جدول المحتويات

المجلة العراقية لدراسات الصحراء

ISSN: 19947801
الجامعة: جامعة الانبار
الكلية: رئاسة الجامعة او مراكز
اللغة: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

حول المجلة

الإصدار: تصدر المجلة العراقية لدراسات الصحراء عن رئاسة جامعة الانبار- العراق.

مجالات البحث: تعنى المجلة العراقية لدراسات الصحراء بنشر البحوث العلمية الخاصة بالصحراء والبيئة الصحراوية في العديد من المجالات العلمية والإنسانية (العلوم الزراعية - العلوم الطبية - علوم الحياة - النبت الطبيعي - جيولوجيا الصحراء - الموارد المائية والطبيعية وادارتها - العلوم الجغرافية - العلوم الاجتماعية - العلوم التاريخية) والخاصة بالبيئة العراقية والبلدان المجاورة.

تهدف المجلة لتطوير المسيرة العلمية في مختلف مجالات الصحراء ومكافحة التصحر، وتقبل المجلة المناقشات والردود العلمية على البحوث
المنشورة فيها.

دوريه النشر: تصدر المجلة بمجلد واحد سنوياً وبعددين.

لغة النشر : تنشر البحوث في المجلة باللغتين العربية و الإنكليزية مع ضرورة وضع خلاصه باللغة الإنكليزية في حالة نشر البحث باللغة العربية على ان تكتب المصادر باللغة الإنكليزية اما في حاله نشر البحث باللغة الإنكليزية يكون الملخص باللغة العربية.

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معلومات الاتصال

المجلة العراقية لدراسات الصحراء

العراق - محافظة الانبار - جامعة الانبار - رئاسة الجامعة - المجلات

بريد إلكتروني :
dsertstudiesjournal@uoanbar.edu.iq

Iraqi Journal of Desert Studies

Iraq - Anbar province - University of Anbar - Presidency of the university - The Journals

E-mail: dsertstudiesjournal@uoanbar.edu.iq

جدول المحتويات السنة: 2013 المجلد: 5 العدد: 1

Article
ANALYSIS OF SHADING IMPACT FACTOR ON PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULES
تحليل تاثير عامل الضل على الالواح الكهروضوئية،

المؤلفون: Salih Mohammed Salih صالح محمد صالح
الصفحات: 1-9
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الخلاصة

Abstract: Photovoltaic (PV) modules are very sensitive to shading effect. Unlike a solar thermal panel which can tolerate some shading, many brands of PV modules cannot even be operated by shadow of leave which resulted in high reduction of its output power. The effect of shading on solar PV models will be evaluated by using a simulation model for simulating both the I-V and P-V characteristics curves for PV panels. Different percentages of shading are taken into consideration of this paper which is: 25%, 50%, 75%, 100%, and without shading. The irradiation and temperature are constant during test. The results are extracted using the Matlab software. A typical Kyocera- 54W and Solara-130W solar modules are used in the simulation part. The output power of models is widely decreased as the shading percentage increased. The Shade Impact Factor (SIF) is proportional to area of panels, so the systems built with big panels were more affected by shading effect.


Article
STUDY OF SOME FRUIT CHARACTERS OF ORANGE CULTIVATED IN IRAQ FRUIT VARIETIES Citrus sinensis (L)
دراسة بعض الصفات الثمرية لبعض اصناف البرتقال Citrus sinensis (L) المزروعة في العراق

المؤلفون: Faroon A. Hussain فرعون احمد حسين
الصفحات: 1-5
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الخلاصة

This study was conducted in private orchard in Doura region- Baghdad province on Citrus fruit trees of 15- 20 years age through the agricultural season 2009 and 2010. The fruit characters were analysed (fruit weigh, fruit juice weight, fruit skin thickness , seed number, Total soluble solid, acidity, and vitamin C content. The result showed that Yafai var. had highest fruit of 232.40 gm, While mahli var. groupe had less weight of 129.00 gm. The juice weight of Toroccovar.hadhigest weight 102.30 gm while the var. Moro less one 37.75 gm .Yafaoivar gave highest level of skin thickness around 0.80 cm, While Mahli var. gave 0.42 cm thickness skin.Mahli orange gave highest seeds numbers with 17.21 seeds/ fruit While Moro var. hadn’t seeds total soluble solid in Mahlivar 2 gave highest percentage 11.75% , whereas Torocco less percentage 6.75%. There were significant differences in acidity that Mahli var. gave highest percentage 3.34% ,while Sukkari var. gave less percentage 0.16%. Vitamin C content was found in highest amount in Mahly (1) var. 62.85 mg/ 100gm juice, while the Morro var.gave 41.46 mg/100 gm juice.


Article
SUITABILITY OF WELLS WATER FOR AGRICULTURAL USE IN SOME OASIS IN WESTERN IRAQI DESERT

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الخلاصة

The aim of this study is to evaluate the water of the wells existed in the three Oasis within the western desert of Iraq, these Oasis are (Km-98, Al-kesheiti and Fehada ) located within the lower widian district. The ground water observed during one year. Analysis were performed for water samples to be used in evaluation of water for irrigation purposes, according to standard limits suggested by FAO. The results of analyses indicated that the ground water of Km-98 and Al-kesheiti Oasis are classified as slightly to moderate hazard, while ground water of Fahada was classified as hazard water. The sodium adsorption values in all water of oasis are plotted within class S1. The toxic effect of water on plant are unlimited to moderate effect for Na, Cl, B. According to the piper tri linear method, the ground water of Oasis classified as Calcium-Sulphate family with two major water types of alkaline properties thoseand Na-Ca; HCO3-SO4 and Mg-Ca; HCO3-SO4 water type. The origin of the ground water is meteoric (rainfall infiltration).

الكلمات الدلالية

Wells --- Suitability --- Oasis --- Desert


Article
IMPLEMENTATION OF CLIMAP AND GIS FOR MAPPING THE CLIMATIC DATASET OF NORTHERN IRAQ
تطبيق برمجيات المناخ ونظم المعلومات الجغرافية في رسم خرائط البيانات المناخية لشمال العراق

المؤلفون: Sabah Hussein Ali
الصفحات: 10-27
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الخلاصة

The main objective of the present study is the construction of air temperature and precipitation maps for the northern of Iraq through the application of contemporary Geographical Information System (GIS) techniques and CLIMAP (CLImate Maps) software. The dataset contains monthly maximum temperatures from meteorological stations located across the entire study area have been collected for the 29-year period 1981–2010. Several remote sensing dataset including Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and Satellite image were used as predictor variables for GIS interpolation process. The output set of climatic maps at 90m resolution were display the maximum temperatures for each months in the applied period for the entire study area. The maps show that, the climatic features depends on number of the distributed meteorological stations, relief and the topographic structures of the study area. The results also show that techniques using elevation as additional information improve the prediction results considerably. Climatic variables and database provide an essential input for crop growth simulation models.

الكلمات الدلالية

Climap --- GIS --- DEM --- Climatic --- IRAQ


Article
INCREASING STORAGE CAPABILITY AND CHOLESTEROL REDUCING IN FERMENTED CAMEL MEAT BY LACTOBACILLUS CASEI

المؤلفون: Amer Hussein Hamdan Alzobaay عامر حسين الزوبعي
الصفحات: 13-19
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الخلاصة

Camel is a vital resource in arid, while the other animals cannot live there, and can take advantage of the camel is not only for milk and movement but the meat is source of food for most desert dwellers countries, Camel meat contains a high protein and the percentage of water more than beef, also with low fat 1.8 to 2.1%, Camel meat is rich in many vitamins, especially B complex as well as it contains important minerals such as iron, phosphorus, calcium and potassium, Camel meat is preserved in various ways fermentation, So Iraqi pastirma was manufactured from camel meat and fat hump with a ratio of 3 meat: 1 fat, the microbiological quality of crude meat and mixture (meat and fat) were examined, total bacterial counts were 78 × 104 and 71 × 104 cfu.g-1, respectively, coliform bacteria 93 x 102 and 54 x 102cfu.g-1, respectively, yeasts and molds 57 x 102 and 49 x 102 cfu/g, respectively, psychotropic bacteria 74 × 102 and 69 × 102cfu.g-1 sequentially, Staphylococcus aureus 33 x 102 and 23 x 102cfu.g-1 respectively. Salmonella was not shown in each samples and pH were 5.67 and 5.74, respectively. The amount of cholesterol was 113.0 and 216.40 mg/100g-1. Fermentation process was conducted at a temperature of 37c° and 80-85% relative humidity for 48 hours for treatments which inoculated with Lb. casei in both percentages 2.5% and 5% of the sample mixture after adding sugar and salt. Other materials used were added in the manufacture pastirma which include spices and garlic, then the mixture of pastirma was


Article
INVESTMENT POSSIBILITY TO SOME PARTS OF DESERTICAL PLATEAU FOR HEET CITY EXPANSION

المؤلفون: Mashal Faysal ALMola مشعل فيصل غضيب
الصفحات: 20-32
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الخلاصة

Multistudies appear which have Humanity constructional to many of world districts , may be that concentrate in to area of river valleys with leaving big areas of Desert area , without construction .So become this worry for many of responsible sides in the search about new places for spatial expansive to urban growth. This study tried a search in master plan possibilities to Heet city areas , then toward out master plan during study appear that very few of area possibilities and do not agree with population grow and their desire . so study research in how may be areas expansive for Heet city and justify the code to choice a best places , and election the good alternative for ensure achieve of the hope wanted , there for research done range from city survey work , with desert area which city around he adopt many ways to reach to Important eddicts , As Delfy way , then distribute question air forms , number (33) on sample from experts and civil society addition to use ways (economic cost , swing weigh , spatial , reaction , economic basic ) so study reached to alternative second is best toward kubaysa city of other alternatives

الكلمات الدلالية

Investment --- Parts --- Desert --- Heet --- Expansion


Article
A MICROMORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF POLLEN GRAINS OF SOME WILD PLANTS IN AL-FEADAH CONSERVATION AL-RUTBA,W.IRAQ

المؤلفون: Yousry Sadoon Rashid يسري سعدون رشيد
الصفحات: 33-44
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الخلاصة

The present study investigates wild plant species grown in Al- Feadah conservation in Rutba . It explores the properties of pollen grains of these species using compound microscope to isolate between families, genera and plant species . Field visits results the four seasons of the years; 2010 , 2011 and the spring of 2012 and dozen species, were selected have shown 12 species bellowing to 10 genera porting to 10 plant families , Results of the study of pollen grains have indicated great changes within each of the studied properties , The study has covered the following properties: polarization, shape, size, germination pores , Mesocolpium, value of Apocolpium , wall thickness and its ornamentation and color . Moreover, a new species namely Limonium axillare (Forssk.) Ktze has been recorded for first time in Iraq .


Article
EVALUATION CULTIVARS OF BREAD WHEAT PLANTING BY SEEDING RATES USING BY HARVEST INDEX
تقييم اصناف من حنطة الخبز المزروعة بمعدلات بذار مختلفة باستخدام دليل الحصاد

المؤلفون: صدام حكيم جياد
الصفحات: 45-50
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الخلاصة

The experiment was conducted for two seasons on the farm of Field Crop Research Station/College of Agric./Univ. of Baghdad during the winter season of the years 2009-2010 and 2010-2011 to investigate the evaluation of cultivars of wheat via harvest index (HI). Treatments were distributed in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replicates. In the first experiment, four cultivars of bread wheat Al-Iraq, IPA- 99, Tahdi and Abu-Ghraib-3, were sown with five seeding rates ( 80, 100, 120, 140 and 160 kg.ha-1). Results revealed that cultivars were significantly different in their grain yield(GY), plant dry matter(BY) and HI. IPA-99 cultivar gave high the GY and BY (5.02 and 5.03 tan.ha-1 )and (15.92 and 15.75 tan.ha-1 ) ,for both seasons, it’s no significant with Al-Iraq cultivars in the GY and Tahdi cultivars in the BY ,for both seasons. Al-Iraq cultivar gave the highest average of HI (34.47 and 35.01) ,for both seasons. The seeding rate 120 kg.ha-1 resulted in the highest average of GY, The seeding rate 160 kg.ha-1 resulted in the highest average of BY and seeding rate 100 kg.ha-1 resulted in the highest average of HI (33.79). The interaction between Al-Iraq cultivars with seeding rate 100 kg.ha-1 gave the highest average of HI (42.43 and 38.62) ,for both seasons. This indicate that HI could be improved by using good managements practices e.g. right seeding rate for each approved variety which will increase the GY via improved HI.


Article
SEASONAL CHANGES IN SOME PHYSIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL CONTENT IN LEAFLETS OF DATE PALM Phoenix dactilyfera L . IN THE WESTERN DESERT, IRAQ

المؤلفون: Ayad W.AL-SHAHWANI اياد وجيه روؤف الشهواني
الصفحات: 51-56
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الخلاصة

Study was conducted in the western desert (south east of Al-Ramadi city) to shed light on drought tolerance, twelve of a number of already establishment field of Phoenix dactilyfera L. ( Zahde) trees which are used in this study. Through out the best 8 years half of the trees was being irrigated regularly while the other half irrigation was stopped two years period to the start of the experiment and contained to the end of it. Measurements on the leaf water potential and water loss were taken during the day hours (from dawn to sunset) for several days. Seasonal diurnal changes in total carbohydrates and other phenotypic characteristics, N and K percentage were recorded. Dunces Multiple Range was used to separate the means at 0.5% probabilities. Changes in water potential values, water loss, total carbohydrates, N and K percentage depended largely on irrigation vs. nonirrigation and seasons, beside the nutrient elements were in low level in summer specially in leaflets of nonirrigation date palms


Article
THE CERAMIC INDUSTRY IN IRAQ:THE REALITY AND PROSPECTS OF DEVELOPMENT WITH RE FERENCE TO ANBAR GOVCRNORATE
صناعة السيراميك في العراق - الواقع - افق التطور - مع التركيز على محافظة الانبار

المؤلفون: Saeed Ali Al-Ubeidy سعيد علي محمد العبيدي
الصفحات: 57-70
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الخلاصة

The Ceramic industry is one of the constructional industries that contribute to the development of the construction sector. The quick scan of the Iraqi market shows that there are large quantities of ceramic products of different types and specifications of different measurements. It shows too that the demand continues to increase, particularly in recent years due to the reconstruction and the high level of per capita income. Iraq is one of the oldest manufacturers of ceramic products, but that the Iraqi state did not pay attention to the industry though a large proportion of the raw materials needed for production are available locally in very large quantities and better qualities of the world as well as the availability of skilled manpower in this field. It is worth mentioning that the Anbar province has three plants (Sanitary ware, Wall Tiles, Floor Tiles) for the production of ceramic materials founded before the occupation. These plants, owned by the General Company for Glass and Ceramics in Ramadi, are the only plants in Iraq and they stopped production since 2003. It is concluded that Iraqis full ofmany of themineralsand raw materials, which are concentratedmostly inAnbar provinceand representthe basicbackboneofthe ceramic industryin the province. But the results ofestimatingdemand show that there isa cleardeficitin the production ofceramicmaterialsto meetthe threetypes ofincreasing demand for thesematerials.Thedomestic demand forsanitary wareandWalls andFloors Tiles for the year 2013was (16,357) tons (11,546,160) m 2(15,394,880) m 2, respectively, which meansthat theproduction capacitiesavailable forthe threeplantscover only(27.5%) (10.5%), (6.5%). While in theyear 2023, the percentage of the production ofthe threelaboratoriesofdomestic demandis(sanitary ware, 9.21%), (Tiles walls, 8.4%) and (Tiles floors, 5.2%). So, the study is encouraging for the rehabilitation ofthe production ofceramicprojectsin the province ofAnbar, as well asthe establishment ofnew projects that have the potentialto bridge theshortfallin the demand forthisproduct. The results ofthe application of value criteria show that the three projects are economically useful, but the Wall Tiles project is more useful than the other two projects. In addition, the three projects are not substitutes for they are all urgently needed, but in case of the failure of funding the rehabilitation of all the plants, so it is preferable to start with the Wall Tiles plant.


Article
FUTURE ATTITUDES FOR FOOD INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT IN ANBAR GOVERNORATE
التوجهات المستقبلية لتنمية الصناعات الغذائية في محافظة الانبار

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الخلاصة

The target of this research is to explain futuristic goals for developing food manufactures in Al-Anbar governorate. These are some specifications in which due to develope these important industries as Al-Anbar governorate has human and mate rid powers which lead to rise it. The two researchers put all the available procedures which help to provide and exploit all the abilities according to period invest programme in food industries sector. They find away to recure these specifications and make policies developments for all districts in Al-Anbar governorate.


Article
HYDROGEOLOGY OF NA'MAH- AITHAH AREA, AND THE EFFECT OF SAND DUNES ON THE RECHARGE OF GROUNDWATER
هيدرولوجية منطقة الناعمة - العيثة - وتاثير الكثبان الرملية في ظروف تغذية المياه الجوفية فيها

المؤلفون: Sabbar A. Salih صبار عبد الله صالح
الصفحات: 81-100
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الخلاصة

The area of study located between (43° 53' 23") and (44° 17' 23") Longitudes and latitudes (34° 27' 19") and (34° 46' 20"),east of Tigris river and boarded by Hamrin Anticline from north, Al Khashib valley from east and Shari Lake from south.The climate data which recorded from Tikrit station for the period (1988-2011); The annual average of rainfall was 169 mm, also the average of evapotranspiration has been calculated according to Thornthwaite which indicates a water surplus about 41.35%. According the parameters of water balance the area divided into five zones (A,B,C,D,E). The recharge has been calculated in each parts depending on soil moisture and the surface runoff. The calculated recharge of the groundwater is about 37 m3/year.Lithological description of wells, and hydraulic properties indicate two groundwater aquifers The shallow one located within Quaternary deposits which is unconfined while the deeper aquifer is semi confined and located in Ingina formation.The hydraulic properties of these aquifers calculated according to pumping test analysis, these are 1135.54 m2/day,73.334 m/day and 0.0849 for transmissivity, hydraulic conductivity, and storage coefficient respectively. The flow direction of groundwater is radial from the center of sand dunes, and the main flow is to the direction of Tigris River and Shari lake depression.


Article
PREPARATION OF CORDIERITE MINERAL FROM LOCAL RAW MATERIAL
تحضير معدن الكورديرايت من مواد اولية محلية

المؤلفون: Qasim mohammad AI-Obedi قاسم محمد امين
الصفحات: 101-109
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الخلاصة

This study deals with the assessment of local raw materials were collected from Iraqi Western Desert : Duekhla Kaolinitic clayston , Urdhuma silica sand , flint clay, karst bauxite and porcelnite . Another local materials were used ( pure silica , silica from rice husk ash , MgCO3 , Mg(OH)2) .The raw material were crushed and ground to less than 45 μ .except the kaolin and silica sand were ground to less than 45 and 20 μ . Chemical and mineralogical analyses were carried out on the raw materials . Fifty mixture , were prepared from the above raw materials by mixing proportions having bulk composition near to that of stochiometric cordierite .250 discoidal test tiles were formed by semi-dry pressing of 98 MPa ( 1000 kg/cm2 ) and 8% moisture content and then fired at 1100 , 1200 and 1300 Cº with 50 Cº temperature rise per hour and soaking time tow hours . XRD of the test tiles showed that cordierite was formed at 1200 Cº and its crystallization increaser at higher temperatures , tiles which fired at 1300Cº containing 70% kaolin 5% pure silica and 25% MgCO3 consist mainly of cordierite , so this mixture is recommended in this study .


Article
EVALUATION WELLS OF WATER SUITABILITY OF ALHAWIJA AND ITS VILLAGES (KIRKUK GOVERNORATE ) FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION
تقييم صلاحية مياه ابار مدينة الحويجة وضواحيها (محافظة كركوك) للاستخدام البشري

المؤلفون: Idan Ibrahem Ghdhban عيدان ابراهيم غضبان
الصفحات: 110-114
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الخلاصة

Groundwater is one of the important source of providing the human with water for drinking the other purposes . Twenty wells were chosen at different locations from the village and areas surrounding AL – Hawija city . Physical and chemical tests were carried out for each water samples specifically they include : nitrate, phosphate , total hardness as CaCo3 , total dissolved solids, chloride , PH and turbidity . The results were evaluated and compared with Iraqi standard specification for drinking water . The results indicated that the groundwater are not allowable for drinking use because the groundwater contented Nitrate, phosphate and high contents of total hardness and T.D.S.


Article
EFFECT OF SEEDING RATES ON GROWTH AND YLELD OF WHEAT GENOTYPES (Triticum durum L) PLANTED IN TWO LOCATIONS.
تاثير كمية البذار في صفات نمو وحاصل تراكيب وراثية من الحنطة الخشنة Triticum durum L. موزعة في موقعين

المؤلفون: Hamadah Muslih Mater – Al -Fahdawi حمادة مصلح مطر
الصفحات: 115-122
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الخلاصة

Two environmental locations in Anbar Governorate have been chosen. Both of them are on the right bank of Euphrates, distance between on and another is 90 km. The first location is in (sufia) arural area of Ramadi, its soil is (sandy loam). The second location is in (zakhikha) village in Hit city, its soil (loam sand). Eight durum wheat genotypes have been planted in December 8, 2010 as (main plots); seven mutations (7, 26, 38, 49, 53, 63, 82) and door 85 cultivar were used. The seeding rates have been used (120, 160) kg.ha-1 as (sub plots). These factors (8×2) were used as an input with split plot design at three replicates. The aim of the experiments is to understand growth and production of these genotypes in there two locations. Genotypes did not differ significantly in number of tillers, while it significantly differed in plant height, flag leaf length, number of kernelsspike, weight of 1000 kernels and grain yield at two locations and their means. Mutation 63 gave the upper significance rates in plant height, flag leaf length and weight of 1000 kernels, while mutation 7 resulted in the highest rate of kernel per spike at the mean of both locations. Mutations (82, 63, 49) gave higher significant rates in grain yield at the mean locations, reached (7.3, 6.8, 6.6) t.ha-1, respectively.Variation of the seeding rates did not significantly affect, flag leaf length, spike length and weight of 1000 kernels. Planting of 120 kg.ha-1 seed at both locations gave upper significance means of tillers number and number of kernel per spike. While using 160 kg.ha-1 seeds resulted in high rates of plant height, grain yield at the mean of both locations which reached 80.9 cm, 6.0 t.ha-1 respectively. Ramadi - sufia location gave higher significant means in plant height, weight of 1000 kernels and grain yield. While Hit - zakhikha location gave higher means in tillers number, flag leaf length an number of kernel per spike. Consequently, changing the planting location affects in the growth and production of these genotypes, but this depends on the type of soil and climatic conditions, although it has grown naturally and gave an acceptable economic yield.


Article
EFFECT OF POULTRY AND UREA FERTILIZERS ON QUALITY AND PRODUCTIVITY CHARACTERS OF WHEAT (Triticum aestivum L.)
تاثير سماد اليوريا والدواجن في بعض الصفات النوعية ولانتاجية للقمح (Triticum aestivum L.)

المؤلفون: Hammad Nawaf Farhan حماد نواف فرحان
الصفحات: 123-127
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الخلاصة

The experiment was conducted in large pots size filled with 9 kg soil, using complete random design (CRD) with three replicates in Biology Department, College of Education for Pure Science at Al-Anbar University, Iraq, to study the effect of organic (poultry manure) and nitrogen fertilizer (N 46%) and their interactions on productivity and quality characters of two wheat varieties (Abu-Ghraib and Ibaa 99) under pot natural conditions. Results showed superiority of urea and organic fertilizer treatments for all studied characters. The interaction between nitrogen fertilizer (400kg/ha) and Organic fertilizer (18ton/ha) scored high significant percentage compared with control treatment, for Abu-Ghraib variety was: No. of grains/spike (136%), total grain yield gm/pot (246%), total weight of 1000grains (75%), protein in grain (232%) and starch (33 %). While for Ibaa variety was: 142%, 240%, 89%, 248% and 38% respectively. Ibaa variety was more response than Abu- Ghraib variety.


Article
EFFECT OF GIBBERELIC ACID ON VIGOUR OF SORGHUM SEEDS PRODUCED FROM DIFFERENT PLANT POPULATIONS.
تاثير حاصل الجبرلين في قوة بذور الذرة البيضاء المنتجة من كثافات نباتية مختلفة

المؤلفون: Saddam H. Cheyed خضير عباس جدوع
الصفحات: 128-134
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الخلاصة

A field experiment was conducted at the experimental farm ,Dept. of Field Crop Sciences, College of Agriculture Abu-Ghraib during the spring and fall seasons of 2006 . The aim was to study the seeds vigour of sorghum Inqath variety resulted from three different plant populations (200,400 and 600) thousand plant per ha . The design of experiment was Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replicates . Seeds resulted from these populations were soaked in three concentrations of gibberellic acid (GA3) (100,200 and 300 mg .l -1) for 24 hours . The control treatment was soaked in distilled water . Seed vigour tests were conducted as influenced by plant population and gibberellic acid according to Complete Randomized Design (CRD) with four replicates. In addition , percentage of field emergence and germination rate index were calculated. The results showed that: Seeds resulted from (200) thousand plant per ha gave the highest values of seed germination in the cold test (33.93 % ) and (41%) for spring and fall seasons , respectively. Soaking seeds with (300 mg GA3 .l -1) gave the highest values of seed germination in the cold test (30.75%) and (35.91 %) for spring and fall seasons , respectively. Soaking seeds with (200) mg per l (GA3) significantly increased the germination index in the spring season only. The combination of interaction between 200×103 plant.ha-1 and 300 mg GA3.l -1 was superior to A


Article
STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF FUNGI BEAUVERIA BASSIANA ON THE ADULTS OF A HARD TICKES BOOPHILUS MICROPLUS
دراسة تاثير الفطر Beauveria bassiana كمبيد احيائي لبالغات طفيلي القراد الصلب Boophilus microplus

المؤلفون: Ezeddin A. Albayyar عز الدين عطية البيار
الصفحات: 135-138
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الخلاصة

This study was conducted to understand the effects of fungi Beauveria bassiana on the adults of a hard tickes Boophilus micsroplu The study shows, that both females and males of hard tickes are significantly sensitive to the fungi`s dilutions ( 10-4×3.7 (3.7×8_ 3.7 و 10 ×6- و 10 spores.ml-1. The mortality rate was inversely correlated to that used dilutions.After five to six days of exposure ,male`s mortality rates were 100% ,93.33% , 76.66% where the female`s mortality rates were 100% ,90% ,83.33% for each dilutions. The highest abnormal features for both sex were occurred at the dilution 10-4×3.7 spores.ml-1.


Article
THE ISSUE OF IGNORING SIRWAN RIVER WITH THE EXCESSIVE USE OF GROUNDWATER IN KALAR CITY
مشكلة اهمال نهر سيروان والاستخدام المفرط للمياه الجوفية في مدينة كلار

المؤلفون: Abdulmutalib Zardawy عبد الملب رفعت سرحت
الصفحات: 139-146
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الخلاصة

The demand of water has increased dramatically in many areas in recent decades as a result of the development of civilization, living standards, and increasing the implementation of development projects. These activities have led to increase the pollution of water resources, especially in arid and semi-arid areas. This study is aimed to explore the issue of ignoring SirwanRiverthathas become a sink of human wastes, Sewage, black water,agricultural wastewater, and industrial wastewater. Also, the river has become a sink of expired foodstuffs and building materials which made water of river polluted. However, the amount of water (from the river) that used for drinking and agricultural purposes are not exceeding 2.5-5% in all cases. It is of great significant (at least) to minimize the amount of contaminated water to be discharged into the river. With ignoring SirwanRiver, ground water has become the main sources of water supply for all sectors such as drinking, industries, agriculture and some other sectors. The amount of water that is extracted from wells for domestic purposes is approximately between 18250 - 26400 m3 per day. The Continuing in excessive withdrawal of groundwater may lead to water deficit in the next few years. This requires the implementation of all available means to maintain the current water sources. Also, it requires rationing and development in water consumption.


Article
RESPONSE OF LETTUCE YIELD ( Lactuca sativus L. cv. Paris Island) TO MULCHING AND SPRAYING WITH LICORICE AND ALGAMIX EXTRACTS
استجابة محصول الخس ( Lactuca sativus L. cv. Paris Island ) للتغطية والرش بمستخلص عرق السوس والجامكس

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الخلاصة

The study was conducted during the growing season 2007-2008 to investigate the effect of soil mulching with black polyethylene and foliar application of some natural plant extracts , i.e., Licorice at concentrations of ( 0.0 , 1.5 and 3.0 gl-1) and seaweed extract " Algamix " from the marine algae Ascophyllum nodosum at concentrations of ( 0.0 , 1.0 , 2.0 and 3.0 cm3 l-1 ) . Licorice extracts were sprayed 4 times (monthly intervals ) , while Algamix was sprayed 7 times during the experiment (two weeks intervals) . The treatments were arranged within split plots in a factorial R.C.B. Design, Planting methods were considered as the main plots and the interactions between licorice and seaweed extracts were arranges in subplots with three replications for each treatment . The results showed that mulching method with foliar spraying of Licorice and Algamix extracts at concentrations of 3.0 gl-1 , 3.0 cm3l -1 respectively was superior significantly in their effects on the vegetative growth , i.e., weight of fresh stem , stem length , fresh and dry weight of plant leaves without stem. Increasing the head weight and total yield plant-1 by application of soil mulching with foliar spraying of Licorice and Algamix. Significant increase was occurred in nitrogen , phosphorus and potassium percentages of plant leaves as a result of mulching with high concentrations of Licorice and Algamix extracts. Existence of high positive correlations between the total yield plant-1 with all studied traits with exception in flowering %. Head weight and leaf area distinguished with highest direct effect on the total yield per plant, whereas, leaf area and plant length had a highest indirect effects on the yield through path of head weight trait.


Article
EFFECT OF CALCIUM AND TWO EXTRACTS LICORICE AND SOLUAMINE TO DECREASE DAMAGE OF DROUGHT AND IMPROVING YIELD PARAMETERS OF POTATO CV. LATONA
تاثير الكالسيوم ومستخلصي عرق السوس والسوليامين في تقليل ضرر الجفاف وتحسبن صفات الحاصل الكمية للبطاطة صنف لاتونا ( Latona )

المؤلفون: Zuhair A. Dawood زهير عزالدين داؤد
الصفحات: 158-167
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الخلاصة

This study was carried out at vegetables field of Horticulture and landscape department. College of Agriculture and Forestry. Mosul University. Iraq, during spring season 2010 , to investigate the effect of water stress: two levels of watering were applied, normal irrigation and exposing plants to water stress by no water supply during period of tubers formation and development (46 and 76 days after planting), calcium ion at 200 mg.L-1 concentration and two natural extracts Licorice at 3 g.L-1 and Soluamine at 2 m.L-1 in additional to control, each treatment applied three times ( first applied at full germination stage, while the second and third application were at 20 days and40 days after the first application. All treatments added by three methods of application (foliar application, adding to soil and foliar application + adding to soil). The experiment included 24 treatments which conducted in a Split – plot system within R.C.B.D Design. Each treatment was replicated three times, analysis of variance and Duncan's multiple range test at 0.05 were applied for all research data. Results obtained could be summarized as follows: Exposing potato plants to water stress caused a significant decrease in marketable yield . Application of calcium, Licorice and soluamine increased tuber 's number , plant yield, and marketable yield and reduced the drought damage on yield parameters. Application of calcium and two natural extracts (Licorice and soluamine) to the soil caused a significant increase in tubers weight, plant yield and total yield as compared to foliar application method. Generally, application of Licorice by third method under normal irrigation was the best interaction treatment


Article
TRAINING REQUIREMENTS FOR WORKERS IN AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION IN ANBAR PROVINCE ON ESTABLISHMENT OF DEMONSTRATORY GUIDANCE FIELDS
الاحتياجات التدريبية للعاملين في الارشاد الزراعي في محافظة الانبار في انشاء الحقول الايضاحية الارشادية

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الخلاصة

The establishment of demonstratory extensive fields is considered as basic stone that develop agricultural practices. Therefore, this study aimed to: 1) identify some of the main characteristics of extension field workers; 2) determine the level of their training requirements concerning the establishment of the demonstration guidance fields; 3) knowing the relationship between the level of requirements and the personal characteristics of workers. The research community included all workers in agricultural extension in Anbar province who are (136) workers. The data was collected through questionnaire form prepared for this purpose and was modified to become as acceptable to fulfill the data for the study. The study explained that the vast majority of the workers are the older ones and most of them graduated from agricultural preparatory, and many of them have spent more than (25) years in the extension work, also many of them have implemented field demonstration, but a high proportion of them did not have the information on the implementation of field demonstration, either in their academic preparation or in their training during the service. The study pointed out the fact that a high percentage of workers believe in the importance of extension work and field demonstration in the instructional process, also many of them pointed out to the lack or absence of the financial and administrative support for the establishment of extension field demonstration particularly in the past two decades. The study showed that the requirements of workers in agricultural extension were the highest in planning to the establishment of the field demonstration while the requirements were the lowest in technical factors concerning the crop at which the field demonstration will be implemented. The study didn’t show a correlation between the level of requirements and each of the factors; age, academic achievement, length of extension service, the academic specialization, the number of training courses, The adequacy of courses, while the study showed a correlation between the needs and the factors: the number of field demonstration implemented, how the workers believe in extension work, and belief in the importance fields demonstration in practical guidance. Based on the results obtained, the study recommended that its necessary to enroll the workers in the agricultural extension in the training courses concerning how to set up the field demonstrations and allocate part of the curriculum academic preparation for agricultural to deal with how to set up the field demonstrations and conduct further studies in the field of training needs to put training curriculum on the basis of sound scientific to all areas of the extension work.


Article
USING OF REMOTE SENSING AND GIS TECHNIQUES TO ASSESS THE DESERTIFICATION AND ITS EFFECT ON AGRICULTURAL LANDUSE: AL-GARMA (STATUS STUDY)
استخدام تقنيات الاستشعار عن بعد ونظم المعلومات الجغرافية في تقييمحالت التصحر واثارها على الاستعمالات الارض الزراعية ناحية الكرمة (دراسة حالة)

المؤلفون: Izzadden G. Darwesh عز الدين جمعة درويش
الصفحات: 175-181
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الخلاصة

This study was conducted to determine the manifestations of desertification in Al-Anbar province (Algarma district), depending on the technology of remote sensing using GIS software scanning an area of 473,200 acres, and I have used two satellite images one of them in 1990 and the other one in 2010. The results showed that there has been a change in the area of the calculated manifestations of desertification from the two satellite images by a visual interpretation method through insulating the map units by Arc program GIS 9.3 with the comparison between their areas. There was an increase in sand dunes which it reached to (54 640 and 94 720) acres in 1990 and 2010 on sequence. And the areas of salt affected soils were increased to which reached to (87,480 and 111,960) acres for the two satellite images of 1990 and 2010. The area of cultivated land and arable land in the study field reaching (74 720 and 67600) acres in 1990 and 2010 for the cultivated land and as for the arable land reached to (70640and 68360) acres, for the reasons mentioned in the manifestation of desertification.


Article
RESPONSE OF SOME CROPS SEEDS FOR MAGNETIC TECHNOLOGY
استجابة بذور بعض المحاصيل الحقلية للتقانة لمغناطيسبة

المؤلفون: Azzam H. AL-Hadithy عزام حمودي الحديثي
الصفحات: 182-187
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الخلاصة

This study examined the impacet of water and seeds magnetization in different intersities on percentages of germination and required time for germination and absorbed water in seeds of some summer and winter crops which include corn ,sun flower ,rice ,cotton ,wheat and barly under Laboratory conditions . seeds germination of each crop experiment seperiment separately from the other and according to planting date at the laboratory of water res earaches and directories in neuron meuts and water directorate .by using complete. Rondo mized block design with three replications were each experiment Include four levels for seeds magnetization by four magnetic intensities (0,500,1000,1500) gauss .refers to an increasing in the percentage of germination and decreasing in period of germination for all crops which studied above with increasing of magnetic intensity for water and seeds compared to a facer of given a treatment of seeds magnetization and water magnetization on .treatment with magnetic intensity of 1500 gauss significant increasing and significant decreasing in germination period for all seeds of studied crops compared to at her treatment as the seeds magnetization gave results much better than water magnetization in all studied indicators

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