Table of content

Iraqi Journal of Science

المجلة العراقية للعلوم

ISSN: 00672904
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Science
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi journal of science is a quarterly specified scientific journal issued by the Faculty of Science at the University of Baghdad. The members of the Editorial Board representing the Departments of Eight Scientific departments, college of science/ Baghdad University and its related units of research, all are professors, scientists with extensive experience and considerable skills in their field of science, as well as an advisory board in support composed of professors and scientists with great reputation in their field of science from other Colleges, universities, or research institutes. The specialty of publication includes the following fields:

1.Pure and Applied Physics.
2.Mathematical Sciences.
3.Computer Science and Information Technology.
4.Science of chemistry.
5.Bio-Science technologies.
6.Earth Sciences, geo-physics, and remote sensing.
7.Astronomy, Space Sciences, and Remote Sensing Unit.
8.Science and Research of tropical area

The visions, goals, and the mechanisms of the Iraqi Journal of Science is to publish scientific research sober in the areas of Applied and Pure Sciences and instructive Iraqi society, scientific research, scientific interest large to contribute to the development of various disciplines, which provides significant support to researchers in all scientific facilities to continue to support the development plans in Iraq.

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Contact info

Baghdad University
College of Science
Baghdad
Iraq
ijs@scbaghdad.edu.iq
07903375590
http://ijs.scbaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2016 volume:57 issue:4C

Article
Potentiometric Determination of Mebeverine Hydrochloride Using Imprinted Molecular Polymer in PVC Matrix Membrane
التقدير المجهادي لـدواء المبفرين هيدروكلورايد باستعمال تقنية الطبعة الجزيئية في قالب بولي فاينيل كلورايد

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Abstract

Four molecular imprinted polymer (MIP) membranes for Mebeverine.HCl (MBV.HCl) were prepared based on PVC matrix. The imprinted polymers were prepared by polymerization of 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propane sulphonic acid (AMPS) as monomer, pentaerythritoltriacrylate (PETRA) as a cross linker ,benzoyl peroxide (BPO) as an initiator and mebeverine as a template. Four different types of plasticizers of different viscosities were used and the electrodes were fully characterized in terms of plasticizer type, response time, lifetime, pH and detection limit. The MBV-MIP electrodes exhibited Nernstian response in concentration range from 1.0×10-6 to1.0×10-1 M with slopes of 13.98, 19.60, -20.43 and 19.01 mV/ decade. The detection limit and quantification are found to be 4×10-6, 3× 10-6, 2× 10-5and 1.2× 10-6 M ,respectively. Interference study for inorganic cations and amino acids was also studied. The best electrode based tris (2-ethyl hexyl) phosphate plasticizer was applied successfully for potentiometric determination of mebeverine in commercial tablets. Excellent average recovery obtained by potentiometric methods was about 102.26% which is in good agreements with British Pharmacopoeia.


Article
Thyme Extract as Corrosion Inhibitor for Teeth Filler Alloy in Saliva Media
مستخلص الزعتر كمثبط لتأكل سبيكة حشوة الاسنان في وسط اللعاب

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Abstract

In this work the study mainly investigated the inhibition behavior, and the adsorption properties of different concentrations of an aqueous extraction of thyme plant range (5-20) ppm at the temperature range (288-318) K for corrosion of dental amalgam in artificial saliva, by applying electrochemical method. The result showed good inhibitive action for all thyme extract concentration with slight decreases by increasing temperature. The physisorption for thyme extract compound on the surface of dental amalgam obeys Langmuir isotherm. The kinetic parameter for corrosion process and thermodynamic data for adsorption process has been calculated.


Article
Cytotoxic Effect of ZnO Nanoparticles on the Viability of Leishmania donovani Promastigotes in vitro
تأثير جسيمات أوكسيد الزنك النانوية على حيوية الطور الأمامي السوط لطفيلي اللشمانيا الأحشائية في المختبر

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Abstract

Leishmaniasis is an endemic disease in Iraq, where both forms of the disease, cutaneous and visceral, are found. The effect of Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) with mean particle size less than 100 nanometer (nm) on viability and growth rate of Leishmania donovani promastigotes was evaluated. The anti-leishmanial activity of different concentrations (0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1 µg/ml) of ZnO NPs was investigated on promastigotes growth rates and viability in comparison to promastigotes exposed to the same concentrations of sodium stibogluconate (Sb) (pentostam).The inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) of ZnO NPs were calculated after 24 , 48 and 72 hr which were (0.871, 0.156 and 0.120 µg/ml) respectively with significant (p< 0.05) differences between them ,while the IC50 of pentostam cannot calculated because more than 50% of parasites number remained viable after 24 ,48 and 72hr.The IC50s also calculated on the viability results to determine the most effective concentrations. They were 0.434, 0.361 and 0.182 µg/ml for promastigotes exposed to ZnO NPs after 24, 48 and 72hr respectively, while the same concentrations of Sb in the same periods didn't revealed the IC50s. The results concluded that ZnO NPs affect on the growth rate and viability of L. donovani promastigotes by dose and time-depended manner in vitro condition.


Article
Heavy Metals Content in Some Chips Products in Iraqi Markets
مــــــــــــــــحتوى المعــــــــــادن الثقيــــــــــلة فـــــي بعض منتـــــجات الجبس فـــــي الاســــــــواق العــــــــــراقية

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Abstract

The recent study was conducted to measure some heavy metal content in potato and corn chips in Baghdad markets. Samples were analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). Four metals, Cobalt (Co), Cadmium (Cd), Cupper (Cu) and Lead (Pb) were determined. Two types belonging to two manufacturer resources and two trademarks for each resource were tested in this work. Generally, the study recorded that the potato chips were containing metals less than the corn chips. According to Iraqi criteria, all tested types of potato chips were under the allowed levels. The mean of accumulation trend for both types was: Cu>Co>Pb>Cd. The mean of accumulation trend for the corn types of chips was: Baz>Pufack> Fantasia > Snack. The mean of accumulation trend for Potato chips was: Hlla>Mrsticks>Shepisco>Leez. Only Pufack (Jordan) Baz and Fantasia (Iraq) trademarks were containing levels of Cu exceeded of criteria. The aim of study is to monitor the levels of metals in chips food.


Article
Histological and Biochemical study of Nigella Sativa Seeds effects on Liver of male Albino Rats treated with Rifampicin
دراسة نسجية وكيموحيوية لتأثير بذور الحبة السوداء على كبد ذكور الجرذان البيض المعاملة بالريفامبسين

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Abstract

Rifampicin (RF) considered a hepatotoxic drug. Is one of the first line successful drugs of management of tuberculosis. To reduce injury and protect liver from adverse effect of Rifampicin, this study was designed to investigate the activity of Nigella Sativa (NS) seeds powder aqueous suspension to hepato protection against Rifampicin. For conducting this study,24 male albino rats were divided into four groups and all treated orally as follow; group І (control), received normal saline alone; group II, received RF (50mg/kg body weight/day); group III received NS it's called normal dose, (2g/kg body weight day); group IV RF (50mg/kg body weight) + NS (2g/kg body weight).Respectively for 28 days. Blood samples obtained for estimation of liver foundation parameters and enzymes such as serum alkaline phosphate (ALP), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), serum glutamic Oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) and serum bilirubin. After rats were scarified, liver tissue sections were prepared for histopathological examination. The results parameters in treated rats in group II showed a significant (P<0.05) increase, while group IV showed a significant (P<0.05) decrease in biochemical parameters of liver. Liver histopathological examination of animal group treated with RF showed focal necrotic area in the hepatocyte and neutrophils and mononuclear cells aggregation in thickening wall of congested blood vessels with large granulomatous lesion in liver Parenchyma. The Histological examination of pre-treatment animal group of NS (2g/kg body weight) showed near normal liver architecture with moderate aggregation of mononuclear cell around blood vessels and moderate proliferation of kupffer cells. Pre-treatment of NS produced significant hepatoprotection by decreasing the levels of ALP, SGOT, SGPT and bilirubin. The result indicates clearly that NS possesses hepatoprotective and activity against RF induced hepato toxicity.


Article
Staphylococcus aureus Nasal Carriage and Obesity among Patients with Type Two Diabetes Mellitus
المكورات العنقودية الذهبية المعزولة من الأنف والسمنة لدى مرضى السكري من النمط الثاني

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Abstract

The study aimed to find an association between Type two diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients, obesity and the rate of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus (NCSA) producer of TSST-1 in patients with T2DM compared with non-diabetic control groups. T2DM patients and control subjects were selected from outpatient of "The Specialist Center for Diseases of Endocrine and Diabetes" in Baghdad. The subjects were divided into 4 groups: Group I included 21 obese T2DM patients; Group II included 20 lean T2DM patients; Group III included 20 obese as control group and Group IV included 21 lean as control group. The study included sample with size (n= 82), male and female, with the ages ranged from 35 to 75 years, and the patients were not on any kind of anti-diabetic treatment. A total number of the nasal carriage S. aureus isolates were 38, of them 23 S. aureus (56.1 %) were isolated from the groups of patients with T2DM and 15 S.aureus isolates (38.46 %) were isolated from the control groups. Molecular method was used to detect the presence of tstH gene in S. aureus isolates indicating that the presnce of toxic shock syndrome toxin-1. The results revealed the presence of this gene in 12 (63.16%) S. aureus isolates collected from T2DM patients and 7 (36.84 %) isolates collected from control groups.


Article
Modulation of Chaos with Optoelectronic Feedback in Semiconductor Laser
تضمين اشارات الشواش بالتغذية العكسية الكهروضوئية لليزر اشباه الموصلات

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Abstract

The modulation of chaotic behavior in semiconductor laser with A.C coupling optoelectronic feedback has been numerically and experimentally reported. The experimental and numerical studying for the evaluation of chaos modulation behavior are considered in two conditions, the first condition, when the frequency of the external perturbation is varied, secondly, when the amplitude of this perturbation is changed. This dynamics of the laser output are analyzed by time series, FFT and bifurcation diagram.

Keywords

Chaos --- Feedback --- Modulation --- Bursting


Article
Shell model study of neutron rich 18-28O isotopes using effective interactions
دراسة أنموذج القشرة لنظائر الاوكسجين18-28O الغنية بالنيوترونات بأستخدام تفاعلات مؤثرة

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Abstract

We employ a simple effective nucleon-nucleon interaction for sd-shell model calculations derived from the Reid soft-core potential folded with two-body correlation functions which take account of the strong short-range repulsion and large tensor component in the Reid force. Shell model calculations for ground and low lying energy states of neutron rich oxygen isotopes 18-28O are performed using OXBASH code. Generally, this interaction predicts correct ordering of levels, yields reasonable energies for ground states of considered isotopes and predicts very well the newly observed excitation energy of in 26O. Besides, it produces reasonable energy spectra for 23-27O and compressed energy spectra for 18-22O isotopes. This is mainly due entirely to defects in the diagonal matrix elements of employed interaction. To improve the present calculations, we modify the interaction through replacing the 14 diagonal matrix elements of with those of the USD interaction. Mostly, our modified interaction predicts well the ordering of levels, the ground state energies and low lying energy spectra for all selected oxygen isotopes. The modified interaction confirms the location of the neutron drip line at and also identifies the presence of the shell gap at and which proves the doubly magic behavior of 22O and 24O. The spins in 24O of several excitation energies around 7.5 MeV are predicted by our interactions. The calculated results obtained with the modified interaction are very close to those obtained with the empirical interactions of USDB and WPN.


Article
Solvothermal Synthesis and Characterization of Indium Oxid Nanoparticles
دراسة الخصائص لأوكسيد الأنديوم النانوية

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Abstract

In this study, In2O3 was prepared by Solvothermal technique in autoclave device, which is a simple and inexpensive technique to indicate the best condition. The reaction took place between indium chloride and urea. In(OH)3 as-prepared annealing at 100°C and convert to In2O3 at annealing temperatures 300, 500, 700 °C for 90 min .The physical properties of nanoparticles were characterized by XRD, SEM, AFM, UV/Visible and FTIR spectroscopy measurements. The examination results of XRD for In2O3 powder annealed at different temperature showed the formation of a cubic phase of nanoparticles with high intensity of plane (222). The lattice constant decreases with the increase of annealing temperature (from 10.07 to 10.04 Ǻ). AFM indicated an increase in grain size of In2O3 with increasing of annealing temperatures (from 78.59 to 94.4 nm). The optical properties, transmittance of In2O3 nanoparticles at annealing temperatures 500°C have a high transparent reach to (89%) and Energy gap Increases with increasing annealing temperature in range (3.6 to 4.65 eV).


Article
Influence of Heat Treatment on Wear and Hardness Properties of MWCNTs Reinforced Epoxy nanocomposites.
تأثير المعاملة الحرارية على خاصية البلى والصلادة لمتراكبات أنابيب الكاربون النانوية المدعمة براتنج الايبوكسي

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Abstract

Nanocomposite of carbon nanotube add to epoxy resin material of weight fraction ( 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 1.0, 1.25, 1.5, 1.75 , 2 & 2.5 wt. % ) were fabricated by dispersing within an epoxy resin using a Ultrasound machine followed by mechanical stirring. The samples were heat treated at temperature ( 80 °C for 3 hrs) The mechanical properties of the composites were investigated. Wear and hardness properties measurements indicated higher wear rate and hardness with increasing concentration of MWCNTs . The MWCNTs significantly improved the wear resistance and hardness when compare than the pure epoxy. These note show too after heat treatment of composite with ( 80 oC for 3 hrs ).


Article
Evaluating the Suitability of Groundwater for Irrigation uses at Al-Salhubia Area, Al-Muthana Governorate, Southern Iraq
تقييم مدى ملائمة المياه الجوفية لأستخدامات الري في منطقة آلسلحوبية محافظة المثنى جنوب العراق

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Abstract

Al-Salhubia, area is located within the arid region in southern Iraq. Although no surface water is available in this area, the groundwater is considered the basis in the area, it is available in both good quality and quantity. For that reason, it is of prime importance to examine water type in the unconfined aquifer to determine suitability of groundwater for irrigation purposes. The groundwater type in the studied area is Ca-Mg dominant SO4 facies according to Piper and Stiff diagrams. Based on SAR, Na%, RSC, EC, and PI, the groundwater quality in the study area is suitable for irrigation in general.


Article
Determination of Elastic Moduli and Geotechnical Parameters of the Upper Soil Layer Using Ultrasonic Waves in Al- Jadiriyah Area - University of Baghdad-Iraq
قياس وتحليل معاملات المرونة والمعاملات الجيوتكنيكة لطبقة التربة العليا باستخدام الموجات فوق الصوتية في منطقة الجادرية- جامعة بغداد- العراق

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Analysis and determination of some of the elastic moduli and other geotechnical parameters in the campus of the University of Baghdad performed by using New Sonic Viewer in the field to measure (Vp) and (Vs) velocities as well as the density of the upper soil inside the campus. Seventeen profiles were selected each of (10) m. length distributed randomly inside the university campus to evaluate the top soil properties in addition to the soil profile. The ultrasonic waves showed two layers of the soil with different velocities of (Vp) and (Vs). The velocities of p-wave of the first layer ranged from (288-642) m/sec. On other hand the velocities of shear wave (Vs) in the same layer ranged from (88-193) m/sec. In the second layer the velocities of p-wave ranged from (681-972) m/sec., and the velocities of shear wave ranged from (327-463) m/sec.Depending upon the value of (Vs) and according to Caltrans soil types, these two layers were considered as soft and stiff soils of types ( E and D) respectively. The mean depth of the first layer in the area is (1.91) m. The densities of the first layer ranged from (1743-1999) Kg/m3. The values of Poisson's ratio, Young's modulus, Shear modulus, Lame's constant, Bulk modulus and Compressibility are also determined as well as some of geotechnical properties as earth lateral pressure at rest (KO), Concentration index, Ultimate bearing capacity, Material index, and the empirical relation was used to calculate (N) values of the standard penetration test (SPT) from shear wave velocities and its value ranged for the first layer from (2-35) b/30 cm. and for second layer the (N) values ranged from (25-45) b/cm., as well as the relationship between the most important geotechnical and elastic modulus with their equations on each graph.


Article
Global Stability of an epidemic model with vaccine involving stage structure
الاستقرارية الشاملة لنموذج وبائي مع اللقاح متضمنا مراحل عمرية

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In this paper a mathematical model that analytically as well as numerically the flow of infection disease in a population is proposed and studied. It is assumed that the disease divided the population into five classes: immature susceptible individuals , mature individuals , infectious individual removal individuals and vaccine population . The existence, uniqueness and boundedness of the solution of the model are discussed. The local and global stability of the model is studied. Finally the global dynamics of the proposed model is studied numerically.


Article
Application of Mathematical 3D Surface Using Bi-cubic B-Spline Models
تطبيق رياضي لسطح ثلاثي الابعاد باستخدام نماذج Bi-cubic B-Spline

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This paper describes a modified mathematical method that used for controlling and generating three dimensional surfaces based on different axes (X, Y, and Z) and free axis. The main aim of the proposed method is to allow the designer to change the shape of the surface to the desired one without changing the original data points which is presented in the earlier version of this paper under title "3D Surface Reconstruction of Mathematical Modelling Used for Controlling the Generation of Different Bi-cubic B-Spline in Matrix Form without Changing the Control Points". The proposed method has been done by changing the t and s, parameters value that are assigned secretly by the designer. Therefore, in case off the control points have been discovered by others, the same design will not be created because the secrete parameters values are known only by the designer. Besides, the proposed method can be used by various applications such as banknote design, shape design, decorations, and governmental documents. Finally, the proposed method shows high level of accuracy in generating 3D surfaces without changing the control points


Article
Characterization of strict local minimizers of order two for semi -infinite problems in the nonparametric constraint case
تمييز النقطة المحلية الصغرى الصارمة ذات الرتبة الثانية لمسائل شبه اللانهائية في حالة قيد غير بارامتري

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We extended the characterization of strict local minimizers of order two in ward,s theorem for nonlinear problem to a certain class of nonsmooth semi-infinite problems with inequality constraints in the nonparametric constraint case.


Article
Authentication of Digital Video Encryption
المصادقة على تشفير الفيديو الرقمي

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The security of multimedia data becoming important spatial data of monitoring systems that contain videos prone to attack or escape via the internet, so to protect these videos used proposed method combined between encryption algorithm and sign algorithm to get on authenticated video. The proposed encryption algorithm applied to secure the video transmission by encrypt it to become unclear. This done by extract video to frames and each frame separate to three frames are Red, Green, and Blue, this frames encrypt by using three different random keys that generated by a function for generating random numbers, as for sign algorithm applied for authentication purpose that enable the receiver from sure of the identity of the sender and provide secure communication between two communication parties.In the proposed method applied compression method before encryption algorithm on video by using discrete wavelet transform (DWT) to facilitation work of encryption algorithm because compression less size of video and this make execution time of encryption algorithm faster. The decryption algorithm and decompression method are big prove to success of proposed method that give target video without any noise, besides that has been verified from performance of proposed method using several quality measures performance of proposed method


Article
Modified Blowfish Algorithm for Image Encryption using Multi Keys based on five Sboxes
تعديل لخوارزمية السمكة المنتفخة لتشفير الصور باستخدام مفاتيح متعددة بالاعتماد على خمسةSboxes

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In this paper, a new modification was proposed to enhance the security level in the Blowfish algorithm by increasing the difficulty of cracking the original message which will lead to be safe against unauthorized attack. This algorithm is a symmetric variable-length key, 64-bit block cipher and it is implemented using gray scale images of different sizes. Instead of using a single key in cipher operation, another key (KEY2) of one byte length was used in the proposed algorithm which has taken place in the Feistel function in the first round both in encryption and decryption processes. In addition, the proposed modified Blowfish algorithm uses five Sboxes instead of four; the additional key (KEY2) is selected randomly from additional Sbox5, the fifth Sbox is formed in GF(28) and it is variable to increase the complexity of the proposed algorithm. The obtained results were tested using many criteria: correlation criteria, number of pixels change rate (NPCR) and mean square error (MSE). These tested factors were approved by the output results which demonstrated that the correlation of image elements in the proposed algorithm was significantly reduced during the encryption operation. Also, the algorithm is very resistant to attempts of breaking the cryptographic key since two keys were used in the encryption/ decryption operations which lead to increase the complexity factor in the proposed algorithm.


Article
An Assessment of the Temperature Change Scenarios Using RS & GIS Techniques-A Case study of Sindh
سيناريوهات لتقييم تغيير درجات الحرارة بأستخدام تقنيات التحسس النائي ونظم المعلومات الجغرافية –الجي اي اس- منطقة الدراسة السند

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The rising temperatures are the most significant aspect in the period of climate variability. In this study PRECIS model data and observed data are used for assessing the temperature change scenarios of Sindh province during the first half of the present century. Observed data from various meteorological stations of Sindh are the primary source for temperature change detection. The current scenario (1961–1990) and future one (2010-2050) are acted by the PRECIS Regional Climate Model at a spatial resolution of 25 * 25 km. Regional Climate Model (RCM) can yield reasonably suitable projections to be used in the climate - scenario. The main objective of the study is to prepare maps. The simulated temperature as obtained from climate model-PRECIS and their comparison with observed temperatures. The analysis is done on all the districts of Sindh in order to have a more precise picture of temperature change scenarios. According to the results the temperature is likely to increase by 1.5 - 2.1°C by 2050, compared to the baseline temperature of 1961-1990. The model assesses more accurate values in northern districts of Sindh as compared to the coastal belt of Sindh. All the district of the Sindh province exhibits an increasing trend in the mean temperature scenarios and each decade is seemed to be warmer than the previous one. An understanding of the change in temperatures is very vital for various sectors such as weather forecasting, water, agriculture and health etc.


Article
Unsupervised Segmentation Method for Thyroid Nodules in Ultrasound Images
طريقة تقسيم غيرمرشدة لعقيدات الغدة الدرقية لصور الموجات فوق الصوتية

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Thyroid is a small butterfly shaped gland located in the front of the neck just below the Adams apple. Thyroid is one of the endocrine gland, which produces hormones that help the body to control metabolism. A different thyroid disorder includes Hyperthyroidism, Hypothyroidism, and thyroid nodules (benign/malignant). Ultrasound imaging is most commonly used to detect and classify abnormalities of the thyroid gland. Segmentation method is a tool that used widely in many applications including medical image processing. One of the common applications of segmentation is in medical image analysis for clinical diagnosis that has an important role in terms of quality and quantity. The main objective of this research is to use the Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD) algorithms to help the early detection of thyroid tumors. Thyroid ultrasound images may contain speckle noise which leads to obtain incorrect result. In order to obtain good accuracy; the noise must be removed from the input image. Those propose method is started with pre-processing of the thyroid ultrasound image to enhance its contrast and removing the undesired noise in order to make the image suitable for further processing. In our proposed work, we are using bilateral filter and unsharp filter to remove speckle noise to perform the pre-processing operations on the thyroid ultrasound images. The segmentation process is performed by using Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) algorithm to detect and segment thyroid ultrasound images for the thyroid region extracted image to 6 classes for two sample normal and abnormal images. The resulted segmented ultrasound images, and then used to extract the tumor region from thyroid's image.


Article
The Climatic Quality Index Determination for Iraq Using Meteorological Stations Data
تحديد معامل نوعية المناخ للعراق باستخدام بيانات المحطات الأنوائية

Authors: Laith A. Jawad ليث عزيز جواد
Pages: 3005-3016
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The drought is a globally phenomenon, its influence will convert large parts of Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region into hot dry deserts under the expectations of the climate change scenarios. Climate limitations, soil erosion affected by weather properties such as unequally and limited rainfall; temperature changing and wind, unsuitable irrigation techniques, excessive grazing, agricultural expansion against to the natural habitats, extensively clearance of natural vegetation, and soil salinity had all contributed to land degradation, reduced water supplies, and limited agricultural production in Iraq. It is estimated that nearly 54.3 % of Iraq's area is threatened by desertification problems. In this research, for Iraq the Climatic Quality Index (CQI) has been utilized to state the arid and semi-arid lands area variation during the interval (1980-2012) using the meteorological data of eleven stations. The results shows that at the end of eighties decade the arid lands covered only 73% of Iraq's area, and the arid lands covered 78% of Iraq's area in the nineties decade, while in the first decade of the second millennium the arid lands rapidly increased to cover 88% of Iraq's area. this search shows that the "Global Warming" was the reason beyond the temperature averages increments within last climate period which lead to arid regions rapidly extension in Iraq.

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