Table of content

Iraqi Journal of Science

المجلة العراقية للعلوم

ISSN: 00672904
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Science
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi journal of science is a quarterly specified scientific journal issued by the Faculty of Science at the University of Baghdad. The members of the Editorial Board representing the Departments of Eight Scientific departments, college of science/ Baghdad University and its related units of research, all are professors, scientists with extensive experience and considerable skills in their field of science, as well as an advisory board in support composed of professors and scientists with great reputation in their field of science from other Colleges, universities, or research institutes. The specialty of publication includes the following fields:

1.Pure and Applied Physics.
2.Mathematical Sciences.
3.Computer Science and Information Technology.
4.Science of chemistry.
5.Bio-Science technologies.
6.Earth Sciences, geo-physics, and remote sensing.
7.Astronomy, Space Sciences, and Remote Sensing Unit.
8.Science and Research of tropical area

The visions, goals, and the mechanisms of the Iraqi Journal of Science is to publish scientific research sober in the areas of Applied and Pure Sciences and instructive Iraqi society, scientific research, scientific interest large to contribute to the development of various disciplines, which provides significant support to researchers in all scientific facilities to continue to support the development plans in Iraq.

Loading...
Contact info

Baghdad University
College of Science
Baghdad
Iraq
ijs@scbaghdad.edu.iq
07903375590
http://ijs.scbaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2016 volume:57 issue:4A

Article
The evaluation effect of TiO2 nano particles on different bacterial strains isolated from water purification stations in Baghdad
تقييم تأثير دقائق ثاني اوكسيد التيتانيوم النانوية على السلالات البكتيرية المختلفة المعزولة من محطات تنقية المياه في بغداد

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The antibacterial activities of some nanoparticles, makes them attractive as a new agents against pathogenic bacteria. In this research, the antimicrobial effects of Titanium dioxide-nano-particles against seven bacterial isolates (E.coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Pseudomonas alcaligenes, Aeromonas veronii, Aeromonas hydrophila, Serratia marcescens and Staphylococcus aureus) being isolated from different Baghdad water purification stations investigated. The physiochemical characters, which influence the quality of the drinking water for the air and water, demonstrated.The characterization of nanoparticles investigated by using Scanning Electrone Microscope, FTIR, and UV-Visible Spectrophotometer. The activity of different concentration of TiO2 Nps. (50, 100, 150, 200 mg/ ml) measured in liquid medium using the colorimetric analysis and measuring the optical density (OD) for all bacterial species observed. The plate count assay were involved to investigate the effect of TiO2 Nps. on one model of gram negative bacteria (E. coli) and one gram positive bacteria (S. aureus.) This study showed that nano-TiO2 has efficient antibacterial effect in water, and can used as an antibacterial agent for different purposes.


Article
Effect of growth media components and growth condition on indole – 3 – acetic acid (IAA) production by Pseudomonas putida isolated from soil
تأثير مكونات الوسط الزرعي وظروف النمو على انتاج الأندول اسيتك اسد (IAA) في بكتريا Pseudomonas putidaالمعزوله من الترب

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Pseudomonas putidaPST-1 isolate isolated from soil of plant root was used for high production of indole acetic acid. Indole acetic acid (IAA) production is a major property of rhizosphere bacteria that stimulate and facilitate plant growth. Optimization of indole acetic acid production was carried out at different cultural conditions of pH temperature, incubation period, and the amount of inoculum of bacteria. The best chemical medium for high IAA production (82 Mg/ml) was Luria-Bertani broth medium consisted of 1.2gm tryptophan and 10gm peptone in their components, while the cheese whey medium was the best natural medium for IAA production was (66 Mg/ml). IAA production byPseudomonas putida PST-1 was optimized by studying some factors the results revealed that the maximum IAA value was obtained when the isolate cultivated in Luria-Bertani broth medium supplemented by tryptophan 1.2gm / 1L and peptone 10gm/1L, adjusted at pH 7 and incubated at 30 c for 4 days with the viable count of bacteria was (19,8 × 103). These results suggest that IAA producingPseudomonas putida PST-1 could be promising candidate for utilization in growth improvement of plants of economic and agricultural value.


Article
A chemotaxonomical Study of Four Species Belonging the Genus Arabis L. Cruciferae (Brassicacae) in Iraq
التصنيف الكيميائى لاربعة انواع من الجنس Arabis L. من العائلة الصلبيةBrassicacae في العراق

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

This study has been focused on the detection of phenolic compound in aerial parts (stem and leaves)of the species belonging the genus Arabis L. A.Caucasica Willd, A.Sagittata (Bertol)DC, A.Aucheri Boiss, A.nova Vill of family cruciferou (Brassicaceae) which were collected during field trips of the districted of Iraq. Phenolic compounds have been identified by using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Nine standard compounds used for comparison five of them flavonoids ( Rutin, Quercetin, kaempferol, Luteolin and Apigenin) and the other phenolic acid ( Chlorogenic acid, Caffeic acid, Ferulic acid and Rosmarinic acid) , results showed that species vary in containing phenolic compound which can be counted as a taxonomic evidence supporting the taxonomic studied, this researchRosmarinicacid، Kaempferol، Quercetin، Rutin، Apeginin، Chloregenic acid: This compound exist in all species (stem and leaves part) is regarded as a first chemical study of genus Arabis L. in Iraq.


Article
The role of Helicobacter pylori infection in skin disorders
دور الخمج بالبكتريا الملتوية البوابية في المتلازمات الجلدية

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

This study was amied to determine the relationship between Helicobacter pylori infection and skin disorders, sixty six patients who suffering from skin diseases (Urticaria and atopic dermatitis) who attended at Dermatological Clinic Al-Numan Teaching Hospital. Aged (6--62) years have been investigated and compared to Twenty two samples of apparently healthy individual's were studied as control group . All the studied groups were subjected to measurement of anti- Helicobacter pylori antibodies IgA by Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results of current study revealed that there were a significant elevation (P<0.05) in the concentration of H. pylori IgA antibodies in sera of patients with chronic urticaria and atopic dermatitis compared to control group, and there were non significant differences (P>0.05) in the concentration of H. pylori IgA Ab in sera of patients according to the ages and gender. Conclusion, Helicobacter pylori may have a role in the pathogenesis of chronic urticaria and atopic dermatitis, and the results of present study suggest that H.pylori infection should be included in diagnostic workup of patients with skin disorders.


Article
The influence of some amino acids,vitamins and anti-inflammatory drugs on activity of chondroitinase produced by Proteus vulgaris caused urinary tract infection
تأثير بعض الأحماض الأمينية والفيتامينات وبعض العقاقير المسكنة للألام على فعالية انزيم ال chondroitinase المنتج من بكتريا proteus vulgaris المسببه لألتهاب المسالك البولية

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Two hundred and ten specimens include urine, blood and ear swab were collected from different hospitals in Baghdad city; 85 (40%) isolates were diagnosed as Proteus spp. with (82%), (11.7%) and (5.8%) represented in urine, blood and ear swab specimens respectively. PCR technique was shown 30 (35.3%) isolates were positive for specific Urease C gene that used in rapid detection of Proteus vulgaris. The ability for chondritinase production was checked invetro and invevo, 24 (80%) isolates of P. vulgaris were showed ablity to chondritinase production and the isolate (p17) has higher enzyme activity value to (175.2U/ml). The Chondroitinase was purified by three short steps only included precipitate with 60% saturated of ammonium sulfate, dialysis and then filtrated by Sephadex G-150. The enzymatic activity was peaked to (270U/ml) and specific activity (692.3U/mg). The enzymatic activity for purified enzyme was increased significantly (P<0.01) to (563.7U/ml) after treatment with 1M of tyrosine but aspartic acid and glutamic acid were show inhibitory effect on enzyme activity decreased (P<0.01) to (130.U/ml) and (147.3 U/ml) respectively. The enzymatic activity was also increased significantly (P<0.01) reached to (633.6U/ml) and to(610.3U/ml) when treated with 50% of vitamin k and piroxicam respectively. This study was aimed to investigate effect of amino acids, vitamins and some nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) with different concentrations on enzyme activity.


Article
Effect of DAP (P21%) Fertilizer on Total Saliva officinalis Flavonoid Content
تأثير السماد ثنائي فوسفات الامونيوم 21 % P على محتوى الفلافونويدات الكلية لنبات المرمية

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The effect of (Di-Ammonium Phosphate DAP) (P21%), as plant fertilizer on content of the Saliva officinalis. Total flavonoid as an important active constituent was investigated in the present study. Three samples (F1, F2, and F3) of Saliva officinalis were grown in soil treated with DAP (100, 200, and 300) kg/hector respectively. Another two samples were studied: F0 as a plant sample grown in soil untreated with fertilizer and F4 as wild type obtained from market. Total flavonoids were estimated Quantitatively by Rutin standard curve and qualitatively by TLC method in corresponding to standard flavonoids. Results showed that different concentrations of DAP treated soil affected flavonoid contained of the Iraqi cultivated Saliva officinalis in different manner. The lowest flavonoid contained was untreated samples (F0), and the best result was obtained from plant in soil treated with 200kg/H of DAP(f2) when the soil treated with DAP plant fertilizer in concentration (200kg/H) F2 sample.


Article
Effect of Solvent type and Annealing Temperature on Efficiency for Eosin -y Dye Sensitized Solar Cells
تاثير حرارة التلدين في الخلايا الشمسية الصبغية ذات ثنائي اوكسيد التيتانيوم بصبغة الايوزين بالاعتماد على نوع المذيب

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is one of the photochemical electric cells, which consists of the photoelectrode, the dye, the electrolyte, and the counter electrode. The advantage of DSSC is the low cost of the solar energy conversion into electricity because of inexpensive materials and the relative ease of the fabrication processes. In this study was selected solvent dye resolve to know most efficient in terms of conversion efficiency. A dye solution of water or ethanol and maxing in which eosin – y dissolves behaves like a colloid and explores the effect of sintering temperature of TiO2 films on the efficiency of dye sensitized solar cells. A study conducted on several samples at different temperatures. Exemplary efficiency of the cell in a water solution of the dye effect of heat annealing 450 0C was found 0.73%, but after the addition of AgNO3 improved efficiency to 1.1 % .


Article
Study the Effect of Deposition Location on the Optical Properties of CuO Absorption Layer Prepared by Fully Computerized Spray Pyrolysis Deposition
دراسة تأثير موقع الترسيب على الخصائص البصرية لطبقة امتصاص من اوكسيد النحاس المحضر بمنظومه الرش الكيميائي المحوسبة المتكاملة

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The Topography, Physical and Optical properties of as-deposited copper oxide CuO absorption layer sprayed using homemade fully computerized CNC spray pyrolysis deposition technique at different deposition speed are reported. These layers are characterized by UV-Visible spectrophotometer, optical microscope, and thickness monitor studies. The optical transmittance study indicates that these layer exhibit high absorption coefficient in the visible range. The optical band gap is found to be at about 1.5 eVat speeds (3,6 mm/s). Better homogeneity in CuO layer is found at the speed 5 mm/s. The film thickness lies within the 129-412 nm range.The Topography, Physical and Optical properties of as-deposited copper oxide CuO absorption layer sprayed using homemade fully computerized CNC spray pyrolysis deposition technique at different deposition speed are reported. These layers are characterized by UV-Visible spectrophotometer, optical microscope, and thickness monitor studies. The optical transmittance study indicates that these layer exhibit high absorption coefficient in the visible range. The optical band gap is found to be at about 1.5 eVat speeds (3,6 mm/s). Better homogeneity in CuO layer is found at the speed 5 mm/s. The film thickness lies within the 129-412 nm range.


Article
Evaluation of Some Geotechnical Properties of Chosen Soils From Al- Massab Al-Aam channel Slopes (Middle Sector) of Iraq.
تقييم بعض الخواص الجيوتكنيكية لترب مختارة من منحدرات قناة المصب العام (القاطع الاوسط) من العراق

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

This study is concerned with channel banks slopes in the middle sector of Al-Massab Al-Aam channel in the middle and south of Iraq. The geotechnical properties of soil in the channel banks including physical ,engineering, chemical and mineralogical characters in over (25) station have been studied. The grain size distribution of the bank soils of channel showed that the clay percentage is higher than those of the silt and sand percentages. The bank soils are classified according to the USCS standards. They are composed of clay with low plasticity (CL) that represents 88% of the soil and ,clay with high plasticity (CH)represents 12% of the soil. The saturated density values ranges between 1.679 and 1.953 g/cm3 with average value of 1.790 g/cm3,while the dry density values ranges between 1.274 and 1.718 g/cm3 with average value of 1.470 g/cm3 ; the values of dry and saturated density are within the ideal limits . Direct shear test shows that the cohesion values (c), range between 5-48 kN/m2 with average value of 21.68 kN/m2 , while the internal friction angle (Ø°) of the soil type (CL) ranges between 8.5°-30° with average value of 18.13° . The (Ø°) values of the other soil type (CH) ranges between (20°-30°) with average value of 25° ,therefore the (CH) soil types have higher(Ø°) values than the ideal limits .The result of unconfined compression test ranges between 9.4-73.80 kN/m2 with average value of 30.6 kN/m2 of remoulded samples with water percentage of 30%. The mineralogical test of the banks soil of channel using XRD shows that the mineral contents of the analyzed soil are composed mainly of the minerals Quartz ,calcite, Feldspar (Anorthite), dolomite, and Clay minerals such as (montimorillonite, and Kaolinite) . The Electrical conductivity of soil is classified depending on (FAO) classification between low to high salinity , and the pH value have low to moderate basicity. The gypsum concentrations range between 0.09 and 12.59% with average value of 2.083% , chlorides concentrations range between 0.017 and 0.166% with average value of 0.079%, sulphates concentrations range between 0.044 and 5.85% with average value of 0.987%,and carbonates concentrations range between 2 and 40%with average value of 20.5% . Some treatment measures are proposed to stabilize the soil of the studied area.


Article
Subsurface Investigation of Merjan oil field Depending on 3D Seismic Reflection Central Iraq
دراسة تحت سطحية لحقل مرجان في وسط العراق باستخدام المعلومات الزلزالية ثلاثية الابعاد

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The study deals with 3D seismic reflection in the central Iraq within Merjan oil field which is located approximately (130 km) to the southwest Baghdad and south of Razaza. The 3D seismic survey was interpreted; the results showed that the oil is found within Hartha Formation as stratigraphic traps and with the absence of structural traps. The major normal faults picked are trending N-S direction. There are also minor faults observed using the instantaneous phase and frequency sections, they proved the presence of the faults and showed that the ending of the Safawi reflector toward the north and northeast to the south and southeast and near the western border of fault because of the facies change in the area. The reflector shows a structural nose extend in NW-SE trend and plunges to the south-east. The seismic attributes show that (Me-1) well is a stratigraphic trap and (Wk-1) well is a wildcat. The phenomenon of gas was shown clearly at the west of well, (Me-1) in seismic attribute and section.


Article
The State of the Main Basement Features of the Western Desert of Iraq, A New Look
عرض لظواهر صخور القاعدة الرئيسية في الصحراء الغربية للعراق – رؤية جديدة

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The reduction to pole of the aeromagnetic map of the western desert of Iraq has been used to outline the main basement structural features. Three selected magnetic anomalies are used to determine the depths of their magnetic sources. The estimated depths are obtained by using slope half slope method and have been corrected through the application of a published nomogram. These depths are compared with previous published depth values which provide a new look at the basement of the western desert in addition to the thickness map of the Paleozoic formations. The results shed light on the important of the great depths of the basement structures and in turn the sedimentary cover to be considered for future hydrocarbon exploration


Article
Inorganic Geochemistry and Origin of Bitumen Intruded in Euphrates and Fatha Formations in Hit Area, Western Iraq
الجيوكيمياء اللاعضوية وأصل البتيومين المقحم في تكويني الفرات والفتحة في منطقة هيت ،غرب العراق

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The content of redox sensitive trace element (V, Co, Ni, and Mo) in the bituminous limestone of the Euphrates Formation (E. Miocene) and bituminous gypsum of the Fatha Formation (M. Miocene) in the Hit Abu-Jir village area, Anbar governorate were determined using Inductively-Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS), in order to infer the origin of the hydrocarbon and the depositional conditions of the organic matter. Hydrocarbons species by using FTIR technique was identified as aliphatic, aromatic compound, hydroxyl acids, hydroxyl group, sulfoxide and sulfur. Bitumen occurrences in these formations is a result of the hydrocarbon seepages that moved up under high pressure along the Abu-Jir fault Zone, and then were intruded in the limestone and gypsum beds of Euphrates and Fatha Formations. A distinctive fractional differentiation in trace elements in the hydrocarbon-bearing fluids was detected, and resulted in enrichment of these trace elements in the carbonates of the Euphrates, rather than in gypsum belonging to the Fatha. The source of the organic matters located in the Euphrates carbonates is mainly marine planktonic deposited in an anoxic environment, whilst, for that located in the gypsum of Fatha Formation is marine anoxic carbonate-shale, marine terrestrial oxic-dysoxic, and terrestrial oxic. The original kerogen is estimated as of type- I/ II. Bitumen precipitated in shallow depth does not exceed 2 km. The temperature of the ascending hydrocarbons-bearing fluids is computed as 35°C, whereas the burial depth is of 61°C, where the biodegradation was the most probable process responsible for producing bitumen in such depth and temperature


Article
Analysis of Hierarchical Routing Models
تحليل موديلات التوجيه الهرمي في الشبكة

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

In this study, flow-based routing model is investigated. The aim of this study is to increase scalability of flow control, routing and network resources solutions, as well as to improve Quality of Service and performance of the whole system. A method of hierarchical routing is proposed. The goal coordination method alsoused in this paper. Two routing models (model with quadratic objective function and model with traffic engineering) were fully analyzed. The basic functions of the hierarchical routing model levels based on goal coordination method were addressed Both models’ convergence is also explained. The dependence of the coordination iterations number on the packet flow rates for both models is graphically shown. The results shows that the method of efficiency is improved by increasing the link metric. Applying the proposed method can improve the scalability of routing decisions in the telecommunication network. Additionally, the proposed method can reduce the number of iterations in the implementation of hierarchical routing, and reduce the service traffic volume in the network.


Article
Hiding and Encryption of Secret Image Using Secret Sharing Scheme
اخفاء وتشفير الصورة السرية باستخدام المشاركة السرية

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

With the development of information technology and means for information transfer it has become necessary to protect sensitive information. The current research presents a method to protect secret colored images which includes three phases: The first phase calculates hash value using one of hash functions to ensure that no tampering with or updating the contents of the secret image. The second phase is encrypting image and embedding it randomly into appropriate cover image using Random Least Significant Bit (RLSB) technique. Random hiding provides protection of information embedded inside cover image for inability to predict the hiding positions, as well as the difficult of determining the concealment positions through the analysis of image or statistical analysis. Finally, secret sharing of carrier information image is applied. In the proposed hide method, the secret image is restored completely without external influence, where when image embedding is exposure to noise (95% - 90%) is retrieved of secret data and correlation coefficient is strong between the secret and retrieved image ranging from (0.97 to 0.93). Test results of the proposed method to measure the quality of image after reconstructing stego image from share images good. Where it has been hidden secret image (84x84) pixels into cover image (160x160) pixel, PSNR the result is 45.735db.


Article
AHeuristic Strategy for Improving the Performance of Evolutionary Based Complex Detection in Protein-Protein Interaction Networks
أستراتيجية أرشادية لتحسين كشف المركبات في الشبكات البروتينية التفاعلية والمعتمد على الخوارزمية التطورية

Authors: Qusay Z. Abdullah --- Bara'a Ali Attea
Pages: 2513-2528
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

One of the most interested problems that recently attracts many research investigations in Protein-protein interactions (PPI) networks is complex detection problem. Detecting natural divisions in such complex networks is proved to be extremely NP-hard problem wherein, recently, the field of Evolutionary Algorithms (EAs) reveals positive results. The contribution of this work is to introduce a heuristic operator, called protein-complex attraction and repulsion, which is especially tailored for the complex detection problem and to enable the EA to improve its detection ability. The proposed heuristic operator is designed to fine-grain the structure of a complex by dividing it into two more complexes, each being distinguished with a core protein. Then, it is possible for each of the remaining proteins associated with the original coarse-grained complex to repulse from one of the new generated complexes while attracted by the core protein of the second complex. The topology-based complex detection models presented in the literature are adopted to inter-play with the proposed heuristic operator inside the EA general framework. To assess the performance of the EA when coupled with the proposed heuristic operator, the well known Saccaromycaes Cerevisiae yeast PPI network and one reference set of benchmark complexes created from MIPS are used in the experiments. The results prove the positive impact of the heuristic operator to harness the strength of almost all adopted EA models.


Article
Improving Security of ID Card and Passport Using Cubic Spline Curve
تطوير حماية البطاقات الشخصية وجوازت السفر باستخدام منحني سبلاين

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

In this paper, the proposes secure system to improving security of ID card and passports is by generating cubic spline co-occurrence code (CCO code) for each ID card. The authentication part, begins passing ID card through the checkpoint then the checkpoint will check the information of card or passport by also extracting features in order to generate the cubic spline co-occurrence code (CCO code), finally comparison is made between extracted CCO code at the checkpoint and CCO code that has been printed on ID card or passport (type of fraud like change personal picture or fraud it’s information). Several tests were conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed security system. Furthermore, the experiment results reveal that the proposed system can provide high-performance security systems as a result of use. This system can be used in many fields such as security of passport, ID card and certificate. Haralick features (Energy, Entropy, Variance, Contrast, Homogeneity) are very sensitive to any change in the information of ID card or passport, leading to detect any type of forgery


Article
Community Tracking in Time Evolving Networks: An Evolutionary Multi-objective Approach
تعقب المجتمع في الشبكات الاجتماعية المتغيره مع مرور الزمن: طريقة تطورية متعددة الأهداف

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

In real world, almost all networks evolve over time. For example, in networks of friendships and acquaintances, people continually create and delete friendship relationship connections over time, thereby add and draw friends, and some people become part of new social networks or leave their networks, changing the nodes in the network. Recently, tracking communities encountering topological shifting drawn significant attentions and many successive algorithms have been proposed to model the problem. In general, evolutionary clustering can be defined as clustering data over time wherein two concepts: snapshot quality and temporal smoothness should be considered. Snapshot quality means that the clusters should be as precise as possible during the current time step. Temporal smoothness, on the other hand, means that the clusters should not changed dramatically between successive time steps. In this paper, a multi-objective optimization model, based on internal community density as snapshot metric, is proposed and compared with the state-of-the-art modularity based model. Both models are then used to solve the community tracking problem in dynamic social network. The problem, in both models, is stated as a multi-objective optimization problem and the decomposition based multi-objective evolutionary algorithm is used to solve the problem. Experimental results reveals that the proposed model significantly outperforms the already existing model in the ability of tracking more shifted communities.


Article
Design recommendation system in e-commerce site
تصميم نظام توصية في موقع تجارة الكتروني

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

In recent years it has spread the used of e-commerce sites quite dramatically. Thus, these sites have become display huge number of diverse products. It became difficulty for the customer to choose what he/she wants from this product. The recommender systems are used to help customers to finding the desired product of their interests and proved to be an important solution to information overload problem. This paper, designed a recommendation system based on content, which is usually textual description. Furthermore, the proposed system uses cosine similarity function to find the similarities among the characteristics of various products, and nominate a suitable product closer to customer satisfaction. The experimental result shows that the proposed system can provide suitable product with accuracy up to 95%.


Article
Geomatics correction model for GPS data using RTK-DGPS survey
نموذج تصحيح هندسي لبيانات نظام تحديد المواقع باستخدام جهاز التموضع التفاضلي

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Determination of the sites of geographical coordinates with high accuracy and in short time is very important in many applications, including: air and sea navigation, and in the uses geodetic surveys. Today, the Global Positioning System (GPS) plays an important role in performing this task. The datum used for GPS positioning is called World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS84). It consists of a three-dimensional Cartesian coordinate system and an associated ellipsoid so that WGS84 positions describe coordinates as latitude, longitude and ellipsoid height (h) coordinates, with respect to the center of mass of the Earth This study develops a mathematical model for geomantic measurement correction for ellipsoidal heights (h) between two different receivers of different accuracies (i.e. high and low). The results are examined using statistical analysis for the accuracy and reliability of the computed positions. The receivers used in this study were, the Topcon HiPer-II and the Garmin eTrex vista. The first receiver use Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) signals on the L1 and L2 frequencies of both the GPS and GLONASS satellite navigation systems, while the second receiver was the Garmin eTrex vista.


Article
The Use of Geographic Information System Facilities to Estimate the Evapotranspiration in Iraq According to Thornthwaite Adjusted Formula
استخدام امكانيات نظم المعلومات الجغرافية لتخمين التبخر- نتح في العراق طبقاً لصيغة ثورنثويت المعدّلة

Authors: Laith A. Jawad ليث عزيز جواد
Pages: 2566-2574
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Iraq is facing water shortage problems due to various factors, globally ( Global warming) and regionally ( GAP project) and locally ( improper water resources management projects). In this search the global warming influence on the annual mean value of temperature and yet on the annual mean value of the evapotranspiration for more than three decades has been studied. The climate of Iraq is influenced by its location between the subtropical aridity of the Arabian desert areas and the subtropical humidity of the Arabian Gulf. The relative ascension of temperature degrees in the recent decades was the main factor in relative humidity decrement which increase the evapotranspiration values, since that utilizing a temperature-based method as in this search is the best choice to obtain realistic results. The increment in the annual mean value for maximum, minimum, and air temperature for each decade comparing with the previous one is about (1-3) % which yield an increment in the Evapotranspiration values of the millenniums decade comparing with the eighties one of about (35- 60) % for some southern Iraqi administratives, while it is about (13-15) % in some northern ones

Table of content: volume: issue: