Table of content

Alustath

الاستاذ

ISSN: 0552 265X /25189263
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Education Ibn Rushd
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

About the magazine
Issued by the Faculty of Education, Ibn Rushd scientific journal entitled (Journal of the professor), was her first release in 1952. In the beginning. It deals with scientific research, literature and the Arab and Islamic civilization, and contributes to the professors of colleges according to their competence to define the educational community in the Arab countries and abroad.
• the name of the magazine: -Alustath( Professor)
• Produced by: - Faculty of Education / Ibn Rushd
• the international number ((ISSN)):-0552-265X/E-2518-9263
• E-mail to the magazine: - alustath.journal@ircoedu.uobaghdad.edu.iq
• Year Released: --1952
• Type of release (quarterly, semi-annual): - quarterly.

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Email : alustath.journal@ircoedu.uobaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2017 volume:1 issue:220

Article
The Theory of semantic triangle in the western linguistic criticism and Arabic reception
نَظَرِيَّةُ الْمُثَلَّثِ الدَّلالِيِّ في النَّقْدِ اللِسانِيِّ الغَرْبِيِّ والتَّلَقِّي العَرَبِيِّ

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Abstract

The most important reason that made me concerned with the theory of the semantic triangle is the confusion I have noticed amongst Arab scholars regarding limitations of the theory itself and its value compared with other theories of meaning. My paper is divided into three sections: the first is concerned with illustrating what the theory is by tracing its historical origins in the western linguistic traditions, the second reveals the most important criticized aspects of the theory, and the third deals with how the Arab scholars received the theory.

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Article
A Linguistic Analysis Of Halliday’s Systemic-Functional Theory In Political Texts
تحليل النصوص السياسية باستخدام نظرية هالدي

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Abstract

This paper investigates the linguistic analysis of Halliday’s Systemic-Functional Grammar Theory in political texts in 2012. M.A.K .Halliday’s Systemic-Functional Grammar has been adopted for analyzing the speeches of the president Barack Obama on election campaign in 2012, and David Cameron's Conservative Party Conference speech, so as to identify the appealing processes of the transitivity system obtained from the analysis of these two texts. The study aims at identifying the linguistic choices made in the speech of Obama according and David Cameron to Halliday's model. It tries to answer the following questions: What are the linguistic choices of the transitivity system which occur in both Barack Obama speech on election campaign in 2012 and David Cameron's Conservative Party Conference speech in 2012?. What are the frequent processes found in Barack Obama and David Cameron speeches?. The objective of this study is to characterize and describe the six process types and identify the more frequent processes that Barack Obama and David Cameron used in their speeches. The study concludes that the analysis of the process types in Barack Obama and David Cameron speeches in 2012 shows that the most frequent types are material processes for both speeches. The analysis shows that this theory is applicable to all cultures, all situations, and to any time.


Article
Replies of Nadhir AlJayash to the grammarians in Bab Alahraf Al mushabbah bil fail
ردود ناظر الجيش على النحويين في باب الأحرف المشبهة بالفعل

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Abstract

This research is under the title of (( Replies of Nadhir AlJayash to the grammarians in the chapter of Innand its sisters from his book )) Sharh AlTasheel which is called Tamheed AlQawaid Bsharh Tasheel Alfawaid this research is restricted to study his replies in the chapter of Inn and its sisters because I found many replies in the whole book what I mentioned in my study represents the personality of Nadhir AlJayash and so states his knowledge and ability to deduce the judgments and replying to the contrary ones where his explanation of Tasheel Ibn Malik regards one of the widest explanations and almost the only one of his books we have got the importance of my research lies in this point therefore I highlight on a brilliant person who was forgotten by passing time.

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Article
The Effect of Vocabulary and Dictation ESP programme on Iraqi Students’ Achievement at College of Physical Education for Women
تأثير برنامج للمفردات والتهجي في تدريس اللغة الانكليزية لأغراض خاصة بطالبات التربية الرياضية للبنات

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Abstract

The research is an attempt to investigate experimentally the effect of vocabulary and dictation ESP programme on Iraqi students’ achievement at College of Physical Education for Women. The learners have to know what a word means and what it look like. These are obvious aspects in teaching foreign language and teachers need to make sure that both these aspects are accurately learned. The sample of the present research is (46) students of first year stage, College of Physical Education for Women, University of Baghdad. At the academic year 2012- 2013. It is hypothesized that there are no significant differences between the experimental group taught ESP by vocabulary and dictation programme (Sadiq ,2012) and control group taught ESP with traditional English Course (Sadiq, 2010) in pre and post tests. To fulfill the aim of the research an experiments has been designed with two groups of students chosen randomly. Both groups were matched in the subjects’ achievement in English for previous academic year (2011-2012). Both groups have tested in pre and post tests. The experiment lasted nine weeks. After analyzing the results statistically, it has been found that there are significant differences between the two groups in pre- test as well as post test. This indicates that using the vocabulary and dictation programme is more effective in teaching these two skills. Accordingly, the null hypotheses have been rejected. Finally, English teachers at College of Physical Education are recommended to use the programme to improve the students’ achievement in vocabulary and dictation skills.

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Article
Eloquence text transformation and the power of interpretation In the office ( banners ) of Ahmad Matar Read the fossils Hermenyutiqih knowledge For ( the silent and implicit and residual ) Poem ( the country between Alnharin ) choice
بلاغةُ التّحُول النّصّي وسلطةُ التّأويل فِي ديوانِ (لافتات) لأحمد مطرٍ ... قراءةٌ فِي حفريات المعرفة الهرمنيوطيقيِّة لــ(المسكوتِ عنهُ والمُضمَرِ والمتبقيِّ) قصيدة (بلادُ مَا بِينَ النّحرينِ) اختياراً

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Abstract

The purpose of the search systematic disclosure of consistency which is between: (The Untold Story of the implicit and remaining), and its relationship to rhetoric Is he related to match or contrast? And how it leads to the absorption of texts, revealing a load sense in light of (tram / surplus / double meaning)? Does can be adopted systematically in the detection of double meaning in literary texts in general and poetry in particular?, and so does the dilemma search is limited to the interpretation (Hermenyutiqa) is the ruler in developed curricula?, and how to reach these approaches to the different meanings and lead to a fork ways to make understanding of those texts in which the complexity and ambiguity and blind to the interpreter / reader Keen to understand the meaning important? Can only be held emerging curriculum for directions: theological, and philosophical, and knowledge, leading to the disclosure is consistent with cognitive orientations (epistemological) in the detection of intellectual tonnage in line with the philosophy that embrace them, and reflected in the reasons for the employment of each approach separately within the format pursues intellectual shifts in these approaches the theoretical detects that leads to shaping the curriculum and mechanisms that rely on Applied practice that leads to the application captured in monetary practice theory, and the point is that the curriculum dealing with the (hidden / Internal / basement) always who did not see the brightness; for reasons of Palmaol / and / interpreter The conformation text both according to different ruling data in those cash curricula, and here comes the role of the new rhetoric / Contemporary participate in cognitive fossils exerted on those texts in order to decryption, and resolution of virginity sense, therefore, the similarity may get in masks meaning that obscured in those curricula , but the data of knowledge and the results are available which build on tribal depicting dimensions vary, and coordinates Mbagesha, and vacated by block, so meaning remains in a state of liquidity and mobility between inside and outside of the Metn and context to turn the reading process to re-reveal the meaning Almtwald from the previous meaning and so within the orbit of the readings of no unbroken.

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Article
Markedness Theory and Conditional Clauses: An Interlanguage Developmental Study of Iraqi EFL Learners
ظرية الاتسام وجمل الشرط دراسة تطور لغة المتعلمين العراقيين الناطقين باللغة الانكليزية لغة اجنبية

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Abstract

This study investigates how the linguistic factor of markedness theory affects Iraqi EFL Learners’ acquisition order of English conditional clauses.Three research questions are formulated to achieve the aim of this study, and these are; (i) How do Iraqi EFL learners acquire the syntactic structure of conditional clauses?, (ii) In what ways the developmental route followed by Iraqi EFL learners is similar to or different from that followed by English learners of other linguistic backgrounds?, and (iii) What is the role of markedness theory in the acquisition of conditional clauses by Iraqi EFL learners? To answer these questions, a random sample of 100 Iraqi EFL learners at four different developmental stages is tested on three written tasks. Results reveal that real conditionals are the easiest type to produce but the most difficult one to comprehend. This lends a partial support for the predictive power of markedness theory in explaining the acquisition order. Besides, linguistic form and function in L2 acquisition process are acquired at different developmental stages. Due to the limitations of the present study, future research is suggested.


Article
Allen Tate's Agrarianism: a Defense of Allegiance
الحركة الزراعية لدى الان تيت : دفاع عن الولاء

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Abstract

Allen Tate (1899-1979) was born in Kentucky .As a Southerner he was unwilling to be like his people who were unaware of their imperfections. He realized that lack of belief in tradition which was the illness of the modern mind. It turned life to hell with a variety of tortures. Hence his agrarianism was a call to the Southerners to retreat to their tradition.It was a revolt against industrialism as an enslaving power, a destroyer threatening the very existence of human society. His agrarianism proved to be an image of life man should desire, a life imbued with tradition and belief; tradition in its historical and religious sense shapes the spirit of protest in his poetry. It is a protest against the kind of life modern man attached himself to, which dehumanized him resulting in spiritual fragmentation. Tate did what none of his fellow Agrarians attempted, to turn Agrarian concerns inward, a quest for identity , for spiritual roots and affirmation. This is what makes his agrarianism a defense of personal allegiance, besides its historical , social and religious implications.


Article
Aesthetics dialogue in the poetry of Abu Nawas
جماليات الحوار في شعر أبي نواس

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Abstract

In the of Abu Nawas poetry, the aesthetics of the dialogue appeared clearly, so this phenomenon is worth studying and tracking, Abu Nawas is not an obscure poet, but it is a well-known poet and then it is difficult to find a phenomenon that is not well study in his poetry, but I found a dialogue appeared clearly even that it constitutes a theatrical aspect as a poetic drama. I have found that people who Abu Nawas interlocutors them with three kinds, either people really are found or people they are supposed to find or the poet Interviews himself in an internal monologue and tempted him with the poet himself .There is the impact of the dialogue in poetic drama built by the poet with displays integrated aspects

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Article
An Introduction to the Theory of Generation in Poetry A Critical Study
مدخل إلى نظرية الأجيال في الشعر (دراسة نقدية تطبيقية)

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Abstract

This study is an empirical criticism aimed to test the objectivity of the generation’s theory in literature at large and in poetry in specific. The researcher used (Ajras) poetic group as a practical model through which he attempted to highlight the rationale behind their appearance. In addition, the researcher investigated the communal aesthetic and ideological concepts that the members share and those which are held by each member individually.

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Article
The Speech Al- Hajaji And His Social Links: A Sociolinguistic Approach
الخطاب الحجاجيّ وصلاته الاجتماعيّة (مقاربة سوسيولسانية)

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Abstract

The formation of ideas is not an independent process, but a part of the rules in particular, which differ by a little or a lot about another language rules, we look at the world and we are watching, to shape perceptions, ensue in our minds; and this means that the primary role in arranging these impressions have stable linguistic systems in our minds, and then varied and became multiple. Speech patterns depend on those impressions, and the function of the association. It is combined with the utter speech mostly, such as: the cultural and moral discourse, and speech - orbital, and so on; so colorful speech definitions are indeed communicative socially, combines say not accomplish, so it has become communicative. An important social feature is nothing of the dispersion, regarding its richness and breadth of the classification and significance. Hence, we focused our conversation as a speech character of social norms, carved up social and linguistic acts, and dominate the kinetic activity mentally and socially. It is truly that he established rich discourse and scientific domains. Accordingly the study is worth studying and investigating. The first part deals with the sociolinguistic approach of the Al-Hajaj with tangible evidence. It is of twofold: : The first section is /The movement of Al Hajaj from the self to the social. The second section / Al- Hajaj diversity and his speech mechanisms.. The second part: / properties Hajaji discourse and communicative techniques; it is also divided into two sections: The first section / characteristics of Al-Hajaji speech. The second section /Al-Hajaji speech and techniques

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Article
Nominal state in (anomalous readings) book by Ibn Khalawayh(370a.h) semantic study
الصيغة الاسمية في كتاب (القراءات الشاذة) لابن خالويه (ت370هـ) (دراسة دلالية)

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Abstract

Research in Quarrian readings is considered an imported scope in studying different patterns of using language in argument period ,that is away from necessity of poetry and anonymous texts and knowing the important period in Arabic language history, in addition to know the effect of context in these readings and changes that, generally period Arabic and holy Quran font and types and linguistic derivation and synonymously in using these patterens and their indications.

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Article
أثر الأدب في تعددية التفاسير (دراسة لغوية تفسيرية وفقهية)

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Abstract

An Inquiry into the impact of literature on the multiplicity of interpretations is the focus of the current research, because of the literary possibilities in the verses. The meaning of particular importance will be taken in accordance with this opinion. Accordingly, this study tries to investigate the impact of literary sources in the absolute conclusion about trusting scholars scrutinize so that the root of many differences can be manifested.


Article
"Poetic Formation in Samigh Aswad's Collection of pomes (Divan)" by : Waffa'a Abdul-Razzaq
التشكيل الـشعريّ فــي ديوان صــمغ أسـود لـ(وفاء عبد الرزاق)

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Abstract

The paper entitled "Poetic Formation in Samigh Aswad's Collection of pomes (Divan)" by Waffa'a Abdul-Razzaq includes the formation in the pomes of this Divan. Here the form and the content participate in producing a distictire poetic formation. So the poet takes a special formation structure for herself. This structure consists of her soul and heart beating in poetic creation. She used her sensation to choose the vocabularies and her own language in expressing her inner contents. Thus, the formation will be by mixing two essential elements; the form and the content in producing a form based on the geometirical form and written content with taking the sounds, repitation, dialogues and so on as active tools to balance the poetic formation.

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Article
Journals as a Source of Information for Library Users in Al-Qadisiya University: Analytical Study
الدوريات كمصدر من مصادر المعلومات للمستفيدين في المكتبة المركزية بجامعة القادسية (دراسة تحليلة)

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This study examines 1.The emergence of Central Library 2. Evolution at the University of Qadisiyah 3. The extent to meet their own needs 4. Stand on the most important difficulties and obstacles faced by students when using the library, and develop solutions that advance by patrols have used the survey method in this study and adopted the questionnaire as a tool to collect data, the study concluded a set of findings and recommendations and proposals.

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Article
Christian Interaction in the Military Institution In Morocco and Andalusi -Almohad Era-
تفاعل المسيحيين مع المؤسسة العسكرية في بلاد المغرب والأندلس – فترة الموحدين أنموذجا-

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It was a presence and Christian interaction in the political, scientific and cultural life, is not an exception, but it is the rule that Ostendh the Arab Islamic history, which is really wonderful lot of books in different historical periods, and in this paper we address it to the study of the beginnings of the Christian interaction with the Almohad dynasty, and emphasize two facts : - First, Christians or Christians Cano natural part of the slides that were once part of the Arab and African tribes that inhabited many cities in the Maghreb, and that some of them were part of the open country, war, and other Kanu part of the prisoners of the Arabs and who have become human-Qaeda, which entered within the confines of the rule of the state Arab Muslim in the Maghreb and Andalus, and thus have become a normal part of working in many aspects of the state. Almohad military institution had included the remains of the army of Almurbati , Sanhaja, Sudan, Roman and others. It had recoursed by Arab tribes (Bani Hilal and Saleem ) as well as, encouraged the Turks to join Almohad Army. In fact, the caliph as being The General Commander of the military institution had been overseen the army directly, and reviewed it from time to time. Most often army chief was held for the sons of the caliph and the elders of the Almohad or their sons. Not only Almohad caliphs were interested in forms of military but also they were interested in warships industry. They had added many of them to their fleet, especially after the control of the fleet of Almurabitien. This interest increased after the fall of Almería City (542 AH / 1147 AD) because of its important geographic location. It is important to mention that Almohads by their military and administrative experience had established a special chamber for regular soldiers and another chamber which called the Altamaize Diwan that headed by trusted writer called the writer of Almamaize Diwan. Moreover, by their experience they had attracted the Christians to this military institution as being one of the most important state agencies.

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Article
Ibn Khurdathbah and Baghdad the Pease
ابن خُرْداذْبَة وبغداد السلام

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Abstract

The Study is regarded as an original and genuine subject, I Wrote about the personality of Ibn Khurdathbah and his geographic and historical work which introduced us very Valuable Scientific information. Ibn Khurdathbah took care of geographic and historical aspects about place he worked in Mountain government as mail in charge during the Abassin caliph AL- Mu'atamad billah . He wrote about natural scenes in Iraq and Baghdad and economic aspects.Trade road distance and last our Supplication is praise be to Allah , Lord of the worlds

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Article
Historical and Political Comparison of the Hyksos Alkachin Occupation of Iraq and Egypt
مقاربة تاريخية وسياسية وحضارية في نتائج الاحتلالين الهكسوسي الكشي لمصر والعراق

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It is undoubtedly that Hyksos and Alkachin are considered as the foreign tribes that invaded Nile country and Mesopotamia between the seventeenth and sixteenth century BC. In spite of the various attitudes of the researchers about those tribes concerning the origin and nature of migration and geographic extension .but it is obvious that occupation has an effect on the historical, political, social and cultural aspects. This research is an attempt to trace these two occupations on the most important civilizations in the near east. In addition, it is an attempt to emphasize the idea of the rooting,geographical,historical and civilization of the those tribes. As well as, the cultural and historical results of this occupation on the nature of the cultural and historical achievements of the countries of the Nile and Mesopotamia.

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Article
Murabets and Their Civilization and Intellectual Impact in Andalus (479 – 552)
المرابطون وأثرهم الحضاري والفكري في بلاد الأندلس من (( 479هـ – 552هـ ))

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The Morabet state was one of the states that has left an imprint as far as history is concerned in a great and effective way. It was preceded by an age of weakness as a result of the division of the region into emirates struggling among themselves to be reflected in all the runs of life. The most important achievement of the Moravirds on the political level that they unified the land under one central strong government. That had a great impact on the Crusade creeping on the Islamic Andlusia. It has become clear that the basis of the formation of the state was religious built on the idea of religious reform and associated tightly with the Malikite doctrine. The administration of the state depended on the addition of the sharia touch through a class of jurists (fuqhaa) who were first in the façade of the authorities in the Maghreb and Andlus. That domination of the jurists has become the weakness point for the state towards the people after the political and administrative coalition between the authority and the men of the state formed an interest material, that lasted the effect of clergymen of religion to the end of the Moravid state. Concerning the intellectual and cultural life of the Moravid state, it was in high level of activity that it has arrived to the highest activities In the age of Ali ben Yousef ben Tashfeen who cared for men of letters, scientists and the jurists. He allowed them, and conceded to them, so that they began to have a strong opinion. At the end I will summarize the findings: 1- The Moravid state was not one of the cultural and intellectual decline in Al-Andlus as some contemporary scholars depicted them, but through examples we proved that they caredfor sciences, jurisdiction, literature and other knowledge. 2- The Moravids confronted the crusade tide and remained in Al-Andlus long time after falling. 3- The Moravid worked very strongly to the flourishing of the aspects of life in Al-maghreb states.

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Article
Great Sahaabi: Hagar Bin Udai
الصحابي الجليل حجر بن عدي الكنديّ

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The search in the life of the companion Hujr bin Adi is worthy of investigation and scrutiny . He was amongst the virtuous companions. He was also one of the chiefs and ascetics . His was an eminent devoted lover to Amir Al – Muimineen ( Prince of the Belivers ) . He was a sheikh among his men. Whenever he excreted, he would perform wudu ( ablution), whenever spilled water, he would perform wudu, and whenever he performed wudu, he would pray . Hujr bin Adi had companionship of the prophet Mohammad ( pbuh ) , and he was a delegate to him . He was the bearer of the flag of Prophet Mohammad who said about him , " Some people will be killed in Adra; Allah and the people of the heaven will become angry over that . " He was a martyr of loyalty. He and his companions were the first to be killed ruthlessly in Islam in the year 51 AH upon the order of MuauiyahibnAbiSufyan .

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Article
Zionist concepts and their impact on modern Hebrew poetry
المفاهيم الصهيونية وأثرها في الشعر العبري الحديث

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The study Settlement concepts of Zionism And its impact And its impact on modern Hebrew poetry, And The study focused To give an initial introduction All settlement concepts, As the Zionists succeeded In finding organizations Zionist institutions Contributed directly and indirectly In establishing a new Zionist concepts And laying the foundations and strengthening Which have an active role in the migration of young people from the business layer ; With the intention of the Zionist settlement building. Turning then to the first Zionist concepts It is the work of the Hebrew and the occupation of the land The ground as well as guarding the ground and paving roads To work from the perspective of "The land to the tillers" , Which combines settlement and defense And between Zionism and socialism To apply the idea Zionist socialism. Turning to the role of Alhalotsam In Zionist settlement Its goal was Creating a working class Hebrew Pillar of the people factor , Has control over the Work and guard and defense About the life of the Zionists and their property In Palestine. Turning then to Zionist concepts in modern Hebrew poetry In order to urge the Jewish crowd To hold on to the avant-garde work and guard To maintain the achievement of the Zionist dream of settlement In the land of Palestine.


Article
Absurdity in Existential Philosophy
اللامعقول في الفلسفة الوجودية

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In the opinion of Existentialism, it is impossible for life that it is specific aim or plan . And all what happens in the life of human is " Random " and cannot predicted it . For that , the life is absurd (futility). And the absurd is an existential idea that means (not logical ). And the substance of absurd for the Existentialism that the human is convicts by death. The existential is in conflict with the tradition of the philosophy which believes in mind. From " Parmenides " to " Hegel " who glory the mind.

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