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Engineering and Technology Journal

مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا

ISSN: 16816900 24120758
Publisher: University of Technology
Faculty: Presidency of the university or centers
Language: Arabic and English

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Engineering and Technology Journal
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ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL
Scientific Refereed Journal Issued by University of Technology, IRAQ
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جمهورية العراق –بغداد
الجامعة التكنولوجية- مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا- ص.ب. 35010
Email: etj@uotechnology.edu.iq
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Republic of Iraq, Baghdad
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Table of content: 2016 volume:34 issue:13 Part (A) Engineering

Article
Preparation and Characterization Some of the Mechanical Properties of Polymer Nano Composite Material Used in Structural Applications
تحضير وتوصيف بعض الخواص الميكانيكية لمادة متراكبة بوليمرية نانوية تستخدم في التطبيقات الهيكلية

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Abstract

Many polymeric materials are weak of direction in the mechanical properties, and which is one of the most important specifications required for structural applications. Therefore in this work, it was prepared two groups of composites nanomaterials, both of which contain the same matrix material, but they differ in terms of reinforcement materials. One of these groups consists of a poly ((methyl methacrylate (PMMA)) resin as a matrix material, which reinforced with magnesia (MgO) nano powder, with the average particles diameter (52.54) nm, which was prepared according to the ratios (PMMA: X% MgO) where (X = 0 , 0.5, 1 and 1.5) of the volume fraction ratio of nanoparticles in composites of material prepared, while the second group reinforced with alumina (AL2O3) nano powder, with a mean particles diameter (53.60) nm, according to the ratio (PMMA: X% AL2O3) where (X = 0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5) of the volume fraction of nanoparticles in composites of the prepared materials. And through this work, effect of the addition nanoparticles powders, on the some mechanical properties of the prepared samples, has been studied. The results showed that the mechanical properties of (Tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, compressive strength and hardness) increase with the increase of the volume fraction ratio of the alumina and magnesia nanoparticle content in composites material. As well as the results showed, that the nanocomposite samples (PMMA: X% Al2O3) have mechanical properties higher than their counterparts of nanocomposites samples, which are reinforced with magnesia nanoparticle at the same ratio. العديد من المواد البوليمرية تكون ضعيفة اتجاه الخواص الميكانيكية والتي تعد من اهم المواصفات التي تتطلبها التطبيقات الهيكلية. وعليه في هذا العمل تم إعداد مجموعتين من المواد المتراكبة النانوية، كلاهما تحتوي على نفس مادة الاساس، ولكنهما يختلفان من حيث مواد التعزيز. احدى هذه المجموعات تتكون من راتنج البولي (ميثيل ميثا كريليت ((PMMA) كمادة الاساس والتي عززت بمسحوق المغنيسيا (MgO) النانوي وذات متوسط قطر جزيئي (52.54) نانومتر وقد حضرت العينات ووفقا لنسبة (PMMA: X% MgO) حيث ان (X= 0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5) من الكسر الحجمي للدقائق النانوية في المواد المتراكبة المحضرة ، في حين عززت المجموعة الثانية بمسحوق الألومينا (AL2O3) النانوي وذات متوسط قطر جزيئي (53.60) نانومتر ووفقا للنسب (PMMA: X%AL2O3) حيث ان (X= 0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5) من الكسر الحجمي للدقائق النانوية في المواد المتراكبة المحضرة. من خلال هذا العمل تمت دراسة، تأثير إضافة المساحيق الناتوية ، على بعض الخواص الميكانيكية للعينات المتراكبة المحضرة،. وبينت النتائج أن الخواص الميكانيكية المتمثلة (مقاومة الشد، معامل مرونة الشد, ومقاومة الانضغاط، والصلادة) تزداد مع زيادة نسبة الكسر الحجمي لمحتوى الدقائق النانوية لكل من الألومينا ومسحوق المغنيسيا في المواد المتراكبة المحضرة. كما أظهرت النتائج أن العينات المتراكبة (PMMA: X% Al2O3) تمتلك خصائص ميكانيكية أعلى من نظرائهم من العينات المتراكبة المدعمة بدقائق من مسحوق المغنيسيا النانوي عند نفس النسب.


Article
Study the Effect of Addition Different Amount Magnesium Hydroxide and Kaolin on Production of Refractory Magnesite Brick
دراسة تأثير اضافة نسب مختلفة من هيدروكسيد المغنسيوم ومادة الكاؤولين على تصنيع الطابوق الحراري المغنيسي

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Abstract

This aim of this research is study the effect of adding different percentages of magnesium hydroxide, kaolin and water on the production of refractory magnesite brick by use transformer process. Firstly transformative process carried out on the magnesium hydroxide and kaolin to obtain fine particle, after that mixture fine particle Burn in electric furnace at temperature (1000 oC ) for (2 hr ). The mixture Formed by using semi dry pressing with (10)% water under pressure (500 Kg/cm2) to obtain forming sample we carried out drying process ,and we can many test from inspection for obtain porosity, density, Water absorption, specific weight and more properties compressive strength . We fined finish refractory brick from light type where the resulted density is equal to ( 1.33 gcm3 ) and suits applications that need to lightness weight with durability.يهدف هذا البحث الى دراسة تاثيراضافة نسب مختلفة من مادة هيدروكسيد المغنسيوم ومادة الكاؤولين والماء على تصنيع الطابوق الحراري ، تم اولآ اجراء عملية تحويلية على مادة هيدروكسيد المغنسيوم ومادة الكاؤولين لغرض الحصول على حبيبات ناعمة ، حيث اجريت عملية حرق لخليط من هيدروكسيد المغنسيوم و الكاؤولين في فرن كهربائي لغاية درجة حرارة (1000 oC ) ولمدة ساعتين . بعدها تم تشكيل الخليط بطريقة الكبس شبه الرطب وذلك بأضافة (10 )% من الماء وتحت ضغط 500 Kgcm2 ) ) للحصول على النماذج مشكلة نتبعها باجراءعملية تجفيف للنماذج النهائية . اجريت مجموعة من الفحوصات لتحديد المسامية ،الكثافة,امتصاص الماء,والوزن النوعي ومقاومة الانضغاط . حيث وجد ان الطابوق الحراري الذي تم الحصول علية هو من النوع الخفيف و ان الكثافة التي تم الحصول عليها هي ( 1.33 gcm3 ) ويلائم التطبيقات التي تحتاج الى خفة وزن مع متانه .


Article
Design a System to Estimate the Road Construction Project Preliminary Equipment Requirements in the Design Stage
بناء نظام للتخمين الاولي لمعدات انشاء الطرق في مرحلة التصميم

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Abstract

Road construction projects in Iraq require a developmental study of the planning process toward building computerized management systems. In this thesis, a management system has been built, based on artificial neural networks and genetic algorithms. The proposed software estimates the optimal number of equipment, machineries, and relevance instruments required according to progress table of the work during the proposed implementation period of the project. Artificial neural network systems have been adopted to build models to predict the productivity of the equipment used in road construction projects, based on the factors that affecting the productivity of these mechanisms. By implementing the system and simulating at road project, several conclusions have been conducted. One of the most important conclusions is that the optimal distribution of the numbers and types of machineries used in road construction has a significant impact on the time of implementation of project.تحتاج مشاريع الطرق في العراق الى دراسة تطوير عملية التخطيط من خلال بناء نظام اداري باستخدام انظمة حاسوبية. يتضمن هذا البحث بناء نظام حاسوبي باستخدام نظام الشبكات العصبية الاصطناعية والخوارزميات الجينية ، حيث يقوم البرنامج بتخمين العدد الامثل من المعدات والآليات والاجهزة الملائمة والمطلوبة وفق جدول تقدم العمل خلال المدة المقترحة لتنفيذ المشروع ، حيث تم اعتماد انظمة الشبكات العصبية الاصطناعية لبناء احدى عشر نموذج للتنبؤ بالإنتاجيات الكلية للمعدات الرئيسة المستخدمة في انشاء مشاريع الطرق ، اعتماداً على العوامل المؤثرة على الانتاجية هذه الآليات ، وتقوم الخوارزمية الجينية في حساب العدد الامثل من الآليات المطلوبة في كل مرحلة من مراحل انشاء الطريق بأنواعه وخلال المدة المقترحة للمشروع. ومن خلال تطبيق النظام على مشروع انشاء طريق قيد التنفيذ في العراق، تم التوصل الى عدة استنتاجات من أهمها ان التوزيع الأمثل لعدد ونوعية الآليات المستخدمة في انشاء الطرق تأثير كبير على زمن تنفيذ المشاريع.


Article
Phytoremediation of Cr and Pb from Soil Irrigated by Wastewater

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In order to evaluate the effect of agricultural crops, such as kenaf (Hibiscus Cannabinus L.), corn (Zea Mays), and barley (Hordeum vulgare), in the removal of Cr and Pb from soil irrigated with wastewater, an experimental pot was conducted at Green House of University of Technology. Three levels of water were used for irrigation included tap water (control) (T1), 50% of wastewater+50% of tap water (50%WW) (T2) and 100% wastewater (100%WW) (T3). The obtained results, indicated that kenaf, and barley have been an effective plant in removal of Cr and Pb due to its high removal efficiency. Maximum values of removal efficiency were recorded in August 2015 for the (100%WW) and found 85.59%, 82.77, 93.27% of Pb and 85.67, 93.85, 87.24% of Cr for corn, kenaf and barley, respectively. Minimum removal efficiencies recorded at (50%WW) treatment for Pb were (5.66, 4.48, 0.99% ) and at control treatment for Cr were ( 0.99, 1.51, 2.37%) for Cr in May 2015 for corn, kenaf and barley, respectively. From the results obtained, kenaf, and barley were effective in removal of Cr and Pb due to its high removal efficiencies.


Article
Design and Preparation of Stepwise Functionally Graded Materials Used for Internal Combustion Engine Piston Applications

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Abstract

This work includes the design and preparation of a(Low carbon steel / AL2O3) stepwise functionally graded crown part of an internal combustion engine piston. Powder technology technique, has been studied to improve engine thermal efficiency by creating semi adiabatic combustion chambers, where ceramic phase facing the hot combustion gases, while metallic phase assembling with other parts of the piston. Finite element method ABAQUS program had been used to minimize nucleated residual stresses generated under fabrication process and service work conditions by designing the compositional graded of stepwise FGM within specific dimensions, in addition to temperature distribution across FGM thickness. Then the fabricated specimens had SEM imaging, physical and mechanical property inspection. The results also show that linear transition from metal to ceramic structure can provide minimum residual stresses under all conditions, using stepwise FGM can improve engine heat efficiency by doubling the crown surface temperature,(622) ºC, comparing with steel crown, (322) ºC, under the same applied heat flux. Physical inspections show limited relative density, (48.5) %, with high total porosity structure, (53.3) %, can be performed by this fabrication method. Mechanical tests results show that the layers’ hardness increase with increasing ceramic content, and decrease with increasing pores percentage. Compression test shows the ability of suggested stepwise FGM to withstand service work stresses of combustion chamber without failure.

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Article
Effect of Nano TiO2 Additives on Some Properties of Out Door Building Unites

Authors: Alaa A. Abdul-Hamead --- Shatha R. Ahmed Izzat
Pages: 2398-2405
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In this paper a lower ratio of two powders; nano and micro titanium dioxide (TiO2) powder were used as additive in fabrication of mortar. Particle size of TiO2 powder were (80nm,1.6µm). These powders were used as additive to the mortar material (0.05, 0.1, 0.15 %) by cement weight in order to be used in construction application include layering building, and studies its effect on the mortar. Inspections of the mortar specimens including optical microscope, surface roughness, micro hardness as well as x-ray diffraction (XRD). Results demonstrate that surface roughness was diminished with augmentation of Nano TiO2powder added more than micro TiO2powder substances, while micro hardness was increased by raising the option of Nano TiO2powder to the mortar more than micro TiO2powder. Also, the mortar microstructure with the Nano TiO2 powder has been enhanced more than micro TiO2powder, with increment in CSH phase, which make the development of mortar with TiO2 Nano material useful and have a promising future in cutting edge development application.


Article
Motion Control of An Autonomous Mobile Robot using Modified Particle Swarm Optimization Based Fractional Order PID Controller

Authors: Ghusn A. Ibraheem --- Ibraheem K. Ibraheem
Pages: 2406-2419
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This paper presents a comparison between two nonlinear PID controllers, the first is the Neural based controller and the second is the nonlinear fractional order PID controller (FOPID) for a trajectory tracking control of a non-holonomic two wheeled mobile robots (2-WMR). A modified particle swarm optimization (MPSO) has been proposed in this work to tune the parameters of the nonlinear FOPID controller to design the controller so that the 2-WMR follows exactly a predefined continuous track. The kinematic model of a differential drive 2-WMR has been derived to simulate the behavior of the 2-WMR and it is used in the design and simulations of the proposed FOPID controller. From simulation and results, it can be seen that the efficiency of the proposed nonlinear FOPID controller outperforms the nonlinear integer order PID controller; this is proved by the minimized tracking error and the speed control signals obtained.


Article
Edge Detection and Features Extraction for Dental X-Ray

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Recently, the dental X-Ray images have been used in different applications, particularly in the forensic field. The researchers focuses on the separation of the underlying teeth individually to obtain their features. These features can be utilized as a key solution for the identifications. In this paper, an edge detection of the involved teeth is proposed using a three stages MATLAB algorithm based on different methods such as, CLAHE, Canny, Otsu's, and 8-Connectivity. In addition, the proposed algorithm extracts the features of the investigated teeth as an exported file. These features are Standard Deviation (STD), Euler number and Area which are extracted from the bite-wing images. The stages of the proposed algorithm are image segmentation, classification and features extraction. It is important to note that the missing teeth has been considered in case of appearance. The missing teeth are assumed to be a separated objects. This is to overtake the problem of missing teeth after registering the original ones in the stored database used for identifications. The obtained results show the clear outperformance of the proposed algorithm in terms of edge detection and features’ extraction. The missing teeth in an image are tested and the achieved results presents the detection and features of such teeth dramatically. The proposed system is implemented and tested in the MATLAB software environment using a personal computer of a Core(TM) i7 processor and 6 GB RAM over a 64-Windows 10 operating system.


Article
Thermogravimetric Analysis on PVA / PVP Blend Under Air Atmosphere

Authors: Nadia Azeez Betti
Pages: 2433-2442
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Films of poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) /poly vinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) blends have been prepared by solution casting method with different ratios of each other (100/0 , 80/20 , 60/40 , 50/50 , 40/60 , 20/80 , 0/100) to investigate their thermal stability comparing to correspondent pure polymers by using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) under air atmosphere. It was found that PVA and PVP films show two decomposition steps while PVA/PVP blend films show three decomposition steps except the film of the ratio (20/80) that shows four decomposition steps .It was also found that blending decreases the temperature ranges at which the first and the second decomposition steps of PVA and PVP occur. It was found that blending PVA with PVP has significant effect on weight loss at first decomposition step of PVA by increasing it as the ratio of PVP increases. It was also found that blending PVA with PVP has significant effect on weight loss at second decomposition step of PVA by decreasing it as the ratio of PVP increases. It was found that the weight loss at third decomposition step of PVA/PVP blend films increases as the ratio of PVP increases . According to TGA thermograms under air atmosphere, PVA , PVP and PVA/PVP blend films show almost the same total weight loss which means of same thermal stability.


Article
Synthesis of Ag –TiO2 Thin Films by Spin Coating process

Authors: Sinan Salman Hamdi
Pages: 2443-2449
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In this research, Sol-gel technique prepared Ag–TiO2 nano-composite thin films, which were deposited onto a glass substrate by the spin coating process. The microstructures and chemical ingredients of the obtained thin films were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy (UV), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). It was discovered that the silver nano-particles completely joined to the TiO2 matrix, where those nanoparticles distributed uniformly. In this way, the molar percent of the silver nitrate watery solution dominated the morphology of the thin film. Ag-TiO2 Nano composite is very useful for expanding antibacterial of nanomaterials purpose.


Article
Experimental and Numerical Study of Closed Loop Solar Chimney Assisted with PCM and CFM as Thermal Energy Storage Collector

Authors: Talib K. Murtadha --- Hussien M. Salih --- Ali D. Salman
Pages: 2450-2463
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In this work, a test room was built in Baghdad city, with selective dimensions, while the solar chimneys (SC) where designed with aspect ratio (ar) bigger than 12 and setup to the oriented wall to the south. Collector of SC consist of paraffin wax as a phase change material (PCM) and supported by copper foam matrix (CFM), to enhance the combined of thermal energy storage material box (TESMB). Double transparent acrylic sheets covered the collector from outside. TESB supported by array of evacuated tubular collector with thermosyphon to sincere heat storage in the TESB. Results of experimental work that achieved in 25 January and 26 February refer to effectiveness using TESM in closed loop SC in day time and its effect cover the night time also. The heating system of test room is arrived to the biggest room temperature after sun set, at that moment the difference between indoor and outdoor approximately 15oC, and room temperature value still bigger after five hours from sun- set with a different in temperature by approximately 8 oC. Numerical solution done by employing CFD with solution the PDE’s that present continuity, momentum, energy equations, by using the FVM with algebraic forms of turbulent viscosity and diffusion coefficient and employing turbulent standard (k-ε)model. The comparison between numerical and experimental results indicated that the heat transfer inside test room is dominate by condition, also results shows acceptable convergence in velocity and temperature profile, while the experimental results for air flow inside SC gap appears the turbulent behavior in most duration time.


Article
Preparation of Lead Free Piezoelectric Composite Based on Polyester Resin and (LKNN6-0.5%CeO2) Ceramic Particles

Authors: Fadhil A. Chyad --- Saad B.H. Farid --- Hamza M. Kamal
Pages: 2464-2471
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For the sake of guarding the environment from the vital problems that results from the toxic effects of lead components, lead free (LKNN6-0.5%CeO2/polyester) piezoelectric composite are prepared in this work using cold press technique. Firstly, the lead free (LKNN6-0.5%CeO2) piezoceramics are prepared using normal sintering technique. The dielectric and piezoelectric properties of the composites were examined as a function of the volume fraction of ceramic particles, all composites showed well dispersion of the piezoceramic particles in the polyester matrix as shown in SEM images. The piezoelectric and dielectric coefficients were found to be improved as the concentration of ceramic particles increases. Although the procedure is simple, the composite prepared in this study exhibited better piezoelectric and dielectric constants with (d33=41 and Ԑr=157) at (80%) volume fraction.


Article
Modeling and Simulation for Condensing and Cogeneration Steam Power Plants Operate at Constant and Sliding Live Steam Pressure

Authors: Moayed Razoki Hasan --- Rahman Abdul Razzaq Talab
Pages: 2472-2489
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Abstract

The present paper deals with a theoretical study of condensing and cogeneration plants operate at partial load with constant and sliding (variable) live steam pressure controls. In this work, two Iraqi condensing units as well as two cogeneration with steam back-pressure turbine were chosen. These units are K-66-87-0.07, K-55-58.8-0.083, R-100-130-15 and R-40-130-29 respectively. A computer program had been written to work under MathCad 15 software to simulate these units under design and off design regimes with both types of control at nozzle and throttling steam distribution. The performance of the different schemes is analyzed in view of the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The results show that the selection of control type mainly depends on type of steam distribution. So, the heat rate (k) increases in condensing units with sliding live steam control and nozzle distribution according to first law of thermodynamics. The value of increasing (k) is about (0-6%) depending on the operation regime. While, this type of control with throttling steam distribution causes decreasing (k) in about (0-1%). Cogeneration units with back-pressure steam turbine operate only with nozzle distribution. So, the results show that using sliding live steam pressure control is associated with increasing heat rate (k), especially when ratio of flow rate is ≤ 0.9. This type of control for cogeneration units also causes increasing heat process directed to heat consumer and decreasing power to heat process ratio (α). According to the second law of thermodynamics the irreversibility losses were redistributed depending on control type.


Article
Intelligent Monitoring for DC Motor Performance Based on FPGA

Authors: Bilal Z. Ahmed --- Abbas H. Issa
Pages: 2490-2499
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Abstract

This paper presents a fault monitoring of DC motors. A neural network is prepared to processes the inputs parameters “motor speed and current” collected from sensors and delivers condition states of the DC motors “good, fair or bad”. FPGA Spartan 3 kit board is used to implement the proposed monitoring network and the circuits are designed for data acquisition to makes an interface between motors analog collected data and FPGAs digitals inputs ports. The designed circuits are intended to gather analogs readings from the target motor and converting them into digitals to be compatibles with FPGAs inputs ports specifications. The neural networks which are designed based on backs propagation trainings are implemented using Xilinx Spartan-3A Starter FPGAs Kits boards.


Article
Effect of Cycling Wetting and Drying on Suction Variation Under Axial Loading an Experimental Approach

Authors: Suhail A. A. Khattab --- Asma Ahmed Ali
Pages: 2500-2506
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Abstract

Disregarded the unsaturated soil behavior, like changes in volume and soil collapsing has caused a lot of damage to the foundations of the buildings and other structures. These behaviors relate to drying and wetting phenomena. An experimental study was carried out to investigate the variations of suction and stress - settlement relations under axial static loading on fine grain unsaturated soil (CL-ML) after 3 cycles wetting and drying. A prototype foundation model (100×100×35mm) was used in the testing program. Tests were carried out in a specially designed bearing capacity box (900×900×850) mm with soil suction measurements. Results showed an increase in the applied failure stress of about 19%after an application of three wetting-drying cycles. On the other hand, the sense record slight variation in amount of suction about 2 kPa (both recorded sensors S1,S2) during increasing axial load after wetting-drying cycles repetition. While the variation coincide with first applied load increment (before moisturizing drying case), and sense readings showed continue change (from 12 to 15 at S1,from 7 to 0 kPa at S2) with increasing load limit till failure happened. This could be attributed to the change in physical soil properties such as soil densification and hysteresis effects, consequently affected its ability on retention water in pore space.


Article
Design and Implementation of an Interface Unit Communicated by a Laser System Within Wireless Sensor Network

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Abstract

In this paper, an interface unit had been designed and implemented for a wireless sensor network, which used for adapting the sensor output with input of the artificial intelligent system using an electronic control circuit, in conjunction with a Laser communication system. The proposed unit had used a new technique of analog-to-digital conversion based on a pulse period coding system, which had made the transferring of data and key signals between the interface unit and the intelligent system device more efficient, easer, and faster. The pulse period coding system had used a new technique of coding , it constructed from two parts, they are: The first is the pulse period coder part, which converts the characters to pulses with specific periods, and the second is the pulse period decoder part, which converts these pulses to binary data. This system had been simulated and tested using Multisim software package, and one can see that simulation results approach to the theoretical results, so for this reason, this system possesses acceptable design and performance.


Article
The Effect of Thermo-Mechanical Treatment on Mechanical Properties & Microstructure for (Cu-Al-Ni )Shape Memory Alloy

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Abstract

This paper aims to study the effect of thermo mechanical treatment in different temperatures of (260 ,280& 300) ◦C on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Cu-14wt%Al-4.5wt%Ni shape memory alloy which prepared by casting method in induction furnace under argon atmosphere. Then thermo –mechanical treatment was performed upon the alloy by applying stress of 190MPa with heating upto 260◦C,280◦C,300◦C, then cooled to room temperature performingstrain recovery measurement. Many tests and inspections such as optical and SEM examinations , DSC Measurement ,XRD inspection , compression and Vickers hardness tests were investigated. The results showed that there is an increase in the transformation temperatures, shape memory limits at 300◦C .It was found that hardness increases and Young modulus decreases Also It was found that the thermo-mechanical treatment at 260 ◦C gave better properties , 2%in recovery strain , increase hardness due to the formation of martensitic phase and austenite phase in structure.


Article
Enhancement Voltage Stability of the Iraqi Power Grid Using Shunt FACTs Devices

Authors: Inaam Ibrahim Ali --- Mohammed Nasser Mohsen
Pages: 2527-2550
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Abstract

Due to raise in demand, the transmission system becomes more exhausted, which in turn, forces the system to be more susceptible to voltage instability. The aim of this research is to study the enhancement in voltage stability margin by installation the SVC which is represented as Static of VAR Compensator or STATCOM that is represented as Static of Synchronous Compensator. Voltage stabilization dilemma considers an essential issue in the electric networks which may lead to a voltage collapse in electric power networks. L-index has been used to predict and identify points of breakdown voltages in the power system with sufficient accuracy. L -index has been employed due to its accuracy and effectiveness in the computing voltage collapse points for different load buses with sufficient precision at a short circuit and also at various loads situations. Voltage stability index has been tested on the 9-wscc test system and 14-IEEE test system .Then it has been applied to the Iraqi national grid 400 kV. A shunt facts(SVC or STATCOM) devices are installed individually at the weak bus bar based on Voltage Stability Index(L indicator) detection, The simulation results are first obtained for an uncompensated system, and the voltage profiles are studied. The results so obtained are compared with the results obtained after compensating the system with SVC and STATCOM to show the voltage stability margin enhancement. The outcomes acquired after simulation demonstrate the performances of shunt fact devices (SVC and STATCOM) when connected to a system Subjected to 3-phase short circuit fault at different locations. All the simulation results have been carried out using MATLAB version 7.10 and Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) package.


Article
Intelligent Controller for Robot Manipulator

Authors: Ivan I. G.
Pages: 2551-2565
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Abstract

This paper suggests an intelligent controller to control the manipulator movement in an environment of two and three – dimensional. The fuzzy logic controller of planning structure locally approach constructs of multi-unit. The aim is to transmit or guide the manipulator from the elected to a desired configuration. Modeling, scenarios and simulations are presented clearly in two dimensions and three dimensions together with their analysis which be done using MATLAB software. In addition, the results of the robot navigation in two-dimensional environments also compared with the results of the navigation in three-dimensional environments to clarify the strength of the suggested intelligent controller, where results (in rad) for the third link for both two and three- dimensional environments are minimum: 1.9548×〖10〗^(-4) and -7.452147499×〖10〗^(-4) in the scenario 1 also minimum results in scenario 2 as the following: -0.0061 and -0.0018. Simulation results indicate this manipulator successfully reached the desired goal configuration.


Article
A Framework to Embed Sustainability Concepts into the Design Processof Construction Projects in Iraq

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Abstract

Unfortunately, sustainability is overlooked in the Iraqi design practice of construction projects. This is clear for it has led to the prevailing unsustainable built environment in Iraq. There is a great lack of attention paid to the environmental, economic and socialimpactsassessment,life-cycle assessment (LCA) and life-cycle cost assessment (LCCA) for the complete projects, components or materials used. The aim of this research is to build a framework to embed sustainability concepts into current design work phasesin Iraq based on (LEED) criteria for green building. The framework suggested in this research was subjected to evaluation by Iraqi consultants at three major engineering consultancy firms. Results of the importance (impact on performance)and applicabilityof the suggested frameworkshowed that it is highly reliablewith high Cronbach's Alpha values.This sustainable design frameworkis expected to be useful for the Iraqi Construction Sectorin enabling the utilization of greenbuildingcriteria in the design process.

Table of content: volume:34 issue:13 Part (A) Engineering