate for compressed image. These techniques are bit plane coding based on two absolute values, vector quantization VQ technique using Cache codebook and Weber's low condition. The experimental results show that the proposed techniques achieve reduce the storage size of bit plane and low computational complexity.


Article
Study of Land Cover Changes of Baghdad Using Multi-Temporal Landsat Satellite Images
دراسة التغيرات بالغطاء الارضي لمدينة بغداد بأستخدام صور القمر الصناعي لاندسات

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Abstract

The main goal of this work is study the land cover changes for "Baghdad city" over a period of (30) years using multi-temporal Landsat satellite images (TM, ETM+ and OLI) acquired in 1984, 2000, and 2015 respectively. In this work, The principal components analysis transform has been utilized as multi operators, (i.e. enhancement, compressor, and temporal change detector). Since most of the image band's information are presented in the first PCs image. Then, the PC1 image for all three years is partitioned into variable sized blocks using quad tree technique. Several different methods of classification have been used to classify Landsat satellite images; these are, proposed method singular value decomposition (SVD) using Visual Basic software and supervised method (Maximum likelihood Classifier) using ENVI 5.1 software are utilized in order to get the most accurate results and then compare the results of each method and calculate the land cover changes that have been taken place in years 2000 and 2015; comparing with 1984. The image classification of the study area resulted into five land cover types: Water body, vegetation, open land (Barren land), urban area "Residential I" and urban area "Residential II". The results from classification process indicated that water body, vegetation, open land and the urban area "Residential I" are increased, while the second type from urban area "Residential II" in decrease to year 2015 comparable with 1984. Despite use of many methods of classification, results of the proposed method proved its efficiency, where the classification accuracies for the (SVD) method are 81%, 78% and 80% for years 1984, 2000 and 2015 respectively.


Article
Study The Spin Down Luminosity And Flux Density For Pulsar Stars By Using Hallo Cone Model
دراسة تباطؤ اللمعانية وكثافة الفيض للنجوم النابضة باستخدام نموذج الاسطوانة الضوئية

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Abstract

There are different types of young isolated NSs: radio pulsars, compact central X-ray sources in supernova, magentas: anomalous x-ray pulsars (AXPs) and soft gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs).This paper shows that the value of magnetic field (B), characteristic age (T_ch), spin down luminosity (L_sp), equilibrium period (P_eq) and Flux density (S_mjy) was determined depending on some properties of pulsar star, such as the value of period of the pulsar (P) and the time derivative period (P^•) for sample stars which were adopted. The model that which adopted is Hallo Cone Model. The results showed that the Normal pulsar stars have a big magnetic field, equilibrium period and Spin down than the Millisecond pulsar stars.But Millisecond pulsar stars have large values of Luminosity and Flux density than Normal pulsar star that mean Normal pulsar star is lose its energy in long time that mean its younger than Millisecond Pulsar star.


Article
Detection of unmarked graves using Ground Penetrating Radar
الكشف عن مقابر مجهولة باستخدام رادار الاختراق الأرضي

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Abstract

Ground penetrating radar (GPR) is one of the Remote Sensing methods that utilize electromagnetic waves in the detection of subjects below the surface to record Once the data were collected, it could be presented in map and 2D and 3D. GPR method was applied in detecting graves (Tel Alags archaeological) fact, within the administrative border to spend Rumitha can be challenging. Due to the sensitivity of these sites, the challenge is to explore the subsurface without disturbing the soil Some cemeteries are hundreds of years old. Often records are vague or incomplete and there may be serious doubt about the precise extent of a cemetery .GPR is the most practical way to sort out the site was to carry out a detailed grid survey. A Noggin 250 MHz Smart Cart configuration was employed. Survey grid was 20 x 5 m with line spacing of 0.5 m. Data were acquire in 1 hour and first order maps were created on site.

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