Table of content

Iraqi journal of mechanical and material engineering

المجلة العراقية للهندسة الميكانيكية وهندسة المواد

ISSN: 20761819
Publisher: Babylon University
Faculty: Engineering
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

Iraqi journal for mechanical and material engineering is a refereed scientific journal published quarterly by the engineering college/ university of Babylon. It deals with high quality researches in fields of mechanical and material engineering.

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Contact info

Journal E-mail:
j.mec_mat_eng@yahoo.com
Babylon university/Babylon/Iraq P.O.Box(4)
Tel:++96430245387.(1155)

Table of content: 2016 volume:16 issue:4

Article
EXPERIMENTAL AND NUMERICAL STUDY OF BENDING BEHAVIOR FOR HONEYCOMB SANDWICH PANEL WITH DIFFERENT CORE CONFIGURATIONS
دراسة نظرية وعملية لسلوك الانحناء لقلب لوح خلية النحل لأشكال مختلفة

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Abstract

Honeycomb sandwich panel dies are manufactured with different core shapes (hexagonal, circular and square), each shape have two types of facing, one of aluminum facing AA3003 with different thicknesses(0.5mm, 0.9mm &2mm) and the other of composite facing (E-glass+epoxy resin) with(2-layers and 3-layers). Three point bending test is used to investigate the strength of these honeycombs. The results shown that the square honeycomb's core shape have the highest load from the other core shapes and the hexagonal have the lowest value and this value increased by increasing the facing thickness, and the aluminum skin facing have higher load than the composite skin facing. The strength to weight ratio was calculated and its conclusion observed that the square honeycomb core shape have the maximum ratio and the circular honeycomb core shape have the minimum ratio. ANSYS software was used to analyze the honeycomb structure by madea model in APDL-ANSYS program in static and natural frequency tests using solid and shell elements and MPC algorithm. Results shown that there are the variations in deflection by percentage of error 27%. The dynamic test observed that the changing of skin facing thickness effect in the natural frequencies by (3%-30%) and the changing of the core configurations by (19.7%-38.8%), and by changing the facing material the natural frequencies effected by (10.6%-37.3%).


Article
STOCHASTIC ANALYSIS OF DAILY INFLOW OF (HILLA RIVER) IN BABYLON PROVINCE
التنبؤ بالبيانات اليومية لتصاريف شط الحلة المار في مدينة بابل

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Abstract

The daily time series (stochastic) of the inflow discharge of (Al-Hilla River) at Babylon was analyzed as a time series. The data used for the analysis was the daily series during (2004-2014). The series was tested for non-homogeneity and found to be nonhomogeneous. A significant positive jump was observed at 2009. This non-homogeneity was removed, the homogeneous series was then normalized transformation. The periodic component of the series was fitted using harmonic analyses, and removed from the series to obtain the dependent stochastic component. This component was then modeled using first order autoregressive model (Markovian chain). The above analysis was conducted using the data for the period (2004-2012), the remaining two-years (2013-2014) of the observed data was left for the verification of the model. The observed model was used to generate future series. Those series were compared with the observed series using t-test. The comparison indicates the capability of the model to produce acceptable future data.


Article
EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF WICK STRUCTURE MATERIAL AND SCREEN MESH ON HEAT PIPE PERFORMANCE
دراسة عملية لهيكل المواد النسيجية على اداء الانبوب الحراري

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Abstract

An experimental study has been done on heat pipe 1000mm length and 25.4mm diameter. Evaporator section is formed by adopting a coil heater over 240mm from one side of heat pipe length. The condenser section is formed by adopting a water jacket over 300mm from the other end of heat pipe length. The working fluids used is R-134a. The used wick structure is of square meshes of (Bronze150*150, Bronze200*200 and Copper145*145). The wick structure is formed by turning the square mesh layer six times to form an internal circumference for heat pipe inner diameter. The supplied power over evaporator (20, 30, 40 and 60)W. Thermal conductivity of Copper is 401W/m.Co and Bronze is 51.2 W/m.oC . It is found that the thermal conductivity has no effect on the heat pipe performance. But mesh screen size affected the performance the heat pipe and increases the temperature along the heat pipe.


Article
DESIGN AND SIZING OF SMALL – SCALE PHOTOVOLTAIC (PV) CELLS POWERED REVERSE OSMOSIS (RO) DESALINATION SYSTEM FOR WATER SUPPLY IN REMOTE LOCATIONS
تحديد المحددات التصميمية لمنظومات تحلية الماء بالتناضح العكسي الصغيرة الحجم العاملة بالخلايا الضوئية لتجهيز الماء في المواقع البعيدة .

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Abstract

This paper present the design and sizing of a small-scale solar photovoltaic powered reverse osmosis purification system that provides drinking water to domestic or small group in a remote area in Babil Governorate in south Iraq. The aim of this study is to estimate an optimum PV system to power the RO that produces 20 l/h (0.35 M3 /day ) at constant daily load profile. The system designed based on brackish waters at a (Total dissolve solid (TDS) value of 1500-2000 mg/L) from well in mention area, The PV and solar source simulated by TRANSYS16 Software to evaluate various PV-RO system. The results indicated requires energy of approximately 216.5 Wp with about 38 hours battery storage that can operate the RO unit continually after the sunset . The RO systems powered by PV panels have many advantages, such as lowest operation cost , simple operation , environmentally friendly , easy installation and maintenance, high reliability and suitability for brackish water.


Article
INVESTIGATION THE EFFECT OF NATURAL MATERIALS ON WEAR AND HARDNESS PROPERTIES OF POLYMERIC COMPOSITE MATERIALS
التقصي عن تأثير المواد الطبيعية على خواص البلى والصلادة للمواد المتراكبة البوليميرية

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Abstract

This research studied the properties of orange and pomegranate reinforced unsaturated polyester with different powder weight fraction Wf. The orange and pomegranate powders were added to unsaturated polyester at weight fraction (0,4 ,8 & 11 wt%) with grain size (53µm). The composite specimens were prepared by hand lay-up technique and cutting according to (ASTM) for wear test, hardness test to obtain of the composite specimens. The results show that the wear rate for all tested specimens increases with increase of time of applied load and the wear rate decreases with increasing weight fraction of particles. Also the best value of properties was obtained for composite materials reinforced with pomegranate peel at (=11wt%) than composite materials reinforced with orange peel at this value.


Article
NUMERICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECT NANOFLUIDS ON THE EROSION AND CORROSION IN THE RADIATOR PIPES BY USING COOLANT FLUIDS
التقييم العددي لتأثير الموائع النانوية على تأكل التعرية الأنابيب المبردة باستخدام موائع التبريد

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Abstract

This paper presents a numerical study of the effect nanofluids on the erosion corrosion in the pipes by using coolant fluids. One type of nanoparticles used in this paper cupper (Cu) and the base fluid (distilled water) as well as the nanoparticles size used are ranging from (20 – 50 nm). The concentrations of nanofluid used are ranging from (1 – 3 vol %). The results indicated that property of nanoparticles and their effects on the behavior of the erosion and corrosion due to the cavitation phenomenon, which causes pipe wall erosion. This study reveal the effect of the nanoparticles concentration on the flow phenomenon. Furthermore, the type and size nanoparticles play an important role in the nanofluid flow, thermall properties and erosion – corrosion behavior. The obtained results indicated that the contribution of the temperature enhancement and the velocity of nanofluids on the radiator shape, design and materials. Results showed the critical pressure distribution along the flow field and predictions on effect of temperature during the erosion – corrosion process. Moreover the results indicated the effect of velocity, temperature and thermo physical properties on on the erosion corrosion in the pipe. Two the flow condition used in this study laminar and turbulent


Article
PREPARATION OF COPPER-ALUMINA ELECTRICAL CONTACT MATERIALS
تحضير مواد موصلة كهربائيا نحاس-الومينا

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Abstract

Electrical contact material are used in variety of application such as electrical switches ,contactors, circuit breakers, voltage regulators .In this paper copper with different weight percentage of α-alumina composite are prepared by using powder metallurgy technique. Disk samples of 14mm and 10mm in diameter and 5mm thickness. 5, 10, 15, 20, 30 weight percentage of α-alumina have been prepared. Tests including microstructure analyses by scanning electron microscope and optical microscope, electrical resistance, hardness, and dry sliding wear had been carried out. It’s clear that the hardness and electrical resistance increase with increasing additive percentage while wear rate decrease with increasing additive percentage until 15% α-alumina where the wear rate increases .


Article
PREPARATION AND CORROSION BEHAVIOR OF NITI SHAPE MEMORY ALLOY COATED WITH BIOCOMPATABLE LAYER
تحضير ودراسة سلوك التاكل لسبيكه نيكل- تيتانيوم المتذكرة للشكل مطليه بطلاء ذو توافق حيوي

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Abstract

In this paper NiTi shape memory alloy has prepared from elemental Nickel and Titanium powders by powder metallurgy Technique, the is 620 MPa compacting pressure , 850 ˚C temperature and10-3 torr vacuum atmosphere. The Porosity and density before and after sintering have been calculated. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that Nickel and Titanium are completely transformed into NiTi and Ni3Ti phase. Poly Methyl Methane Acrylate and Poly Methyl Methane Acrylate / Hydroxy apatite coating are applied to the surface of the alloy. Optical microscopy technique is used to characterize the surface of each sample. The corrosion rate has been studied in vitro by using electrochemical technique by a potentiostate in Hank’s Solution, Artificial saliva and 0.9% NaCl solution at 37 ºC. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy technique is used to detect the Ni ion release from the alloy in 0.9% NaCl solution. The corrosion test results shows that the corrosion rate after Poly Methyl Methane Acrylate / Hydroxyapatite coating decreased from 12.14 mpy for bare sample into 0.132 mpy in 0.9% NaCl solution , from 4.94 mpy into 0.39 mpy Artificial saliva and from 12.66 mpy into 0.217 mpy in Hank Solution. The Ni release test shows that the amount of releasing Ni ion decreased into undetectable amount after coating with Poly Methyl Methane Acrylate and Poly Methyl Methane Acrylate / Hydroxyapatite.


Article
MULTIPLE OBJECTIVE OPTIMIZATION OF WELD GEOMETRY OF DISSIMILAR METALS
تحديد العوامل المثلى المتعددة الاستجابة للشكل الهندسي لوصلة لحام المعادن المختلفة

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Abstract

The parameters affecting on bead geometry of the dissimilar welding between stainless steel (AISI-304) and Low carbon steel (ASTM A516 Grade 70) using (Gas Metal Arc Welding-GMAW) technique were studied in this paper. A multi-response optimization approach to determine the optimal process parameters in (GMAW) was used. Three process parameters were used in the experiments: welding current, welding speed and wire diameter, in three levels for obtaining the responses on bead width, reinforcement and penetration of the weldments. Taguchi (L9) orthogonal array was used to gather information regarding the welding process with less number of the experimental runs. A multi criteria decision making method (TOPSIS) passive was applied in the present study to approve a significant Taguchi approach in solving multi response optimization problem. In order to consider experimental uncertainty, the responses are expressed in linguistic terms rather than crisp values. In additional the (ANOVA) test was passive also applied to identify most the significant factors. The results of (ANOVA) showed that optimum bead geometry can be reached by a control on the parameters mentioned above. Also it was found that the welding current factor contributed the highest percentage (88.14%) to the factor effects, followed by (wire diameter) which equal (8.92%) and (welding speed) which equal (2.94%). Confirmation experiments showed that developed models are accurate.


Article
STUDY THE EFFECT OF ZNO NANOPOWDER IN FERTILIZER
دراسة تأثير مسحوق أكسيد الزنك النانوي لتطوير الأسمدة

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In this research, nano powder of zinc oxide was added to a mixture of soil ,urea powder and water at different weight percentages in order to study the effect of nano additives. X-ray diffraction and particle size analysis has been studied. An addition examination of measuring the pH of the soil and temperature to mixture with nanoscale powder. The results shows that the powder of zinc oxide nanoparticles was granular size (80 nm) and his installation of hexagonal crystal, and adding the powder nanoscale reduced acidity and maintained a constant temperature of soil and reduce the amount of urea required temperature therefore added reduce the harmful effect of urea on the constructions


Article
EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF HEAT TRANSFER IN AUTOMOBILE RADIATOR BY USING ALTERNATIVE WORKING FLUIDS AND NANOPARTICLES
التحقق العملي في انتقال الحرارة لراديتر السيارة باستخدام موائع بديلة مع جزئيات نانوية

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This article presents an experimental study on improvement of heat transfer in car radiator by using copper oxide, titanium oxide, Ethylene glycol and distilled water nanofluids. The concentrations of nanofluid used are ranging from (0.5 –5 vol %). Two types of nanoparticles used in this paper copper oxide (CuO (30nm)) and titanium oxide (TiO2 (50nm)) as well as the base fluid (Ethylene glycol and distilled water). The effects of different parameters such as Reynolds number, nanofluid inlet temperature, concentration and type of nanoparticle on heat transfer coefficient of the flow are studied. The obtained results indicated that the improvement in heat transfer for the nanofluid (CuO(30nm) + EG + Dw) was greater than nanofluid (TiO2 (50nm) + EG + Dw) due to nanoparticles size and thermal conductivity of the copper oxide. The results indicated that there is an increase in heat transfer when the volume concentration of nanoparticles are increased with range (0.5 vol % to 5 vol %). About 55% heat transfer improvement was achieved with addition of 5 vol % nanoparticles. Moreover overall heat transfer based on air side increased up 45 % with addition of 5vol % volume fraction nano particles of copper oxide and titanium oxide than the base fluid (EG +Dw). In addition the results indicated that using nanofluid as working fluid leads to higher heat transfer performance which is promoted the car engine performance and would reduce fuel consumption. Moreover, thermal conductivity for the nanofluids (CuO + EG +Dw) was greater than nanofluids (TiO2+ EG + Dw) due to nanoparticles size and thermal conductivity for the copper oxide. The type and size nanoparticles play an important role in improvement of heat transfer rate. Results show that heat transfer coefficient increased with increasing of nanofluid inlet temperature, concentration of nanoparticles and Reynolds number. The results indicated that the improvement in heat transfer for the nanofluid (CuO (30nm) + Dw+EG) and (TiO2 (50nm) + Dw+EG) of 12.4%, 9.52% at Ф = 5vol% and T=70 oC respectively compared with base fluid..


Article
EFFECT OF BURNISHING FORCE AND FEED ON THE DEPTH OF THE SURFACE HARDENED LAYER IN PLANE SURFACE BALL BURNISHING
تاثير قوة الصقل والتغذية على عمق الطبقة السطحية المتصلدة في صقل سطح المستوي

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Abstract

In an experimental analysis study, a blend of burnishing parameters was varied to obtain their optimum values to produce the finest surface integrity in plane surface burnishing process. The physical depth of the micro hardened surface layer was also evaluated at the obtained optimum values of the parameters. The analysis was undertaken on ball burnished plane surface, mild carbon steel M1044, using a milling machine and a purpose designed and manufactured burnishing tool. The effects of burnishing feed and force on both surface smoothness and hardness together and on the depth of the hardened surface layer of the work pieces material were observed and investigated. The results indicated that plane burnished surface finish and hardness improvements of around (89 %) and (70 %) respectively were obtainable at the optimum values of the mentioned parameters. Around 35 µm physical depth of the hardened surface layer was the result at the obtained optimum burnishing force and feed values of about 7.8Kgf and 107 mm/min respectively.

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