Table of content

Iraqi Journal of Science

المجلة العراقية للعلوم

ISSN: 00672904
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Science
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi journal of science is a quarterly specified scientific journal issued by the Faculty of Science at the University of Baghdad. The members of the Editorial Board representing the Departments of Eight Scientific departments, college of science/ Baghdad University and its related units of research, all are professors, scientists with extensive experience and considerable skills in their field of science, as well as an advisory board in support composed of professors and scientists with great reputation in their field of science from other Colleges, universities, or research institutes. The specialty of publication includes the following fields:

1.Pure and Applied Physics.
2.Mathematical Sciences.
3.Computer Science and Information Technology.
4.Science of chemistry.
5.Bio-Science technologies.
6.Earth Sciences, geo-physics, and remote sensing.
7.Astronomy, Space Sciences, and Remote Sensing Unit.
8.Science and Research of tropical area

The visions, goals, and the mechanisms of the Iraqi Journal of Science is to publish scientific research sober in the areas of Applied and Pure Sciences and instructive Iraqi society, scientific research, scientific interest large to contribute to the development of various disciplines, which provides significant support to researchers in all scientific facilities to continue to support the development plans in Iraq.

Loading...
Contact info

Baghdad University
College of Science
Baghdad
Iraq
ijs@scbaghdad.edu.iq
07903375590
http://ijs.scbaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2017 volume:58 issue:1B

Article
A New Chromogenic Reagent for Determination of Copper (II) in Water Samples Using Flow injection-Technique.
كاشف لوني جديد لتقدير النحاس الثنائي في نماذج المياه باستخدام تقنية الحقن الجرياني

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

A new flow injection spectrophotometric method is described for the determination of copper ion Cu(II) in water samples (tap water and river water).The proposed method based on the formation of red complex [Cu(L)2(NO3)2] which has a maximum absorption at λmax=490 nm. Linear range for Cu (II) was from 5-70µg/mL with detection limit 2.55µg/mL. The effect of physical and chemical parameters were evaluated .The proposed method was applied successfully for determination of copper (II) in the tap and river water. [Cu(L)2(NO3)2] complex was prepared in a (2:1) mole ratio as ( reagent: copper (II)).The analytical reagent formed by reaction of thymol with 4-aminoantipyrine at room temperature. The metal complex was characterized by IR, UV-Visible spectra. The metal percentage, electrical conductivity and magnetic properties of the formed complex confirmed that this chromogenic reagent was coordinated with copper (II) metal ion through oxygen and nitrogen atoms of the phenol and amine group as a bidentate ligand with octahedral geometry.


Article
Study Effect of Cigarette Smoking on the Liver Functions and Electrolytes
دراســـــــة تأثير التدخين على وظائف الكبد والشوارد الكيميائية

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Smoking have a direct and indirect effects on some organs of the body, this effect is duo to inhaled the smoke and reach the alveoli and in to pulmonary veins. The main objective of this study, to investigate the changes in liver enzymes Alanine aminotransferase(ALT), Aspartate aminotransferase(AST) and Alkaline phosphatase(ALP) and electrolytes like(K+, Na+, Fe+2, Ca+2,Cl- and Po4 -3) in male smokers. In this study collect of (100) blood samples from male smokers and divided in to (3) groups according to period of smoking, and compare with (40) nonsmoker persons (group 4), the age groups are between (25-40) year, in a period between (November 2015-April 2016), within the district of Baqubah in Diyala governorate .The results show increase activity of enzymes ALT, AST and ALP (p<0.001) in smokers compared to control, and no significant differences in the electrolytes (K+, Na+, Cl-) but a significant decrease in Ca+2 level (p<0.001), while the iron concentration increased significantly in all smokers, and the phosphorus concentration increased significantly (p<0.001) in two groups of smokers (10-20) years period of smoking. From this study showed a significant effects on the activity of liver enzymes, Ca+2, Po4-3 and Fe+2in smokers compare to non-smokers while no significant effect on the Sodium, Chloride and Potassium in smokers.


Article
The Variation in Levels of Some Male Pituitary and Gonadal Hormones in Beta-Thalassemia Major Patients in Iraq
التغاير في مستويات بعض هورمونات الغدة النخامية والمناسل في الذكور المصابين بفقر دم البحر المتوسط في العراق

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

This study was aimed to investigate the iron overload effect on the levels of ferritin, testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and prolactin (PRL) in male patients with β-thalassemia. Blood levels of sex hormones and ferritin were determined in (50 males) beta-thalassemia patients, aged (16-23) years and in (30) healthy males matched for age. They were recruited from the Abin Al-Balady Hospital in Baghdad. Ichroma™ kits were used to determine the blood levels of sex hormones and ferritin. The results showed that the level of testosterone, LH and FSH were significantly (p≤ 0.05) lower in β-thalassemia male patients compared to controls. Furthermore, the level of ferritin and prolactin in male patients were significantly (p≤ 0.05) higher than the values obtained in the controls. Significant positive correlations (p≤ 0.05), (r= 0.3834) were detected between level of LH and ferritin in male patients. Non-significant positive correlations (p≥0.05) in the level of testosterone and ferritin, also non-significant negative correlation in PRL and FSH and ferritin were found in patients with β-thalassemia. From the above results it can be concluded that the iron overload may be the major cause of infertility in β-thalassemia male patients.


Article
A New Record of Saxifraga afghanica Aitch. & Hemsl. (Saxifragaceae) in Iraq
تسجيل جديد للنوع Saxifraga afghanica Aitch. & Hemsl. (Saxifragaceae) في العراق

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Saxifraga afghanica Aitch. & Hemsl. is a new addition to the Saxifragaceae family in Iraq, from Qandil mountain (north-east of Erbil) within Rowanduz district (MRO). The collected specimens have different characteristics. S. afghanica is perennial, herb, with crowded shoots forming cushions, many branched. Leaves sessil, narrowly oblong, narrowly oblong-lanceolate, oblanceolate or sub-spatulate, glabrous, entire, ciliated at lower half, apex leaves aggregated into a rosette, chalk glands (pits at the leaves apex) 5. Bracts cultrate, linear or narrowly oblong, glandular-pubescent. Inflorescence corymbose cyme, flowers (3-5), white-pink, stamens 10, ovary semi-inferior, styles 2, divergent, recurved at the top. Capsule globose-semi globose. Identification, morphological study was conducted, these reinforced by graphs. In addition, some characters of the pollen grains have been studied such as shapes, colors, sizes, numbers and surface sculpture.


Article
Partial replacement of Chemical Fertilizers with Organic and Biofertilizers of Anabaena circcinalis and Oscillatoria lymentica in rice Fields.
استبدال جزئي للأسمدة الكيماوية بالاسمدة العضويه المحملة بنوعين من الاسمدة الاحيائية لطحلبي في حقول الرزOscillatoria lymentica وAnabaena circcinalis

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

A field experiment was carried out in the province of Najaf - al ashraf using two types of blue-green algae( Anabaena circinalis and Oscillaoria lymentica) which have been isolated and diagnosed in the laboratories of the department of plant protection / ministry of agriculture in Iraq with the compost( palm fronds ) manufacturer locally and by 1 ml : 10 g of organic matter within one month of cuddling and using a single level of humidity is 1 : 2 (water : organic matter). Randomized complete block design RCBD to see the effect of use it as a single or mix in the productivity of rice crop Yasamin cultivar where it was noted that it is equipped with a dynamic composting of organic matter leads to the analysis of organic material and increasing the nitrogen content to moss 32.76 % with Anabaena and 19.72 % with mixture of algae. It was also observed superiority of the treatment (5) Anabaena with 25% of the chemical fertilizer, treatment (4) Anabaena with 50% of the chemical fertilizer which is not differ with the treatment (2) full recommending fertilizer and treatment (9) compost with 50% of the recommendation fertilizer, which gave seed weight 695 g / m2 and 694 g / m2 , respectively, compared with 754.7 g/m2 and 730 g/m2 respectively, Weight of 1000 also gave the seed of 27.64 g and 27.58 g, respectively, compared with 754.7 g and 730 g, respectively the length of the deltoid was 25.23 cm and 24.70 cm, respectively, compared with 25.37 cm and 25.30 cm respectively and it was noted an increase in the biological yield gave 15.88 tons / h and 15.84 tons /h, respectively, compared to 16.50 tons/h and 16.13 tons /h. Also it was noted an increase in the length of plant in treatment (4) Anabaena with 50% of the fertilizer recommendation which is not differ with the full treatment of recommendation fertilizer and the treatment 9 of compost with 50% of the recommendation as fertilizer gave 110.6 cm compared to 110.9 cm and 110.1cmrespectively, as for the dry weight observed increasing of algae treatments (4) treatment Anabaena with 50% of the recommendation fertilizer ,(5) treatment Anabaena with 25% of the recommendation fertilizer and (7) treatments (algae mixture with 50% of the fertilizer recommendation) which is not differ from full recommending fertilizer (2) treatment and (9) treatment compost with 50% of the recommendation fertilizer, was given 890 g 893 g, 890 g, respectively, compared to 896 g and 883 g, respectively. We conclude that the use of the way with bio- organic and algal fertilizer in alone or mixture increase in productivity of growth ,biological yield and reduces the use of chemical fertilizer for a healthy quotient of consumers in food consumption.


Article
Origin of Dolomites in the Baluti Formation (Late Triassic), Galley Derash Area, N-Iraq: Petrography, Textural and Diagenetic Properties
اصل الدولومايت في تكوين بلوطي (الترياسي المتأخر ) في منطقة كلي ديرش شمال العراق : الصفات الصخارية والنسيجية والعمليات التحويرية

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Baluti Formation of the Rhaetian (Late Triassic) age is composed mainly of dolomite, the unit formed with dolomitic limestone, dolomitic breccias and limestone begins with gray or dark gray colored and sugar textured dolomitic limestones including micrite with shale horizons. Baluti Formation was deposited in carbonate platform, and slumped to deeper margins forming carbonate debrites and breccias of various types. Petrographic examination of the dolomites reveals various crystal habits and textures of the dolomites. Planktonic bivalve, calcisphere and echinoid spicules were found in the Baluti Formation settled in deep-margin carbonate environment. Nine dolomite-rock textures were identified and classified according to the crystal-size distribution and crystal-boundary shape. These are made of unimodal, 1) very fine to fine-crystalline planar-s (subhedral) mosaic dolomite; 2) unimodal, medium to coarse-crystalline planar-s (subhedral) mosaic dolomite; 3) coarse to very coarse crystalline planar-s (subhedral) dolomite; 4) medium to coarse-crystalline planar-e (euhedral) mosaic dolomite; 5) medium to coarse-crystalline planar-e (euhedral) dolomite; 6) coarse to very coarse-crystalline non-planar-a (anhedral) dolomite; 7) coarse to very coarse-crystalline non-planar-c (cement) dolomite; 8) polymodal, planar-s (subhedral) to planar-e (euhedral) mosaic dolomite. Dolomitization is closely associated with the development of secondary porosity; dolomitization pre and post diagenetic dissolution and corrosion and no secondary porosity generation is present in the associated limestones. The most common porosity types are non-fabric selective moldic and vugy porosity and intercrystalline porosity. These porous zones are characterized by late-diagenetic coarse-crystalline dolomite, whereas the non-porous intervals are composed of dense mosaics of early-diagenetic dolomites. The distribution of dolomite rock textures indicates that porous zones were preserved as limestone until late in the diagenetic history, and were then subjected to late-stage dolomitization in a medium burial environment, resulting in coarse-crystalline porous dolomites. Baluti dolomites have been formed as early diagenetic at the tidal-subtidal environment and as a late diagenetic at the shallow-deep burial depths.


Article
Hydrological and Radiological Studies of Water Resources by Using Radon in Hashimiya Area- Middle of Iraq.
دراسة هيدرولوجية واشعاعية لمصادر المياه باستخدام الرادون في منطقة الهاشمية-وسط العراق

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Radon concentrations are measured for water samples collected from twenty wells which were drilled in Hashimiya area in addition to twelve samples of surface water using Alpha Gaurd. 140 samples, 7 for each well, were collected represent wet season in continuous pumping and 20 samples, one for each well, were collected represent dry season. Concentration of radon in groundwater is many times of its concentration in surface water. The minimum concentration in groundwater is about (7) Bq/L and (5) Bq/L while the maximum concentration is about (31) Bq/L and (19) Bq/L in wet season and dry season respectively. The range of radon concentrations in river water is between (1.06) Bq/L and (1.21) Bq/L. This study has indicated that there is a flow from river water towards shallow groundwater in the closed wells especially in wet period. This is concluded by occurring a dilution of groundwater with that of the river water of low concentration of radon. On the other hand, there is a flow of deep groundwater with elevated concentration of radon to the shallow groundwater which caused to an increase of the concentration of radon in these wells. From the radiological point of view, due to consuming their water, all the wells offer annual effective dose greater than 0.1 mSv which is the recommended value by UNSCEAR. So, these considered as radon contaminated wells and need for remediation before their water is used or consumed.

Keywords

Radon --- groundwater --- radiological --- Iraq


Article
Determination of Porosity and Permeability of Darnah Formation at Al-Jabal Al-Akhdar-North Eastern Libya
تعيين المسامية والنفاذية لتكوين درنة في الجبل الأخضر / شمال- شرق ليبيا

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The study area is located at AL Jabal AL-Akhdar region North Eastern part of Libya. The study includes (23) fresh samples that are taken from Darnah limestone Formation, these samples were distributed on and covered about (210) km2. The porosities and permeabilities of these samples were determined. This study is important because this formation is considered as a good reservoir for hydrocarbon accumulation in other places in Libya. The porosity was measured by three different methods namely by porosimeter (using core samples), thin sections and binocular microscope. The permeability are also measured by two methods, the first method was by Nitrogen method and the other is by Klinkenberg method. The instrument that used for measuring permeability is Permeameter, which is found in Arabian Gulf Oil Company Laboratories (AGOCO) in Benghazi. Comparing the porosities by these three methods, it was clear that the porosity which was measured by porosimeter is better than the other two methods, because this instrument gives porosity by 3-Dimensions using core samples, but the other two methods give porosity in 2-Dimensions. The results show that the range of porosities measured by porosimeter was between (2.3% - 29.8%), the range by thin sections was between (2% - 23%) and the range by binocular microscope was between (4% - 29%). On other hand the range of permeabilities by Nitrogen method was found between (0.1 – 1572) millidarcy, and by Klinkenberg method was between (0.05 – 1506) Millidarcy. This variety of the range depends on the locations of samples as well as on active and inactive porosities, so there is no significant difference between the porosities and permeabilities of the same sample


Article
En-prime Subacts over Monoids with Zero
الأثر الجزئي الأولي من النمط En بالنسبة لشبه زمرة أحادية مع الصفر

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Throughout this paper S will be denote a monoids with zero. In this paper, we introduce the concept of En- prime subact, where a proper subact B of a right S- act As is called En- prime subact if for any endomorphism f of As and a ∈As with f(a)S⊆ Bimplies that either a ∈ B or f(As) ⊆ B. The right S-act As is called En-prime if the zero subact (θ) of As is En-prime subact. Some various properties of En-prime subact are considered, and also we study some relationships between En-prime subact and some other concepts such as prime subact and maximal subact.


Article
The Fuzzy Length of Fuzzy Bounded Operator
الطول الضبابي لمؤثر مقيد ضبابيا

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

In this paper we recall the definition of fuzzy length space on a fuzzy set after that we recall basic definitions and properties of fuzzy length. We define fuzzy bounded operator as an introduction to defined fuzzy length of an operator then we proved that the fuzzy length space FB(A ̃,E ̃) consisting of all fuzzy bounded linear operators from a fuzzy length space A ̃ into a fuzzy length space E ̃ is fuzzy complete if E ̃ is fuzzy complete. Also we proved that every finite dimensional fuzzy length space is fuzzy complete.


Article
Survey of Scale-invariant Feature Transform Algorithm
تحويل صفة صورة غير مرتبط بمقياس

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The effectiveness of detecting and matching of image features using multiple views of a specified scene using dynamic scene analysis is considered to be a critical first step for many applications in computer vision image processing. The Scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) can be applied very successfully of typical images captured by a digital camera. In this paper, firstly the SIFT and its variants are systematically analyzed. Then, the performances are evaluated in many situations: change in rotation, change in blurs, change in scale and change in illumination. The outcome results show that each algorithm has its advantages when compared with other algorithms.


Article
Diagnosis the Breast Cancer using Bayesian Rough Set Classifier
تشخيص سرطان الثدي باستخدام نظرية التصنيف Bayesian Rough Set

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Breast cancer was one of the most common reasons for death among the women in the world. Limited awareness of the seriousness of this disease, shortage number of specialists in hospitals and waiting the diagnostic for a long period time that might increase the probability of expansion the injury cases. Consequently, various machine learning techniques have been formulated to decrease the time taken of decision making for diagnoses the breast cancer and that might minimize the mortality rate. The proposed system consists of two phases. Firstly, data pre-processing (data cleaning, selection) of the data mining are used in the breast cancer dataset taken from the University of California, Irvine machine learning repository in this stage we modified the Correlation Feature Selection (CFS) with Best First Search (BFS) established on the Discriminant Index (DI) so as to reduce the complexity of time and get high accuracy. Secondly, Bayesian Rough Set (BRS) classifier is applied to predict the breast cancer and help the inexperienced doctors to make decisions without need the direct discussion with the specialist doctors. The result of experiments showed the proposed system give high accuracy with less time of predication the disease.


Article
Improved Weighted 0-1 Knapsack Method (WKM) to Optimize Resource Allocation
طريقة الحقيبة الموزونة المحسنة 0-1 (WKM)لأمثلية تخصيص الموارد

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

In this paper an improved weighted 0-1 knapsack method (WKM) is proposed to optimize the resource allocation process when the sum of items' weight exceeds the knapsack total capacity .The improved method depends on a modified weight for each item to ensure the allocation of the required resources for all the involved items. The results of the improved WKM are compared to the traditional 0-1 Knapsack Problem (KP). The proposed method dominates on the other one in term of the total optimal solution value of the knapsack


Article
Image Encryption Based on Intelligent Session Mask Keys
التشفير الصوري بالاعتماد على مفاتيح الجلسات الذكية

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The revolution of multimedia has been a driving force behind fast and secured data transmission techniques. The security of image information from unapproved access is imperative. Encryptions technique is used to transfer data, where each kind of data has its own special elements; thus various methods should to be used to conserve distributing the image. This paper produces image encryption improvements based on proposed an approach to generate efficient intelligent session (mask keys) based on investigates from the combination between robust feature for ECC algebra and construction level in Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure (GRASP) to produce durable symmetric session mask keys consist of ECC points. Symmetric behavior for ECC by keeping the points set Ps as 1D mask secret key produce. B+ tree compress operations use to increase the security level and reduce multi session secret mask keys size based on indexing data base to unique code that transmit between the sender and receiver in secure channel. According to the popular measurements the proposed approach give efficient results in image encryption and the proposed method to generate 1D intelligent mask generation succeed to conceal pure images information.


Article
Contrast Enhancement of the Mammographic Image Using Retinex with CLAHE methods
تحسين التباين في الصور الشعاعية للثدي بأستخدام طريقة ال Retinex مع ال CLAHE

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Recently digital mammography is most widely used technology for early detection of breast cancer. The main diagnosing elements such as lesion or masses in digital mammograms are with law contrast. The purpose of this paper is to enhance the mammogram images by increasing its contrast. Different enhancement method are used for this purpose such as histogram equalization (HE), Contrast Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization (CLAHE), Morphological, and Retinex. The Retinex method also implement by combining it with HE once, and with CLAHE to improve its performance. The experimental results show that using Retinex with CLAHE can produce an image with enhancement in contrast better than using it with HE method and better than other methods mentioned above.


Article
Proposed Approach for Analysing General Hygiene Information Using Various Data Mining Algorithms
منهج مقترح لتحليل المعلومات الصحية العامة باستخدام خوارزميات تنقيب بيانات متعددة

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

General medical fields and computer science usually conjugate together to produce impressive results in both fields using applications, programs and algorithms provided by Data mining field. The present research's title contains the term hygiene which may be described as the principle of maintaining cleanliness of the external body. Whilst the environmental hygienic hazards can present themselves in various media shapes e.g. air, water, soil…etc. The influence they can exert on our health is very complex and may be modulated by our genetic makeup, psychological factors and by our perceptions of the risks that they present. Our main concern in this research is not to improve general health, rather than to propose a data mining approach that will eventually give a more clear understanding and automotive general steps that can be used by the data analyser to give more enhanced and improved results than using typical statistical tests and database queries. This research proposes a new approach involving 3 algorithms selected from data mining which are association rule mining, Apriori algorithm and Naïve Bayesian consequently, to offer a final improved decision support results that can serve the researchers in their fields.


Article
Fast Text Analysis Using Symbol Enumeration and Hashing Methodology
التحليل السريع للبيانات باستخدام طرق التجزئة و ترقيم الرموز

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

This paper is focusing on reducing the time for text processing operations by taking the advantage of enumerating each string using the multi hashing methodology. Text analysis is an important subject for any system that deals with strings (sequences of characters from an alphabet) and text processing (e.g., word-processor, text editor and other text manipulation systems). Many problems have been arisen when dealing with string operations which consist of an unfixed number of characters (e.g., the execution time); this due to the overhead embedded-operations (like, symbols matching and conversion operations). The execution time largely depends on the string characteristics; especially its length (i.e., the number of characters consisting the strings plus the number of words in the sentence). In other words, the variable length of strings is an obstacle to achieve processing uniformity when manipulating strings. Many of string matching algorithms were introduced in the literature to deal with fixed length of characters of each string. In this paper, some test results are provided for a number of string operations (such as, simple string matching, hashing indexing systems, stop-words collection and text extractions). To understand the advantage of the proposed method, these operations were applied on different sizes of text files. A comparison is made with the results of using traditional methods that deal with strings only. The overall results demonstrate the positive effectiveness of the proposed approach.


Article
The Limitation of Pre-processing Techniques to Enhance the Face Recognition System Based on LBP
محدودية تقنيات المعالجة المسبقة في تحسين نظام التعرف على الوجوه المبني على تقنية المخطط الثنائي المحلي

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Most systems are intelligent and the industrial world is moving now towards technology. Most industrial systems are now computerized and offer a high speed. However, Face recognition is a biometric system that can identify people from their faces. For few number of people to be identified, it can be considered as a fast system. When the number of people grew to be bigger, the system cannot be adopted in a real-time application because its speed will degrade along with its accuracy. However, the accuracy can be enhanced using pre-processing techniques but the time delay is still a challenge. A series of experiments had been done on AT&T-ORL database images using Enhanced Face Recognition System (EFRS) that is adopting a Local Binary Pattern Histogram (LBPH) as feature extraction method. During these experiments, LBP parameters and pre-processing techniques have been changing and the results were recorded for accuracy and time for different database sizes. The accuracy reaches 98.5% but the time delay keep increasing with the number of people in the database.


Article
Modified Bees Swarm Optimization Algorithm for Association Rules Mining
خوارزمية سرب النحل ألامثل المعدلة للتنقيب عن قواعد الارتباط

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Mining association rules is a popular and well-studied method of data mining tasks whose primary aim is the discovers of the correlation among sets of items in the transactional databases. However, generating high- quality association rules in a reasonable time from a given database has been considered as an important and challenging problem, especially with the fast increasing in database's size. Many algorithms for association rules mining have been already proposed with promosing results. In this paper, a new association rules mining algorithm based on Bees Swarm Optimization metaheuristic named Modified Bees Swarm Optimization for Association Rules Mining (MBSO-ARM) algorithm is proposed. Results show that the proposed algorithm can be used as an alternative to the traditional methods.


Article
Restoration of Digital Images Using an Iterative Filter Algorithm
ترميم الصورة باستخدام خوارزمية مرشح تكراري

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Digital image started to including in various fields like, physics science, computer science, engineering science, chemistry science, biology science and medication science, to get from it some important information. But any images acquired by optical or electronic means is likely to be degraded by the sensing environment. In this paper, we will study and derive Iterative Tikhonov-Miller filter and Wiener filter by using criterion function. Then use the filters to restore the degraded image and show the Iterative Tikhonov-Miller filter has better performance when increasing the number of iteration To a certain limit then, the performs will be decrease. The performance of Iterative Tikhonov-Miller filter has better performance for less degradation parameters, with high SNR and Wiener filter has better performance for more degradation parameters, with low SNR.

Table of content: volume: issue: