Table of content

Iraqi Journal of Science

المجلة العراقية للعلوم

ISSN: 00672904
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Science
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi journal of science is a quarterly specified scientific journal issued by the Faculty of Science at the University of Baghdad. The members of the Editorial Board representing the Departments of Eight Scientific departments, college of science/ Baghdad University and its related units of research, all are professors, scientists with extensive experience and considerable skills in their field of science, as well as an advisory board in support composed of professors and scientists with great reputation in their field of science from other Colleges, universities, or research institutes. The specialty of publication includes the following fields:

1.Pure and Applied Physics.
2.Mathematical Sciences.
3.Computer Science and Information Technology.
4.Science of chemistry.
5.Bio-Science technologies.
6.Earth Sciences, geo-physics, and remote sensing.
7.Astronomy, Space Sciences, and Remote Sensing Unit.
8.Science and Research of tropical area

The visions, goals, and the mechanisms of the Iraqi Journal of Science is to publish scientific research sober in the areas of Applied and Pure Sciences and instructive Iraqi society, scientific research, scientific interest large to contribute to the development of various disciplines, which provides significant support to researchers in all scientific facilities to continue to support the development plans in Iraq.

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Contact info

Baghdad University
College of Science
Baghdad
Iraq
ijs@scbaghdad.edu.iq
07903375590
http://ijs.scbaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2016 volume:57 issue:3C

Article
Survey Study on the Prevalence of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Iraq
دراســـــــــــــة مسحيـــــــــــــة لأنتشــــــــــــار اللشمانيــــــــــــــا الجلديــــــــــــة فــــــــي العـــــــــــــراق

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Abstract

Human cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is caused by Leishmania sp. parasite and endemic in Iraq. The current study was including analysis of available database from Iraqi CDC to determine the distribution of CL cases for the period (2008-2015 years) in Iraq. Total reported cases for this period were 17001 (range 2.9-10.5 per 100,000 individuals). Highest reported cases were recorded in the year 2015 (4000 cases). Male infections cases of CL (50.8%) were more than female infections (49.2%). Highest infections of CL were observed in the age group (5-14yr.) as (34.6%), While the lowest infection of CL were observed in the age group (>1yr.) as (4.3%). Highest infection case of CL was observed in the middle and west of Iraq (53%). In contrast, the lowest reported cases of CL were observed in the North of Iraq (1%). Monthly distribution of CL in winter was more than in summer months. This study concluded that the CL cases in continuously increasing. The aim of the study is to monitor the causes of CL distribution in Iraq.


Article
Determining the optimum conditions for bioemulsifier produced by Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae isolated from Vicia faba root nodules
تحديد الظروف المثلى لانتاج المستحلب الحيوي من بكتريا Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae المعزولة من العقد الجذرية لنبات الباقلاء

Authors: Suaad Ali Ahmed سعاد علي احمد
Pages: 2188-2196
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Abstract

The tested isolate of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae was isolated from root nodules of vicia faba plant from Baghdad ,the isolated bacteria was examined for bioemulsifier production when growing in mineral salt medium that containing 1% sunflower oil as sole carbon source . Rhizobium isolate was able to produce bioemulsifier with initial emulsification index E24% was 38%. Many of physical and nutritional cultural conditions for optimum emulsifier production was examined including : pH , temperature ,incubation period ,carbon and nitrogen source. The maximum bioemulsifier production form Rhizobium isolate was 64.5% when bacteria growing in mineral salt medium with pH 9 ,incubated at temperature 30 ºC , incubation period was 10 days ,the best carbon and nitrogen sources was sesame oil and NH4NO3 respectively .


Article
Quantitative study of some trace elements and blood parameters in the third trimester of Iraqi pregnant women with Pre-eclampsia
دراسة كمية لبعض العناصر الثقيله ومعايير الدم في الربع الثالث من الحمل في النساء الحوامل العراقيات المصابات بتسمم الحمل.

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Abstract

Pre-eclampsia complicates 2-8% of all pregnancies and it is one of the leading causes of maternal mortality and pre-term delivery in the world. Unfortunately, there is scarcity of documents discussing the circulating level of several essential trace elements in Pre-eclampsia patients in Baghdad especially in the last trimester of the pregnancy. The present study was designed to quantitative evaluation the whole blood concentration of two trace elements, copper (Cu), and iron(Fe), in pre-eclamptic women in the third trimester of pregnancy. The study was conducted on 18 Pre-eclamptic pregnant women as patients group with clinical detected high blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg and 13 normotensive pregnant women as control group from Al-Alwiya for obstetric and gynecological hospital, clinical data were collected at routine obstetric visits. Hemoglobin (Hb) ,Packed cell volume (pcv) and measurements of 2 trace elements concentrations were measured in the whole blood of both patients and control group. Hematological parameters measurements explored non-significant differences was found in Hb value and pcv between the patients and the control group, although their mean levels were increased in the patients compared to the control group. According to the statistical analysis it was noticed there was non-significant differences (P>0.05) was found in the concentration of the copper between patients and control group. But significant (P<0.05) elevated concentration of Fe was conducted in the pre-eclamptic patients compared to the control. In conclusion, our study suggest that pre-eclampsia in the third trimester is associated with significant increase of maternal blood iron and these increasing levels may be lead to increase the risk of pre-eclampsia in pregnant women.


Article
Evaluation of inhibition activity of silver nanoparticles activity against pathogenic bacteria
تقييم فعالية جزيئات الفضة النانوية ضد البكتريا

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Abstract

Silver nanoparticles synthesized from aqueoes extract for mushroom pleurotus ostreatus. Silver nanoparticles were showing good antibacterial activity. The antibacterial activity conducted against different pathogenic bacteria such as Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Listeria, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MARSA), Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The maximum inhibition zone was observed against S. marcesance. However, the lowest inhibition zone was found against P. fluorescens.


Article
Taxonomic Studies of Some Cryptostigmatic Mites species inhabiting soil in Baghdad (Al-Jadiriya)
دراسة تصنيفية لبعض انواع الحلم من رتبة Cryptostigmata التي تقطن التربة في بغداد) الجادرية)

Authors: Batool K. Habib بتول كاظم حبيب
Pages: 2208-2212
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Abstract

The soil acari fauna (Cryptostigmat) in soil of Baghdad in Jadiriya area was studied in a total of 16 monthly samples through a period of 12 months (December 2009-November 2010). A new record of one genus for Iraq named (Malloconthrius sp.), and one species named Eupelops plicatus out of seven mite group Cryptostigmata which isolated from the soil. Two species were recorded during the present study as dominants named (Ceratozetes gracilis, Perlohmania dissimilis). The Cryptostigmatid mites are the most common soil inhabiting and saprophagous animals the ordinal composition of the soil acari fauna was predominantly Cryptostigmata sp disturbance of these factors generates modifications of numerical densities and the presences of mites in a favorite ecosystem depend on these factors.


Article
Determination of fungi and some heavy metals in locally cheeses
التحري عن الملوثات الفطرية وبعض العناصر الثقيلة في الاجبان المحلية

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Abstract

In this study four cheese samples were randomly collected from local markets. These cheese samples were Ishaqi, Danone, Arab white cheese and Agricultural college cheese. Results obtained revealed that all these cheese samples were contaminated by fungi in addition to the presence of same heavy metals under study which were Fe, Pb, Ni and Cr. All fungal contaminat were identified which were contaminated them in winter (January). However, fungal pollution in summer was 100% while in winter was 50% Aspergillus niger was polluted chees samples100% in summer while it was 75% in winter. Aspergillus fumigatus was polled cheese samples under study 50% in summer and 0% in winter .Results for heavy metals determination revealed that Fe was contaminated cheese samples followed by Ni, Pb and finally Cr and the percentage of their presence was (0.24, 0.006, 0.006, 0.001 ppm) respectively .


Article
Determination of optimum conditions for xylanase production by Aspergillus niger using solid state fermentation
تحديد الظروف المثلى لإنتاج انزيم الزايلينيز من فطر Aspergillus niger باستخدام تخمرات الحالة الصلبة

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Aspergillus niger is one of the most important filamentous fungi that used in the fermentation industry. Aspergillus niger isolate was cultured on potato-dextrose agar (PDA) for activation, and the optimum conditions for xylanase production from this local isolate were studied by solid state fermentation, using a medium composed of wheat bran moisten with corn steep liquor at ratio 1:0.5 (v:w) at initial pH 5.5, inoculated with 1.6 × 106 spores/ml, and incubated at 30ᵒC for 5 days.


Article
Improving the efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells with doping and co- doping titanium dioxide
تحسين كفاءة الخلايا الشمسية ذات الاصباغ بالتطعيم بمادة او اكثر لثنائي اوكسيد التيتانيوم

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Abstract

In this work, A new strategy for enhancing the efficiency of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC) by doping foreign ion and co- doping TiO2 / Fe and Cu (38 nm ) was prepared by sol-gel method and successfully used as a photoanode for (DSSC). The samples were characterized by using X-ray diffraction ( XRD) is used to calculate grain size, before and after Fe, Cu- doping and co- doping. Glass coating process with a thin layer on (Fluorine doped tin oxide) FTO glass by using doctor Blade technique .The optimum thickness utilized for TiO2 paste is (15µm) on a conductive glass. The best experimental results for doping and co- doping TiO2 with additive Copper (II) nitrate Cu (NO3)2 as improved it was VOC=0.6 V, ISC=1.92 mA, Imax=1.8 mA and Vmax= 0.55 V with fill factor (FF) = 0.87. Power conversion efficiency of the cell became 2.5%.


Article
Effect of Water Absorption on impact strength of synthetic fibers with Epoxy-unsaturated polyester blends
تأثير امتصاص الماء على مقاومة الصدمة للألياف الصناعية مع خليط الايبوكسي-بولي استر غير المشبع

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Abstract

In this study a composite materials were prepared containing matrix of polymer blend (Epoxy (EP) 90% + unsaturated polyester (UPS) 10%), (Epoxy (EP) 80% + unsaturated polyester (UPS) 20%), reinforced with Kevlar (K) or, and iron woven (Fe) with one value of volume fraction (30) %. This composite are from: (EP 90%, UPE 10% +K), (EP 90%, UPE 10% +K+Fe), (EP 80%, UPE 20% +K), (EP 80%, UPE 20% +K+Fe). All samples were prepared using hand layup method and then impact test was done in both normal condition and after immersion in tap water for the same period time (eight weeks) also diffusion test was done for period's time (three months). The results showed that had been effected differently after immersion, but specimen (EP80%+UPS20%+K+Fe) had superior values of impact strength in normal condition and after immersion in tap water also diffusion test that the binary blend, EP (80%) +UPE (20%) reinforced with Kevlar and iron woven gives a highest values of diffusivity in the tap water


Article
Non Linear Optical Properties of Silver Nanoparticles
الصفات البصرية اللاخطية لجسيمات الفضة النانوية

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In the present work, a Z-scan technique was used to study the nonlinear optical properties, represented by the nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear absorption coefficients of the Ag nanoparticles. In this technique, a pulsed second harmonic Nd :YAG laser at wavelength 532 nm was used. The results show that the nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear absorption coefficients of the Ag nanoparticles are found to be dependent on the size these nanoparticles.


Article
Characteristics of AC. Conductivity and Dielectric Behavior of Cu0.5 Ti0.5 Hox Fe2-x O4 Ferrites
خصائص التوصيلية الترددية والسلوك العزلي لفيرايت Cu0.5 Ti0.5 Hox Fe2-x O4

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standard ceramic method. The powder mixtures were presintered at 900 oC for 5h. The final sintering of the pellets was performed at 1100 oC for 2 hrs. The dielectric properties and AC conductivity were measured at different temperatures over the frequency range 100Hz - 10MHz. The variation in dielectric constant with frequency revealed that dispersion is due to the Maxwell–Wagner type of interfacial polarization in accordance with Koop’s phenomenological theory. This ferrite showed high value of dielectric constant. At low frequencies the dielectric constant and dielectric loss factor was found to decrease with the increase in frequency and Ho addition. The dielectric loss decreased with temperature rise. The frequency dependence of dielectric loss tangent is found to be abnormal at various temperatures, the abnormal behavior of dielectric relaxation processes was observed. The prepared ferrite showed low range of AC conductivity. The AC conductivity was noticed to increase with frequency and temperature. While the conductivity decreased with Ho addition.


Article
In Situ Measuring of Relative Dielectric Permittivity to Calculate Electromagnetic Wave Velocity
القياس الموقعى لثابت العزل الكهربائى لحساب سرعة الموجة الكهرومغناطيسية

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Abstract

The relative dielectric permittivity (dielectric constant) values for various materials are measured on site. The calculated values that are derived from measuring the ratio of the electrical capacitance of a cell when the sample of the material is placed. Parallel plate technique that consists of two parallel circular metallic plates is used. The instrument made up of aluminum which acts as electrodes and stuffed inside the PVC cylinder. Then the thin sheet of material (models) sandwiched between the two plates. Calculation of dielectric constant (εr) through this new technique gives a new velocity value of electromagnetic wave that propagates underground. These measured velocity values will utilize in Ground Penetration Radar (GPR) data acquisition and interpretation in order to increase the resolution of the obtained radargrams.


Article
Assessment of the Lower Cretaceous source rock using PetroMod approach in West Qurna Oilfield- Southern Iraq
تقييم الصخور المصدرية للعصر الطباشيري الاسفل باستخدام تقنية البترو-مود في حقل غرب القرنة النفطي - جنوب العراق

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The L. Cretaceous succession is the main reservoir rock in the south of Iraq. Although the upper Jurassic Sargelu Formation is the main source rock in this area; however, the organic-rich interval within the studied succession, is contribute in these huge accumulations of petroleum. The pyrolysis parameters of the succession; Sulaiy, yamama, Zubair, and Nahr Umr formations showed that the main kerogen type is type III and II with moderate to good HI, which they refer to gas and/or oil prone especially in Zubair, Nahr Umr, and Sulaiy formations. The quantity parameters indicate potential source intervals in respect to (TOC). The maturity parameters suggest the threshold and peak of petroleum generation, which Tmax values ranged around 430-450 ºC, as well as the Ro values ranged 0.5 to 1.0. The Maturity factors is enhanced by PI (0.1 -0.4), which the main values are located in the oil window.The software modeling, namely PetroMod, assigned a transformation ratio up to 90% in respect to Sulaiy and Yamama formations, while it is around 5-30 % for Ratawi, Zubair, and Shuaiba formations. As though, Nahr Umr is less than 5% of transformation ratio. These facts indicates that Sulaiy and Yamama formations are within the peak oil generation, however, Ratawi, Zubair, and Shuaiba, and Nahr Umr formations are within the start.The generated oil migrates up dip toward the dome of West Qurna field, but the existence of longitudinal and transverse fault system in the area may lead to accumulate oil in the directions NE and SW for the field.


Article
Gravity Field Interpretation for Subsurface Faults Detection in A Region Located SW- Iraq
تفسير المجال الجذبي لغرض التحري عن الفوالق تحت السطحية لمنطقة تقع جنوب غرب العراق

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This research deals with processing and Interpretation of Bouguer anomaly gravity field, using two dimensional filtering techniques to separate the residual gravity field from the Bouguer gravity map for a part of Najaf Ashraf province in Iraq. The residual anomaly processed in order to reduce noise and give a more comprehensive vision about subsurface linear structures. Results for descriptive interpretation presented as colored surfaces and contour maps in order to locate directions and extensions of linear features which may interpret as faults. A comparison among gravity residual field , 1st derivative and horizontal gradient made along a profile across the study area in order to assign the exact location of a major fault. Furthermore, quantitative interpretations applied to residual field in order to detect the depth to the center of a major fault by adopting geometrical modeling. Interpretation results are helpful in delineating the exact locations of lateral changes within the subsurface rock densities around the subsurface major normal fault where sudden variations in gravity values take place. A major fault which extends in NW-SE direction detected at the eastern part of the study area with an approximate depth of 2.8 km to its plane center.

Keywords


Article
The effect of CKD fineness on the consistency and setting time of cement paste when adding it as a partial replacement of cement
تأثير نعومة غبار افران الاسمنت على القوام القياسي وزمن التصلب لعجينه الاسمنت عند اضافته كبديل جزئي للإسمنت

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Abstract

Cement kiln dust (CKD) is a waste of cement manufacture. The disposal dust becomes an environmental threat. In order to overcome this problem, researchers are carried out to find out the economical and the efficient means of utilizing it in various applications .One of these applications is adding it as partial replacement of cement. The aim of present work is investigating the effect of CKDs fineness on the consistency and setting time of cement, when utilized as a partial replacement. the CKD was grind by jet mill and classify into 7 groups according fineness (3000 , 6000 , 7000 , 8000 , 9000 , 10000 , 11000) cm2/gm then prepared blends with (5 ,10 , 15 , 20 , 25 , 30 , 35 and 40) % replacement by CKD for each fineness ,and compare between two sources of CKD ( kufa and Bazian cement plant) which different in location and manufacturing process .The results showed that increasing of fineness lead to increasing of water demand for consistency for each CKD, with different in water amount between types of CKD. Setting time(initial and final) retarded with increase fineness of CKD of kufa plant while accelerated setting time with increase fineness of CKD of Bazian plant .where the results indicated that increasing of CKD fineness lead to increasing activity of CKD compounds which affected on cement hydration according to its activity and percent's presence of each type of CKDs .

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Cement --- CKD --- fineness --- consistency --- setting time


Article
Petrography and geochemistry of Pila Spi Formation (Middle- Late Eocene) in Selected Sections / Northern Iraq
بتروغرافية وجيوكيميائية تكوين البيلاسبي ( الايوسين - المتوسط الأعلى ) لمكاشف مختارة / شمال العراق

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The Pila Spi Formation (middle – late Eocene) was studied in terms of field character, Petrography and geochemistry from two outcrops (Bakhar and Bani bawy) sections, Northern Iraq. The field studies showing massive, lithified limestone to marly limestone high effected by dolomitization. The petrography studies shows that most of the skeletal grains was destroyed due to digenetic processes specifically the dolomitization, and the vast majority of carbonate rocks are mudstone and few beds of wackestone. The geochemical study reveals low CaO% and high MgO% content due to the intense effect of dolomitization, and the carbonate rocks was classified as impure limestone generally of slightly calcareous dolomite. Ca/Mg and Sr/Ca ratios have been used to evaluate the depositional environment and indicate near shore and shallow depth environment and the basin become shallower upward in both sections.


Article
A New Method for Solving Fully Fuzzy Multi-Objective Linear Programming Problems
طريقة جديدة لحل مسائل البرمجة المتعددة الأهداف الخطية الضبابية بصورة كاملة

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In this paper we present a new method for solving fully fuzzy multi-objective linear programming problems and find the fuzzy optimal solution of it. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the method.


Article
Generalized Permuting 3-Derivations of Prime Rings
تعميم المشتقات الثلاثية التبادليه للحلقات الاولية على مثالي لي

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This work generalizes Park and Jung's results by introducing the concept of generalized permuting 3-derivation on Lie ideal.


Article
Bit-Plane Slicing Autoregressive Modeling for Medical Image Compression
نموذج تشريح البتات والانحدار الذاتي لضغط الصور الطبية

Authors: Ghadah Al-Khafaji --- Hussein Noori Saadoon
Pages: 2318-2323
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In this paper, a simple medical image compression technique is proposed, that based on utilizing the residual of autoregressive model (AR) along with bit-plane slicing (BPS) to exploit the spatial redundancy efficiently. The results showed that the compression performance of the proposed techniques is improved about twice on average compared to the traditional autoregressive, along with preserving the image quality due to considering the significant layers only of high image contribution effects.


Article
New Arabic Stemming based on Arabic Patterns
ايجاد جذور الكلمات العربية بالاعتماد على التفعيلات

Authors: Rafea Mohammed رافع محمد
Pages: 2324-2330
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Algorithms for Arabic stemming available in two main types which are root-based approach and stem-based approach. Both types have problems which have been solved in the proposed stemmer which combined rules of both main types and based on Arabic patterns (Tafealat1) to find the added letters. The proposed stemmer achieved root exploration ratio (99.08) and fault ratio (0.9).


Article
Colord Image White Cracks In-Painting Method
اعادة رسم صورة ملونة بتشققات بيضاء

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The gaps and cracks in an image result from different reasons and affect the images. There are various methods concerning gaps replenishment along with serious efforts and proposed methodologies to eliminate cracks in diverse tendencies. In the current research work a color image white crack in-painting system has been introduced. The proposed inpainting system involved on two algorithms. They are Linear Gaps Filling (LGF) and the Circular Gaps Filling (CGF). The quality of output image depends on several effects such as: pixels tone, the number of pixels in the cracked area and neighborhood of cracked area and the resolution the image. The quality of the output images of two methods (linear method: average Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR)=24.899 and circular method: average PSNR= 27.783). The result of correlation of images is close to the original image (horizontal = 0.894, vertical = 0.521, and diagonal =0.807). The first method is less time consuming than the circular method.


Article
Text Steganography Method Based On Modified Run Length Encoding
طريقة اخفاء نص بالاعتماد على ترميز طول التكرار المحدثة

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Data hiding (Steganography) is a method used for data security purpose and to protect the data during its transmission. Steganography is used to hide the communication between two parties by embedding a secret message inside another cover (audio, text, image or video). In this paper a new text Steganography method is proposed that based on a parser and the ASCII of non-printed characters to hide the secret information in the English cover text after coding the secret message and compression it using modified Run Length Encoding method (RLE). The proposed method achieved a high capacity ratio for Steganography (five times more than the cover text length) when compared with other methods, and provides a 1.0 transparency by depending on some of the similarity measures of Steganography.


Article
Collision Avoidance Using Cat Swarm Algorithm for Multi Mobile Robot Path Planning in Dynamic Environment
تجنب التصادم بااستخدام خوازمية سرب القطط من اجل تخطيط مسار للعديد من الروبوت الناقل في بيئه متحركه

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In this paper, we proposed a hybrid control methodology using improved artificial potential field with modify cat swarm algorithm to path planning of decoupled multi-mobile robot in dynamic environment. The proposed method consists of two phase: in the first phase, Artificial Potential Field method (APF) is used to generate path for each one of robots and avoided static obstacles in environment, and improved this method to solve the local minimum problem by using A* algorithm with B-Spline curve while in the second phase, modify Cat Swarm Algorithm (CSA) is used to control collision that occurs among robots or between robot with movable obstacles by using two behaviour modes: seek mode and track mode. Experimental results show that the proposed method success to find a complete, optimal, and collision free path for all robot.


Article
Efficient method to Recognition of Anemia Images based on Moment Invariants and Decision tree classifier
طريقة كفوءة لتمييز صور مرض فقر الدم على اساس العزوم الثابتة والمصنف شجرة القرار

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Anemia is one of the common types of blood diseases, it lead to lack of number of RBCs (Red Blood Cell) and amount hemoglobin level in the blood is lower than normal. In this paper a new algorithm is presented to recognize Anemia in digital images based on moment variant. The algorithm is accomplished using the following phases: preprocessing, segmentation, feature extraction and classification (using Decision Tree), the extracted features that are used for classification are Moment Invariant and Geometric Feature. The Best obtained classification rates was 84% is obtained when using Moment Invariants features and 74 % is obtained when using Geometric Feature. Results indicate that the proposed algorithm is very effective in detection distorted red blood cells and this helps the medical technician to decide the type of Anemia in Laboratory analyzes in the hospitals.


Article
Studying the Suitability of Roads for Transporting Wind Turbines to Proposed Wind Farm Location
دراسة ملائمة الطرق لنقل توربينات الرياح للمواقع المقترحة لمزارع الرياح

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The aim of most researchers is to complete full projects for establishing renewable sources stations. The project depend on many variables, which is called criteria, that’s makes the project workable or not. The criterion which studied in this paper is roads suitability for transporting turbines from the loading ports to construction site. One of the important factors which must provide paved roads for transportation and within standard. Southern Um-Qasr port is the best choice to receive wind turbine equipments. The nods down to the construction region will face 0 turns, 2 bridges that crosses over and 23 bridges that passes underneath.

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