Table of content

Iraqi Journal of Science

المجلة العراقية للعلوم

ISSN: 00672904
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Science
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi journal of science is a quarterly specified scientific journal issued by the Faculty of Science at the University of Baghdad. The members of the Editorial Board representing the Departments of Eight Scientific departments, college of science/ Baghdad University and its related units of research, all are professors, scientists with extensive experience and considerable skills in their field of science, as well as an advisory board in support composed of professors and scientists with great reputation in their field of science from other Colleges, universities, or research institutes. The specialty of publication includes the following fields:

1.Pure and Applied Physics.
2.Mathematical Sciences.
3.Computer Science and Information Technology.
4.Science of chemistry.
5.Bio-Science technologies.
6.Earth Sciences, geo-physics, and remote sensing.
7.Astronomy, Space Sciences, and Remote Sensing Unit.
8.Science and Research of tropical area

The visions, goals, and the mechanisms of the Iraqi Journal of Science is to publish scientific research sober in the areas of Applied and Pure Sciences and instructive Iraqi society, scientific research, scientific interest large to contribute to the development of various disciplines, which provides significant support to researchers in all scientific facilities to continue to support the development plans in Iraq.

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Contact info

Baghdad University
College of Science
Baghdad
Iraq
ijs@scbaghdad.edu.iq
07903375590
http://ijs.scbaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2016 volume:57 issue:4B

Article
Synthesis, Characterization, Theoretical Studies and Bioactivity of Pd(II), Rh(III), Ru(III) and Pt(IV) Complexes with 1,8-Naphthalimide Derivative
تحضير وتشخيص ودراسة نظرية وفعالية بايولوجية لمعقدات الايونات Pd(II), Pt(IV), Rh(III), Ru(III)مع مشتق1, 8 – نفثال ايمايد

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Abstract

A New Mannich base [N-(4-morpholinomethyl)-1, 8-naphthalimide] (L), was synthesized and characterized by C.H.N analysis, FTIR, UV-Vis and 1HNMR spectral analysis. Metal ion complexes of (L) with Pt(IV), Rh(III), Ru(III) and Pd(II) ions were prepared and characterized by FT-IR, and UV-Vis spectroscopy, elemental analysis (C.H.N), flame atomic absorption techniques as well as magnetic susceptibility and conductivity measurements. The results showed that metal ion complexes for all complexes were found in [1:2] [M:L] ratio except for Pd(II) complex which was found in [1:1] [M:L] ratio. Hyperchem-8 program has been used to predict structural geometries of the (L) and it's complexes in gas phase. The electrostatic potential (EP) of the (L) was calculated. Furthermore, the heat of formation (∆Hf^o), binding energy (∆Eb), vibration spectra, electronic spectra and bond length for the ligand (L) and its metal ion complexes were calculated by PM3 methods. The antimicrobial activity of (L) and its complexes has been extensively studied against pathogenic bacteria such as (Pseudonomous aerugionosa) as gram negative and (Bacillus Subtilis) as gram positive and fungi (Candida albicans) and (Aspergillus flavus) by agar-well diffusion technique.


Article
Preparation and Characterization of New Mixed Ligand Complexes of (p-Methyl Anilino)-p-Chloro Phenyl Acetonitrile and Ethylene Diamine

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Abstract

New mixed ligand complexes of some metal ions Zn(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II) were prepared by reacting with mixture of two bidentate ligands [ HL = (P-methyl anilino) –P– chloro phenyl acetonitrile and en = ethylene diamine] in a molar ratio of 1:1:1[ M : HL : en] in ethanol . The ligand HL was previously prepared by Strecker’s procedure which includes the reaction of p- toluidine with P- chlorobenzaldehyde in the presence of KCN in acidic medium. The structures of new compounds were identified by elemental analyses, atomic absorption and thermal analyses TG/DTG in addition to FTIR and U.V-VIS. Spectra. The electrical conductivity measurements of metal complexes were also determined. From the obtained data the octahedral structure was suggested for all prepared complexes.


Article
Synthesis and Characterization of Several New Copolymers Based on Maleimides Bearing 1, 3, 4-Oxadiazole Moiety
تحضير وتشخيص عدد من البوليمرات المشتركة الجديدة اعتماداً على مالي ايمايدات حاملة لمكونة 4،3،1-اوكسادايازول

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Abstract

A series of new copolyimides containing pendant 1,3,4-oxadiazole moiety were synthesized via multisteps. In the first step five N-(5-substituted-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-yl)maleamic acids were prepared via reaction of maleic anhydride with 2-amino-5-substituted-1,3,4-oxadiazoles. The obtained amic acids were dehydrated in the second step affording the corresponding N-(5-substituted-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-yl) maleimides. In the third step the newly synthesized maleimides were introduced successfully in free radical copolymerization reaction with four vinylic monomers including acrylo nitrile, methacrylonitrile, methyl acrylate and methyl meth acrylate respectively producing twelve new copolymers having different physical properties which may serve different applications. The new copolymers are of great importance since it contain two important components (maleimide and 1,3,4-oxadiazole) cycles in their repeating units which exhibit good thermal and chemical stability beside the presence of acrylo nitriles or acrylates components which exhibit better solubility and processing properties.

Keywords

Maleamic acids --- Maleimides --- Copolymerization --- 1 --- 3 --- 4-oxadiazole


Article
Antibacterial activity of different part of Neem (Azadirchta indica) growing in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates
دراسة الفعالية المضادة للبكتريا لأجزاء من نبات النيـــم النامية في الشارقة – الامارات العربية المتحدة

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Abstract

Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of different parts (seeds, leaves, bark) of neem plant (Azadirachta Indica) were screened for antibacterial activaties against five species of bacteria (Staphylococcus aurous, Staphylococcus epidermises, Acinetobacter baumanni, Psedommonas aeruginosa, and Escherishia coli). Different extracts 40-80 mg/L were tested using Ager-well diffusion method. Neem parts potent demonstrated for anti-bacterial activaties against all microorganisms tested. The results showed that neem seeds aqueous and ethanolic, extract have significant effects for all tested bacteria, the maximum inhibition zone by seeds cold aqueous and cold ethanolic extracts were 22 & 13 mm for E. coli and S. epidermidis respectively; while leaves extracts were given 15 & 13 mm inhabitions zones against S. aureus and E. coli respectively. But extracts were showed inhibition zone 22 & 13 mm for S. aureus and S. epidermidis respectively. The fatty acids were determine in seeds neem, the compositions resulted in detection of eight fatty acids, the maximum dominant compound is Linoleic Acid and the minimum construction is Palmiticoleic Acid, the ethanolic extracts contained, Phenol, Alkaloids, Tannins, Glycosides, while the Steroids were absent, the results gathered from this study indicated that neem plant has anti-Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria.


Article
Qualitative and Quantitative Investigation of Iraqi Grapefruit ( Citrus padisi) Flavonoids From Peel and Seeds and Comparing Their Aqueous Extracts for Antimicrobial Activity
التحري نوعياً وكمياً عن فلافينويدات الكريب فروت العراقي المستخلصة من القشور والبذور ومقارنة مستخلصهم المائي نسبة إلى النشاط المضاد للميكروبات

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Abstract

Iraqi grapefruit ( Citrus paradisi, family Rutaceae) flavonoids were investigated qualitatively and quantitatively. The total isolated flavonoids from seeds and peel were 3.6 mg and 12.53 mg respectively in each gram of powder. The antimicrobial activity of aqueous extracts and total isolated flavonoids from seeds and peel were assessed against strains of Gram positive bacteria( Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis), Gram negative bacteria( Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and yeast( Candida albicans). The aqueous extracts lacked antimicrobial activity against all bacteria and yeast, while the total flavonoids showed a moderate inhibitory effect against test bacteria and yeast. This difference in inhibitory activity between aqueous extract and total flavonoids may be due to structurally-related aspects.


Article
Isolation and identification of fungi from the droppings of some poultry and some detergents effect on some of them.
عزل وتشخيص الفطريات من فضلات بعض الطيور الداجنة وتاثير بعض المنظفات على البعض منها

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Abstract

In Baghdad governorate, samples of dried birds waste were obtained from poultry cages for investigate the of the presence of fungi. There was a high proportion of Candida spp., Rhodotorula spp. and filamentous fungi that obtained from the dry droppings. Al samples gave a positive results included 177 isolates, these isolates includes different Candida species 62 isolates (35.02%), Rhodotorula spp. 28 isolates (15.81%), and the following filamentous genera: Aspergillus spp. 50 isolates (28. 24%), (A. niger 20 isolate, A. flavus 18 isolate, A. fumigatus 12 isolate), Penicillium spp. 11 isolates (6.21%) and Mucor spp. 26 isolate (14.68%). The inhibitory effect of the used detergents (with concentration of 10-1 mg/ml. (was ranged from 35 mm using pert plus shampoo to 5 mm in Fine liquid dish washing, while some detergents had no effect on both Candida and Rhodotorula species.


Article
Antiparasitic Effect of Carbonnanotubes on Leishmania donovani in vitro
تأثير انابيب الكربون النانومترية على الليشمانيا الحشوية في المختبر

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Abstract

Although several drugs are used against Leishmania infection but they are associated with several adverse complications. Therefore, a new effective treatment needed to be found. In this study, the effect of carbonnanotubes nanoparticles (CNTs NPs) on Leishmania donovani promastigotes was assessed. Viability of promastigotes after adding different concentrations of carbonnanotubes (CNTs) nanoparticles (0.05, 0.1, 5, 10, 20, 40, 60 and 80 µg/ml) to the parasite culture was evaluated by growth rate, viability rate assay and morphological changes. The results indicated that the effect of CNTs NPs on growth rate of promastigotes form. After exposed to 80 µg/ml of CNTs, the growth rate of promastigotes clearly decreased compared with promastigotes treated with the same concentrations of pentostam drug (the standard antileishmanial drug) and the control group. The inhibitory concentration (IC50) of CNTs NPs on promastigotes growth rate was 59.30μg/mL after 72 hours. In addition, CNTs NPs exert cytotoxic effects on L. donovani promastigotes through the induction of their death when exposed to 80µg/ml of CNTs NPs and pentostam. The inhibitory concentration (IC50) of CNTs NPs on L. donovani promastigotes was 53.79μg/mL after 72 hours. The antiparasitic effect increased with the increasing of the CNTs NPs concentration, while the viability curve of the parasite dropped. In addition, a visual inspection by light microscopy has shown that CNTs induces morphological changes in L. donovani promastigotes in comparison to the morphology of the untreated promastigotes. Our data determine the superiority of CNTs as a novel leishmanicidal effect against L. donovani infection over pentostam in vitro.


Article
Evaluation of Water Quality for Greater Zab River by Principal Component Analysis/ Factor Analysis
تقيم نوعية المياه في نهر الزاب الأعلى بطريقة تحليل المكونات الرئيسة

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Abstract

This study was conducted to determining the variable effects on water quality of Greater Zab River in Erbil province, Iraq, using multivariate statistical analysis. Seventeen variables were monitored in four sampling sites during one year (from May 2012 to April 2013). The dataset were treated using principal component analysis (PCA)/ factor analysis (FA), cluster analysis (CA) to the most important factors affecting water quality, sources of pollution and suitability of water for drinking consumption and irrigation. Six factors were identified as responsible for the data structure explaining 73.5% of the total variance in the dataset and are conditionally named, hydrochemical from weathering, mineral salts and domestic wastes. CA showed two different groups of similarity between sampling sites, in which site 2 was more contaminated than other studied sites. Their pH and TDS values were found in agreement for drinking and irrigation purposes with drinking water quality standard for Iraq, WHO, and Richards standards. SAR contents were low and maximum value was observed at site 2 and all sites classified as S1 type (low salinity) water quality. While, sulfate concentration exceeding permissible level according to water quality standard for Iraqi standard for drinking water, and irrigation purposes Richards standards. Generally, results of most water quality parameters revealed that Greater Zab River were within permissible level for drinking water consumption, while it regarded as safe water type for all kinds of crops.


Article
Elastic electron scattering from 11Li and 12Be exotic nuclei in the framework of the binary cluster model
الاستطارة الالكترونية المرنة من النوى الغريبة 11Li و 12Be باستخدام الانموذج العنقودي الثنائي

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Abstract

The ground state densities of unstable neutron-rich 11Li and 12Be exotic nuclei are studied in the framework of the binary cluster model (BCM). The internal densities of the clusters are described by the single particle harmonic oscillator wave functions. The long tail performance is clearly noticed in the calculated neutron and matter density distributions of these nuclei. The structures of the two valence neutrons in 11Li and 12Be are found to be mixed configurations with dominant (1p1/2)2. Elastic electron scattering proton form factors for 11Li and 12Be are studied using the plane wave Born approximation (PWBA). It is found that the major difference between the calculated form factors of unstable nuclei [11Li, 12Be] and those of stable nuclei [7Li, 9Be] is the difference in the center of mass correction which depends on the mass number and the size parameter . The reaction cross sections for 11Li and 12Be are studied by means of the Glauber model with an optical limit approximation using the ground state densities of the projectile and target, where these densities are described by single Gaussian functions. The calculated reaction cross sections of 11Li and 12Be at high energy are in good agreement with experimental data. The analysis of the present study supports the halo structure of these nuclei.


Article
A Study of compression strength and flexural strength for Polymer Concrete
دراسة خاصية الانضغاط وخاصية الانحناء للبوليمر كونكريت

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Abstract

Polymer concrete were prepared by mixing epoxy resin with sand particles in three different grain size (150-300) , (300-600 ) and (600- 1200) μm respectively. The percentage of epoxy was 15%, 20 %, 25% and 30% wt of the total weight. Compression strength and flexural strength tests were carried out for the prepared samples. The percentages of epoxy resin at 20% wt and 25% wt showed best mechanical properties for all grain sizes. These percentages were adopted to fill the voids between particles sand have two different size ranges (150-600) μm and {(150-300) & (600-1200)} μm respectively to obtain more dense material. The results showed that the strength of polymer composite at 20% resin is higher than 25% resin.


Article
Some physical properties of SiO2 laser induced plasma
بعض الخصائص الفيزيائية لبلازما ثنائي اوكسيد السليكون المحتثة بالليزر

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Abstract

In this work; Silicon dioxide (SiO2) plasma plume was prepared by laser induced plasma (LIP). The electron number density, plasma frequency and Debye length were calculated by reading the data of I-V curve of Langmuir probe which was used as a diagnostic method of measuring plasma properties. Pulsed Nd:YAG laser was used for measuring the electron number density of SiO2 plasma plume under vacuum environment with varying both vacuum pressure and axial distance from the target surface. Some physical properties of the plasma generated such as electron density, plasma frequency and Debye length have been measured experimentally and the effects of vacuum pressure and Langmuir probe distance from the target were studied on those variables. An inverse relationships between electron density, Debye length and plasma frequency with axial distance from the target were observed as well direct proportionality between both plasma density and plasma frequency with vacuum pressure while the exception is true in case of Debye length which is proportional inversely with vacuum pressure.


Article
Hydrochemical Characteristics and Seasonal Variations of Al-Hammar Marsh, Southern Iraq
الخصائص الهيدروكيميائية والتغيرات الفصلية لهور الحمار- جنوب العراق

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Abstract

Devastated by the combined impact of massive drainage works and upstream damming since the 1980's, Al-Hammar Marsh, Southern Iraq, has completely collapsed with 94 % of its land cover transformed into bare land and salt crusts by 2000. After a policy initiated to restore the Iraqi marshes again in 2003, the marsh recovered about half of its former area. As a part of the ecological recovery assessment of this newly inundated marsh, it is important to investigate the extend impact of desiccation after 3 years of inundation on water quality as the latter plays an important role in the restoration process of the marshes. Therefore, from a restoration point of view, major and trace element distribution and sourcing as well as seasonal variations were studied in the re-flooded marsh of Al-Hammar. First, the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment Water Quality Index [1] analyses applied revealed threatened or impaired water quality and conditions in the marsh that depart from natural or desirable levels. Second, multivariate statistical techniques such as Agglomerative Hierarchal Cluster Analyses (AHCA) that were used to analyze the data and identify the possible sources of water pollution in the marsh indicated that some elements such as Ca, SO4, Mg, TDS, Cl, Na, Co, and Ni are associated with natural sourcing while other elements such as Cd, Zn, Pb, and turbidity indicated a possible anthropogenic sourcing. Third, seasonal variations investigation displayed that the water quality is affected by natural seasonal processes such as evaporation and rainfall as well as biological activities. Dry season exhibited an increase in TDS, Ca, Mg, Na, Cl, SO4, and Cd due to the concentration by evaporation during the season compared to the dilution by rainfall during the wet season. In contrast, BOD and DO levels showed a considerable decrease in dry season owing to the poor water ability to hold oxygen at high temperature as a result of higher rate of microbial metabolism.


Article
Seismic Interpretation for Hydrocarbon Traps Detection of Warka-Zakura Area South of Iraq
التفسير الزلزالي لتحديد المصائد النفطية في منطقة وركاء-زقوره جنوب العراق

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This research represents a reflection seismic study (structural and stratigraphic) for a (852) km2 area located in the south of Iraq within the administrative border of the province of Al-Muthanna and Qadisiyah province ,by using 2-D seismic data from Oil Exploration company three main seismic reflectors are picked, these are (Zubair and Yamama) Formations which they deposited during the Cretaceous age , and (Gotnia) Formation which deposited during Jurassic age .Structural maps of Formations are prepared to obtain the location and direction of the sedimentary basin and shoreline ,time, velocity and depth maps are drawn depending on the structural interpretation of the picked reflectors and show several structural feature as nose structure . Seismic interpretation of the area approves the presence of some stratigraphic features in the studied Formations. Some distributary mound, flatspot , and channel were observed within the area .The study of seismic facies of the picked reflectors distinct two type of seismic facies the first is parallel seismic facies represented by Zubair Formation and second is progressive seismic facies characterized by Yamama and Gotnia Formations .Using seismic attribute techniques including instantaneous frequency showed low frequency in areas of hydrocarbon accumulations. Instantaneous phase attribute detected seismic sequence boundaries, sedimentary layer patterns and regions of onlap and downlap patterns. Amplitude attribute showed low amplitude flat spots.


Article
3-D Seismic Interpretation of Hartha Formation at Nasiriyah Oil Field, South Iraq
دراسة زلزاليه ثلاثية الابعاد لتفسير تكوين الهارثه في حقل الناصرية النفطي جنوب العراق

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This study deal with structural and stratigraphic analysis of the seismic reflection data for Hartha Formation at Nasiriyah field, the area of seismic data is about (1237) km2. Nasiriyah oil field is located in Dhi Qar Governorate, southern Iraq, and the oil field is located to the East of Euphrates River of about (38) km northwest of Nasiriyah city. which includes twenty-four (24) wells. In some wells there are oil evidences in Hartha Formation at Nasiriyah oil field, for this reason, Hartha Formation is studied. Two reflectors are picked (top and bottom Hartha) they are defined by using synthetic seismograms in time domain for wells (Ns-1, and 3). Time and depth of Hartha Formation are drawn using velocity data of reflectors. The structural interpretation shows top and bottom of Hartha Formation. The Nasiriyah structure appeared as several regular enclosures shapes, their general trend northwest-southeast. The structure has three enclosures situated on five wells. The general dip towards the northeast. Variance seismic attributes technique are used; instantaneous frequency, instantaneous phase and chaos are done to verify and confirm this structural interpretation. Two coral Rudist (mound) accumulations are determined and interpreted. In addition, flat spot phenomenon has been observed which is located in northeast of the well site Ns-4 which represents a Direct Hydrocarbon Indicator (DHI) that refers to the presence of hydrocarbons.


Article
On Closed Rickart Modules
حول مقاسات ريكارت المغلقة

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Abstract

In this article, we study the notion of closed Rickart modules. A right R-module M is said to be closed Rickart if, for each φ∈End(M), r_M (φ)=Kerφ is a closed submodule of M. Closed Rickart modules is a proper generalization of Rickart modules. Many properties of closed Rickart modules are investigated. Also, we provide some characterizations of closed Rickart modules. A necessary and sufficient condition is provided to ensure that this property is preserved under direct sums. Several connections between closed Rickart modules and other classes of modules are given. It is shown that every closed Rickart module is κ-nonsingular module. Examples which delineate this concept and some results are provided.


Article
P, P-L. Compact Topological Ring
التراص P ، P-L. للحلقات التبولوجية.

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Abstract

In this paper, we introduced some new definitions on P-compact topological ring and PL-compact topological ring for the compactification in topological space and rings, we obtain some results related to P-compact and P-L compact topological ring.


Article
New Root-based Stemmer for Arabic Language
محلل جديد للجذوع المعتمد على الجذر الجديد للغة العربية

Authors: Inas Ali ايناس علي
Pages: 2760-2766
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Abstract

Importance of Arabic language stemming algorithm is not less than that of other languages stemming in Information Retrieval (IR) field. Lots of algorithms for finding the Arabic root are available and they are mainly categorized under two approaches which are light (stem)-based approach and root-based approach. The latter approach is somehow better than the first approach. A new root-based stemmer is proposed and its performance is compared with Khoja stemmer which is the most efficient root-based stemmers. The accuracy ratio of the proposed stemmer is (99.7) with a difference (1.9) with Khoja stemmer.


Article
An Improved Method to Recognize the Iraqi License Plates Using Local Projections
طريقة محسّنة لتمييز لوحات تسجيل السيارات العراقية بأستخدام الأسقاطات المحلية

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The License Plate (LP), is a rectangular metal plate that contains numbers and letters. This plate is fixed onto the vehicle's body. It is used as a mean to identify the vehicle. The License Plate Recognition (LPR) system is a mean where a vehicle can be identified automatically using a computer system. The LPR has many applications, such as security applications for car tracking, or enforcing control on vehicles entering restricted areas (such as airports or governmental buildings). This paper is concerned with introducing a new method to recognize the Iraqi LPs using local vertical and horizontal projections, then testing its performance. The attained success rate reached 99.16%, with average recognition time around 0.012 second for recognizing a single alphanumeric symbol


Article
Noise Reduction and Gestational Age Estimation for Ultrasound Fetuses Images.
الحد من الضوضاء وتقدير عمر الأجنة لصور الموجات فوق الصوتية.

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Ultrasound imaging is often preferred over other medical imaging modalities because it is non-invasive, non-ionizing, and low-cost. However, the main weakness of medical ultrasound image is the poor quality of images, due to presence of speckle noise and blurring. Speckle is characteristic phenomenon in ultrasound images, which can be described as random multiplicative noise that occurrence is often undesirable, since it affects the tasks of human interpretation and diagnosis. Blurring is a form of bandwidth reduction of an ideal image owing to the imperfect image formation process. Image denoising involves processing of the image data to produce a visually high quality image. The denoising algorithms may be classified into two categories, spatial filtering algorithms and transform domain based algorithms. In this work three adaptive filters are used to denoising speckle noise in ultrasonic (B-mode) images based on calculating the Mean Square Error (MSE) and Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) value as a metric is presented, then estimated the gestation age from filtered images using MATLAB program, as well as using Wiener filter to restore the degradation images.


Article
Seismic stratigraphy study of the east Razzaza within late Jurassic –early Cretaceous era (Central Iraq)
دراسة زلزالية طباقية لشرق الرزازة ضمن عصر الجوراسي المتأخر –الطباشيري المبكر وسط العراق

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This study deals with seismic structural and stratigraphic interpretation that applied on the East Razzaza (central of Iraq) area, by using 2D seismic data from Oil Exploration Company. Three main seismic reflectors are picked. These reflectors are Zubair, Yamama and Gotnia Formations, which were defined by using petrophysical well logs and synthetic traces that calculated from sonic- logs of the wells East Baghdad-1(Eb-1) and West kifl-1(Wk-1) using Geoframe program, to suggest a stratigraphic model for them. Structural maps of formations are prepared to obtain the location and direction of the sedimentary basin and shoreline. Seismic interpretation of the area approves the presence of some stratigraphic features in the studied formations. Some distributary buildup mound and carbonate platform. Yamama is interpreted here to represent a carbonate platform. Seismic attributes technique was used to predict the physical properties distribution of Yamama succession. Instantaneous frequency and amplitude maps of Yamama shows low anomaly, this may indicate porous calcareous rocks in that location that contain fluids.

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