Table of content

Iraqi Journal of Science

المجلة العراقية للعلوم

ISSN: 00672904
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Science
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi journal of science is a quarterly specified scientific journal issued by the Faculty of Science at the University of Baghdad. The members of the Editorial Board representing the Departments of Eight Scientific departments, college of science/ Baghdad University and its related units of research, all are professors, scientists with extensive experience and considerable skills in their field of science, as well as an advisory board in support composed of professors and scientists with great reputation in their field of science from other Colleges, universities, or research institutes. The specialty of publication includes the following fields:

1.Pure and Applied Physics.
2.Mathematical Sciences.
3.Computer Science and Information Technology.
4.Science of chemistry.
5.Bio-Science technologies.
6.Earth Sciences, geo-physics, and remote sensing.
7.Astronomy, Space Sciences, and Remote Sensing Unit.
8.Science and Research of tropical area

The visions, goals, and the mechanisms of the Iraqi Journal of Science is to publish scientific research sober in the areas of Applied and Pure Sciences and instructive Iraqi society, scientific research, scientific interest large to contribute to the development of various disciplines, which provides significant support to researchers in all scientific facilities to continue to support the development plans in Iraq.

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Contact info

Baghdad University
College of Science
Baghdad
Iraq
ijs@scbaghdad.edu.iq
07903375590
http://ijs.scbaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2017 volume:58 issue:1A

Article
Determination of Some Oxidative Stress Parameters and Antioxidants in Sample of Iraqi Beta Thalassemia Major Patients
تحديد بعض معايير جهد الأكسدة ومضادات الأكسدة في عينة من مرضى بيتا الثلاسيميا الكبرى العراقيين

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Abstract

Repeated blood transfusion in beta thalassemia major patients may lead to peroxidative tissue injury by secondary iron overload. In the present study, 100 patients(50 male+50 female) with beta thalassemia major patients with age (5-20) years and 60 healthy control were included during their attendance at Abin Al_Baladi hospital in Baghdad. Malondialdehyde ,Superoxide Dismutase and Vitamin E, were measured by using kits.The results showed A highly significant (p<0.01)increase in the levels of Malondialdehyde and Superoxide Dismutase, whereas, significant p(<0.01)decrease in the levels of vitamin-E, This suggest that oxidative stress and reduced antioxidant defense mechanism play an important role in pathogenesis of beta thalassemia major.


Article
Determination of the Toxicity of Fumonisin B1 on Male Albino Mice
تحديد سمية الفيومنسين ب1 على ذكور الفئران البيضاء

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Abstract

Fumonisin B1 is a toxic compound produced by Fusarium verticillioides. Liver and kidney are the major organs considered target to FB1 toxicity that is characterized by apoptotic, necrosis, and regeneration. Thirteen local isolates of F. verticillioides isolated form maize samples that collected from local markets and silos in Baghdad. Morphological identification are occurred and confirmed by PCR and their ability to produce FB1 was detected using ELISA techniques, Thirty six male albino mice were divided into six groups. Each group orally gavaged with different concentration of FB1. After 24hours, all treated mice were examined to determine the concentration which killed half of animals and was considered as LD50, the remaining groups were scarified after two weeks of oral administration. The LD50 of FB1 was 1800ppb which demonstrated to male mice after 24h. The significant elevations in liver enzymes (AST, ALT, and ALP) and kidney functions (Creatinine, Blood urea) have shown after orally gavaging of mice with FB1 at 800 and 1200 ppb concentrations in comparison with control group. The histopathological changes in the liver, kidney and spleen of treated mice with FB1 at 800 and 1200 ppb concentrations in comparison with control group, characterized by obvious increase in degenerative changes and apoptotic cells in comparison with control group.


Article
Evaluation of Silver Nanoparticles (Ag NPs) Activity Against the Viability of Leishmania tropica Promastigotes and Amastigotes In Vitro
تقدير فعالية الفضة المتناهية الصغر على حيوية الطور امامي السوط و عديم السوط للشمانيا الأستوائية في المختبر

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Abstract

Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by a protozoan parasite of the genus Leishmania. It is transmitted by the bite of sandfly (Subfamily Phlebotominae). Limited drugs are available for the treatment of leishmaniasis, and the general drug (pentostam) have many side effect on patients. Therefore, there is an urgent need for another drugs for the treatment of leishmaniasis. This study aimed to develop new type of antileishmanial agents instead of classical drug (pentostam) and investigated the effectiveness of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) on Leishmania tropica parasites in both phases promastigote and amastigote in comparision to pentostam in in vitro condition. This study showed the effects of Ag NPs in comparision to pentostam with different concentrations (0.3, 0.6, 0.9, 1.2, 1.5, 1.8 and 2.1 µg/ ml) on L.tropica promastigotes viability. The viability of promastigotes after 72 hr. recorded maximum cytotoxic effect of Ag NPs in highest concentration (2.1 μg/ml), it was 23.17 ± 0.45 % comparing with pentostam which was 69.33 ± 0.33 %, as well as IC50 was calculated for MTT assay and the result for Ag NPs was 1. 749 µg/ml after 72 hr., while pentostam drug did not show IC50 in all treatments. On the other hand, the study also showed the effects of Ag NPs on L.tropica amastigote phase, and the viability was (3.10 ± 0.59 and 47.34 ± 0.87) % after 72 hr. in the highest concentration 2.1 μg/ml for Ag NPs and pentostam respectively, and IC50 was 1.148 µg/ ml for Ag NPs after 72 hr., but all results of pentostam stayed over than 50%.


Article
In Vitro Assessment of Miltefosine Activity Against Promastigotes and Axenic Amastigotes of Leishmania tropica
تقييم فعالية الملتيفوسين ضد الطور امامي السوط وعديم السوط الخارجي للشمانيا الاستوائيه داخل المختبر

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Abstract

Leishmaniasis is a worldwide disease still treated with expensive compounds that present severe side effects, and are frequently ineffective emphasizing the importance to search effective compounds against this disease. Miltefosine drug (HePC) that used as antitumor agent has been used against Leishmania tropica in two forms promastigote and axenic amastigote in vitro conditions. Different concentrations (5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 µM) of HePC were performed and exposed to both parasite forms in comparison to sodium stibogluconate (Sb) drug. Parasites viability then was determined using MTT assay after 12, 24, and 48hr of exposure. DNA was extracted from treated and untreated parasites after 48hr of exposure and qualitative analysis of the total genomic DNA fragmentation was carried out through using agarose gel electrophoresis. The IC50 of HePC and Sb were 17.07 and 25.72 µM against L. tropica promastigotes, respectively, while, the IC50 of them were 18.08 and 21.29µM against axenic amastigotes respectively. Fragmented DNA in agarose gel electrophoresis was revealed in both parasite forms exposed to all used concentrations of HePC. These results showed the significant activity of miltefosine against the viability of L. tropica promastigotes and axenic amastigotes


Article
Total and Partial Substitution of White Corn Sorghum bicolor Germinated for Three defferent periods and adding Mixture of (Probiotic+Diet Enzymes) by Yellow Corn Zea mays in Common Carp Cyprinus carpio L. Diets
الإحلال الكلي والجزئي للذرة البيضاء Sorghum bicolor المنبتة بثلاث فترات مختلفة مع إضافة مزيج (المعزز الحيوي+الأنزيمات العلفية) بالذرة الصفراء Zea mays في علائق أسماك الكارب الشائع Cyprinus carpio L

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Abstract

This study was carried out in the laboratories of fish and animal resource center-Agricultural Research Directorate for the period between 1/3-26/5/2015 to study the effect of total and partial substitution of white corn (WC) Sorghum bicolor germinated for different period and additive mixture of probiotic & diet enzymes of yellow corn (YC) Zea mays in common carp Cyprinus carpio L. diets. The fish fed on experimental diets contained two levels of substitution germination WC with three different periods and not germination with 0.5% mixture of probiotic+diet enzymes (50% and 100%) from YC. A 11 experimental diets were formulated, diets 1 and 2 used raw WC without germinate at two substitution levels of 50% and 100% respectively of YC, diets 3 and 4 use WC germinates for 24 hour at two substitution levels of 50% and 100% respectively of YC, diets 5 and 6 use WC germinates for 48 hour at two substitution levels of 50% and 100% respectively of YC, diets 7 and 8 use WC germinates for 72 hour at two substitution levels of 50% and 100% respectively of YC, diet 9 and 10 use WC without germinates add (0.5% mixture of probiotic + diet enzymes) at two substitution levels of 50% and 100% respectively of YC and diet 11 (control without white corn). The results of statistical analysis showed that a benefit of using diets which containing white corn which germinated for 48h (T5 and T6) and the diets which add 0.5% mixer of probiotic + diet enzymes (T9 and T10) for all parameters at substitution 50% and 100%.


Article
Synergistic effect of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles with antibiotics against multi-drug resistance bacteria isolated from children with diarrhoea under five years
التأثير التأزري لدقائق الفضة النانوية المصنعة حيويا مع المضادات الحيوية ضد البكتريا متعددة المقاومة للعقار والمعزولة من الأطفال المصابين بالإسهال بعمر اقل من خمس سنوات

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Abstract

Isolation and identification of bacterial isolates were carried out according to the morphology and biochemical characteristics on one hundred and twenty stool specimens collected from children under five years old via using biochemical tests and Api 20E compact system for further confirmation. Bacterial isolates were distributed as (34.48, 20.68, 5.17,0.86) % for Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi ,Enterobacter aerogenos, Citrobacter freundii and Hafnia alvei respectively and 9.48 % for each Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella Pneumonia. As well as, 2.58% for both Shigella sonnei and Serratia marcescens. Antibiotic susceptibility test for 116 bacterial isolates was performed towards 20 antibiotics types using disk diffusion method. The results showed dissimilar resistance values towards different antibiotics, ten bacterial isolates were collected for each bacterial species to study their resistance values, the ones with the highest resistance level were selected for further study. Meanwhile, easy and cheap green method using the banana peel extract (BPE) was applied to synthesize silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Phytochemicals of BPE were screened by standard methods. The results verified the existence of alkaloids, flavonoids, and glycosides in it. These components were act as a reducing agent ,stabilizing and capping agents for AgNO3 with the assistance of the microwave. The successfully preparation of AgNPs was established by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Dynamic light scattering (DLS), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and zeta potential analysis. The antibacterial activity of the AgNPs against multidrug resistance (MDR) bacteria were studied by using disk diffusion method. The results showed a considerable effect against MDR isolates. The synergistic effects of biosynthesis AgNPs at different concentrations with different standard antibiotic discs (which were Tobramycin, Chloramphenicol, Nitrofuration, Ampicillin-clavulanic acid and Nalidixic acid) against MDR bacteria were also investigated. The result showed the synergistic action of AgNPs and antibiotics leading to enhance antibacterial activity.


Article
Optimization of photoluminescence properties of Porous silicon by adding gold nanoparticles
تحسين خصائص التلؤلؤ الضوئي للسليكون المسامي باضافة جسيمات الذهب النانوية

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Abstract

In this work, the photoluminescence spectra (PL) of porous silicon (PS) have been modified by adding gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to PS layer. PS was produced via Photo electro-chemical etching (PECE) method of n-type Si wafer with resistivity of about (10 Ω.cm) and (100) orientation. Laser wavelength of (630 nm) and illumination intensity of about (30 mW/cm2), etching current density of (10mA/cm2), and etching time of (4 min) were used during the etching process. The bare PS before metallic deposition process and porous silicon/gold nanoparticles (PS/AuNPs) structures were investigated by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive X-Ray (EDX). The photoluminescence spectra were investigated as a function of gold nanoparticles sizes and distribution on the surface of PS. It was found that there are two behaviours were observed for the photoluminescence spectra of PS/AuNPs substrate; quenching and enhancement effects based on the average gold nanoparticles sizes and their aggregation forms. Keywords: PS/AuNPs, PECE process, HF acid, Photoluminescence spectra, gold nanoparticles, metallic solution concentration.

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Article
Influence of reactant catalyst type and Drying Control Chemical Additives (DCCA) on optical and structural properties of silica aerogel prepared via ambient pressure drying
تأثير نوع العامل المساعد والإضافات الكيميائية المسيطرة على التجفيف على المواصفات البصرية والتركيبية لمادة الايروجل المحضر تحت الضغط المحيط

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Abstract

We have studied the synthesis environment of ambient pressure silica aerogels influence on their resulting morphological and optical properties. Transparent nanoporous silica aerogel was synthesized at ambient pressure using tetraethylorthosilicate precursor via a sol-gel process. Effect of drying control chemical additives and catalyst on physical properties was investigated. Trimethylchlorolsilane was employed as a hydrophobic reagent in the surface modification process. All aerogel samples were prepared utilizing a subcritical procedure under reactant pH fixed at 8.3, using just ammonium hydroxide or together with ammonium fluoride as catalyst. The effects catalyst types as well as drying control chemical additives on the physical properties of the nanoporous silica aerogels (particle size, surface area, percentage of shrinkage, contact angle, and density) were investigated.


Article
Elastic electron scattering from Te-isotopes in the framework of Skyrme-Hartree-Fock method
الاستطارة الالكترونية المرنة من نظائر التيلوريوم باستخدام طريقة سكيرم- هارتري- فوك

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Abstract

تم حساب توزيعات الكثافة الشحنية، البروتونية و الكتلية وانصاف الاقطار المرافقة لها لبعض نظائر التيلوريوم باستخدام طريقة سكيرم- هارتري- فوك مع برامترات مختلفة هيSKB, SGI, SKM, SKX, MSK7, SLy4 . كما تم ايضاً حساب السمك النيوتروني، عوامل التشكل و معدل طاقة الربط النووية . لقد تمت مقارنة النتائج النظرية مع نظيراتها من القيم العملية المتاحة .


Article
Enhance the delineation of masked structures in southern Iraq by applying the Biharmonic operator to their gravity field.
تحسين تصوير التراكيب المتخفية في جنوب العراق بتطبيق معامل التوافقية المزدوجة على مجالها الجذبي

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Abstract

The gravity field of southern Iraq shows steep gradient of regional trend. The gravity contours over the anticline structures in this area do not show the closure characteristic of these structures. The effect of lateral density variation for Hormuz Salt complicates the case in the area. Higher derivatives are one of the means that have been used to remove the effect of such regional gravity variations, which can easily mask significant structures. Biharmonic Operator is used to delineate these distort structures, follow their extent and at the same time distinguish new features. The Biharmonic operator manipulation has ability to suppress the effect of regional and enhance the local anomalies. The problem with higher derivatives operation is that, it enhance dramatically high frequency components of gravity field, but with smoothing the result is remarkable. A synthetic model is used to support the idea, and then the operation is applied to the gravity field of southern Iraq. Many new features are deduced and new extents of the old known ones are determined.


Article
Petrology of the granitoid intrusions in the Shalair Valley area, northeastern Iraq
بترولوجية مقحمات الصخور الكرانيتويدية في وادي الشلير, شمال شرق العراق

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The granitoid bodies in the Shalair Valley are structurally located within so-called Iraqi Zagros Suture Zone, in the northeastern Iraq. One hundred and sixty-two representative samples were collected from five granitoid intrusive bodies in the valley: Aulan and Siristan in the northern part, Mishao and Laladar in the southern part and Demamna in the western part. Two major types of granitoids in the eastern and western part of the Shalair Valley area were indentified. The granitoids from the four locations in the eastern part, have similar mineral constitutes. These rocks are composed of plagioclase + quartz ± hornblende with two types of texture, equigranular texture represented by Aulan and Siristan in the northern part and porphyritic texture in the southern part represented by Mishao and Laladar. This reflects several stages of intrusive events, starting with stable fractional crystallization conditions represented by Aulan and Siristan granitic rocks with equigranular texture and a late stage of unstable crystallization conditions represented by Mishao and Laladar granitic rocks with porphyritic texture. Damamna granites in the western part have different mineral composition. They are composed of K-feldspar, quartz and small amount of plagioclase with graphic texture represented by the intergrowth between K-feldspar and quartz, which reflects simultaneous crystallization of K-feldspar and quartz from a silicate melt close to the eutectic point.


Article
Crude oil characterization and hydrocarbon affinity of Amarah Oil Field, South Iraq
خصائص النفط الخام وعائديه النفط في حقل نفط العمارة، جنوب العراق

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Abstract

Five oil sample of Mashrif and Nahr Umr Formation for Amarah oil field, southern Iraq, were taken and analyzed in Geo Mark laboratory in USA center in order to determine the bulk properties of crude oils and carbon isotopes for these samples in addition to determine biomarker parameters using Gas Chromatography(GC), and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry) GCMS (analytical technique. According to these biomarker analyses of the two formation, it is indicated that they are non-degraded, marine, non-waxy, derived from carbonate source and deposition in anoxic marine environment. This study also showed that the bulk properties (terpanes and steranes) of Amarah oil field are one family, and the source rocks contain marine kerogen type II. All oil samples of Amarah oil field are from source rock refer to Middle Jurassic age of sargelu Formation.


Article
Radiological hazard Assessment Due to Natural Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) in Oil and Gas Production Industry –East Baghdad Oil Field
تقييم المخاطر الاشعاعية نتيجة للمواد المشعة المتواجدة طبيعيا في مصنع انتاج النفط والغاز- حقل نفط شرق بغداد

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Concentration of NORM then radiological hazard indices were investigated and assessed in different stages of oil and gas production industry that belongs to East Baghdad Oil Field. Sixteen samples of different types of materials were collected representing oil and gas production from first stage to final stage. The samples are prepared then sent to Radiation Protection Center (RPC) / Ministry of Environment for radioactivity analysis using gamma ray spectrometry system based on HPGe. The results show that max value of Ra-226 is 252.4 Bq/kg in sediment sample collected from the final stage of water treatment before it is transferred to disposal well and min value is 1.2 Bq/kg in formation water. The max. activity of Th-232 is 79.4Bq/kg also in sediment sample and the min value 2.9 Bq/Kg in crude oil in storage tank while, the max. value for K-40 is 529.6 Bq/Kg in burning stage (burn pit) and the min value is 2.8Bq/kg in Pre-treatment crude oil. The ambient exposure dose values near the sampling locations were recorded using dosimeter type GMC-300. The results are corresponding with the values of NORMs in the locations. The ambient gamma rates in the study area range between (0.04-0.22) µSv/h corresponding to (57-314 nGray/h). Most locations have values above the average worldwide value of (58 nGray/h). NORMs are caused absorbed dose in max. contribution (79%) to the total ambient gamma dose. Radium caused the max. contribution among the others. All the hazard indices indicate that most of the sampling locations have indices acceptable and with no hazard.


Article
Semi (1, 2)*-Maximal Soft (1, 2)*-Pre-Open Sets and Semi (1, 2)*-Minimal Soft (1, 2)*-Pre-Closed Sets In Soft Bitopological Spaces
المجموعات المفتوحةpre- (1,2)*- الميسرة شبة الاكبرية (1,2)*- والمجموعات المغلقةpre- (1,2)*- الميسرة شبة الاصغرية (1,2)*- في الفضاءات التبولوجية الثنائية الميسرة

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Abstract

In this paper, we introduce and study new types of soft open sets and soft closed sets in soft bitopological spaces , namely, (1,2)*-maximal soft open sets, (1,2)*-maximal soft (1,2)*-pre-open sets, semi (1,2)*-maximal soft (1,2)*-pre-open sets, (1,2)*-maximal soft closed sets, (1,2)*-maximal soft (1,2)*-pre-closed sets, (1,2)*-minimal soft open sets, (1,2)*-minimal soft (1,2)*-pre-open sets, (1,2)*-minimal soft closed sets, (1,2)*-minimal soft (1,2)*-pre-closed sets, and semi (1,2)*-minimal soft (1,2)*-pre-closed sets. Also, properties and the relation among these concepts have been studied. Keywords: (1,2)*-maximal soft (1,2)*-pre-open set, (1,2)*-minimal soft (1,2)*-pre-open sets, (1,2)*-maximal soft (1,2)*-pre-closed sets, (1,2)*-minimal soft (1,2)*-pre-closed sets, semi (1,2)*-maximal soft (1,2)*-pre-open sets, semi (1,2)*-minimal soft (1,2)*-pre-closed set.

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Article
PIM-SM based Multicast Comparison for IPv4 verses IPv6 using GNS3 and JPERF
مقارنة اداء بروتوكول PIM-SM عبر الجيل السادس والجيل الرابع من بروتوكول الانترنت باستخدام برنامجي 3GNS مع برنامج JPERF

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The multicast technology implements a very high-efficiency point-to-multipoint data transmission over IP networks (IPv4 and IPv6). Multicast reduces network load, eliminates traffic redundancy, and saves network bandwidth. Therefore, multicast used widely in LAN/WAN applications such as online games, video conferencing and IPTV. The multicast technology implements varied protocols such as DVMRP(Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol), MOSPF(Multicast Open Shortest Path First), or PIM-DM (Protocol Independent Multicast- Dense Mode) which considered source tree type, while PIM-SM (Protocol Independent Multicast- Sparse Mode) and CBT (Core Based Tree) uses shared tree. Current paper focuses on the performance evaluation of the two multicast protocols: PIM-SMv4 and PIM-SMv6 based on QoS metrics like throughput, jitter, datagram loss and Data received. PIM-SM over IPv6 showed good results compared with PIM-SM over IPv4 by 1.04%, 0.64%, 32.56% and 89.84% in terms of data received, throughput, jitter and datagram loss respectively .GNS3 simulator/emulator and JPERF used to evaluate this performance

Keywords

Multicast --- PIM --- RP --- shared-tree --- Qos


Article
Finding the Similarity between Two Arabic Texts
ايجاد نسبة التشابة مابين نصين عربيين

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Abstract

Calculating similarities between texts that have been written in one language or multiple languages still one of the most important challenges facing the natural language processing. This work offers many approaches that used for the texts similarity. The proposed system will find the similarity between two Arabic texts by using hybrid similarity measures techniques: Semantic similarity measure, Cosine similarity measure and N-gram ( using the Dice similarity measure). In our proposed system we will design Arabic SemanticNet that store the keywords for a specific field(computer science), by this network we can find semantic similarity between words according to specific equations. Cosine and N-gram similarity measures are used in order to find the similar characters sequences. The proposed system was executed by using Visual Basic 2012, and after testing it, it proved to be a worthy for finding the similarity between two Arabic texts (From the viewpoint of accuracy and search time).


Article
A Modified Segmentation Approach for Real World Images Based on Edge Density Associated with Image Contrast Stretching
طريقة تجزئة معدلة لصور العالم الحقيقي بناءا على كثافة الحافة وتمدد تباين الصورة

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Segmentation of real world images considered as one of the most challenging tasks in the computer vision field due to several issues that associated with this kind of images such as high interference between object foreground and background, complicated objects and the pixels intensities of the object and background are almost similar in some cases. This research has introduced a modified adaptive segmentation process with image contrast stretching namely Gamma Stretching to improve the segmentation problem. The iterative segmentation process based on the proposed criteria has given the flexibility to the segmentation process in finding the suitable region of interest. As well as, the using of Gamma stretching will help in separating the pixels of the objects and background through making the dark intensity pixels darker and the light intensity pixels lighter. The first 20 classes of Caltech 101 dataset have been utilized to demonstrate the performance of the proposed segmentation approach. Also, the Saliency Cut method has been adopted as a benchmark segmentation method. In summary, the proposed method improved some of the segmentation problems and outperforms the current segmentation method namely Saliency Cut method with segmentation accuracy 77.368%, as well as it can be used as a very useful step in improving the performance of visual object categorization system because the region of interest is mostly available.


Article
Modeling of medium-Sized magnitudes of earthquakes
نمذجة الزلازل الأرضية متوسطة الشدة

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In this work, it have earthquakes data been analytized as a result of ground water injection attendant to dig wells and oil, which affects the pressure pores in the rock and is according to cause a medium-sized earthquake that have already occurred more than 20 times. according to the publication of the Department of Attenba, the dangers of earthquakes and movement flooring in Guy-Greenbrie-United area of one of United States of America cities, where these data represent a monitor magnitudes of earthquakes from September 2008 the September 2011, we conducted statistical analysis and create a model for earthquakes flooring that was chosen for four distributions and results i the optima reveal the best distribution is the Burr X11 then General Extreme value, and lognormal distribution, and normal distribution. We applied the maximum likelihood method for estimating the parameters of these distribution.


Article
Estimation the best areas of Sun duration hours in Iraq by applying IDW type of interpolation techniques by using GIS program
تقدير أفضل المناطق في مدة ساعات سطوع الشمس في العراق عن طريق تطبيق نوع تقنيات الاستيفاء IDW باستخدام برنامج نظم المعلومات الجغرافية

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Abstract

In this paper solar radiation was studied over the Iraqi countary land. The best sun duration hours regions (maximum hours) in Iraq were estimated detected by using Geographic information system (GIS Ver. 9.2) program to apply the (Inverse distance weighting) IDW exact interpolation technique depending on the measured data of metrological stations were distributed on the land areas of Iraq. The total area of the best regions was calculated .Excel 2007 program is used in calculation, graphics and comparison the results.


Article
Application Voting System of Web based in Iraq
تطبيق نظام تصويت معتمد على الويب في العراق

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Abstract

Currently voting process is paper based form, by using voting card or paper; thus the counting method is done manually, which exhausts a lot of time. Obsolete votes may be possibly occurring. This paper introduced a system in which voting and counting is done with the help of computer. The election process would be easier, it saves time, avoid errors while counting and obsolete votes are reduced. Electronic voting (E-voting) system is a voting system in which the election related data is stored and handled digitally, it would become the quickest, cheapest, and the most efficient way to administer election and count vote it is considered a means to further enhance and strengthen the democratic processes in modern information societies. The suggested a web based E-voting application using ASP.net with SQL server. This application implements a voting process within a voting station and gives the election results.

Keywords

E-voting --- ASP.net --- SQL --- Database

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