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Engineering and Technology Journal

مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا

ISSN: 16816900 24120758
Publisher: University of Technology
Faculty: Presidency of the university or centers
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

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The Journal aims to disseminate knowledge in the fields of Engineering, Technology and Sciences .All the researches will submit to the scientific evaluation procedures of publishing and documentation. The journal under takes only the publishing of the new researches that had not been published previously on other journals or debated in conferences.

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a- The research should be Submitted in 4 copies in Arabic or English Languages, auther's name should be eliminated from 2 copies only. The abstract should be typed on the front page not exceeding (150 words) in both Arabic and English on size (A4) sheet. Pages should be numbered and not more than (15) page.
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Engineering and Technology Journal
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ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL
Scientific Refereed Journal Issued by University of Technology, IRAQ
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جمهورية العراق –بغداد
الجامعة التكنولوجية- مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا- ص.ب. 35010
Email: etj@uotechnology.edu.iq
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http://uotechnology.edu.iq/tec_magaz/EN/index.htm
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Republic of Iraq, Baghdad
University of Technology, Engineering & Technology Journal.
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Email: etj@uotechnology.edu.iq

Email: uot_magaz@yahoo.com
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Table of content: 2016 volume:34 issue:5 Part (B) Scientific

Article
Selective Dissociation of Boron Isotop 11B by TEA CO2 Laser
التفكك الانتقائي لنظير البورون 11B بستخدام ليزر TEA CO2

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Abstract

The infrared multiphoton dissociation of Boron Trichloride (BCl3) gas molecules by transfersly excited atmospheric (TEA) CO2 laser has been studied. BCl3 molecules irradiated with different lines of TEA CO2 laser which coincided with the frequency of the absorption spectrum of 10BCl3 and 11BCl3 compounds at a 3  vibrational mode. The mixture of of 10BCl3 and 11BCl3 has been studied in the presence of oxygen (O2) gas, where O2 gas used as a scavenger gas of the dissociation products. The TEA CO2 laser used was tuned to the 10P(20)line of the 10.6 μm, which is in resonance with the 3  mode of 11BCl3. The mass spectrometer used in isotope ratio analysis of the compounds befor and after irradiation. The enrichment coefficient of 10B isotop obtained was about 1.1729.بعد النجاح الذي حققته ليزرات الاشعة تحت الحمراء في المجالات البحثية والصناعية تمكن عدد من الباحثين من اللازمة لتفكك ( power density) وضع تحليلات نظرية لتفكك الجزيئات ثنائية الذرة ووجدوا ان كثافة القدرة .[1] 1011 1012W cm الجزيئة ثنائية الذرة بحدود 2 ومن خلال دراسة النشريات الخاصة بتقنية التفكك متعدد الفوتونات للجزيئات متعددة الذرات لوحظ ان ليزر ثاني اوكسيد الكربون النابض قد استخدم بصورة واسعة لاجراء مثل هذه الابحاث . BCl وفي عام 1970 تمكن مجموعة من الباحثين [ 2] من تسجيل طيف تألق مستمر عند تشعيع جزيئاتي غاز 3 ومن النتائج الهامة في هذا الموضوع هو ماتوصل اليه عدد من الباحثين ] 3[ وهي كون عملية .CO باشعة ليزر 2 التفكك متعدد الفوتونات عملية انتقاء نظائري. وفي عام 1975 تمكن مجموعة من الباحثين من دراسة تخصيب 109 ، وباستخدام محفز W cm نظائر البورون باستخدام ليزر ثاني اوكسيد الكربون النابض ذي كثافة قدرة 2 للتفاعل الضوئي ووجد بان كفاءة التخصيب تكون حساسة لنوع المادة المحفزة المستخدمة ] 4[. وانتقائية التفكك .] النابض المستخدم ] 5 CO تعتمد على تردد اشعة ليزر 2 هي جزيئة مثلثة مستوية، وهي من الجزيئات المتناظرة راسيا BCl ان جزيئة ثالث كلوريد البورون 3 فعالة في طيف رامان و  4 , 3 , 6[، ولها اربعة انماط اهتزازية 1 [ (Symmetric Top Oblate) المضغوطة 4 3 2 يمثل نمط الاهتزاز( . وتمتلك  فعالة في المنطقة تحت الحمراء من الطيف الكهرومغناطيسي ) حيث  , , 10BCl 11 لذلك يوجد مركبان من غاز ثالث كلوريد البورون وهما 3 B 10 و B نظيرين للبورون هما BCl جزيئات 3 .] 11 ، ولكل مركب حزم امتصاص للاشعة تحت الحمراء تختلف عن حزم الامتصاص للنظيرالاخر ] 7 BCl و 3 10P) عند تردد الخط ) 10 CO 11 يتطابق مع طيف انبعاث اشعة ليزر 2 BCl وان طيف الامتصاص للمركب 3 (956 cm-1.(995 cm-1) 10R ) 10 يتطابق مع تردد الخط ) 30 BCl ( وطيف الامتصاص للمركب


Article
The Cytogenetic Effects of Dexamethazone Drug Sperm on Musmusculus
التأثيرات الوراثية الخلوية للعقار Dexamethazone علن ىطف الفئران المختبرية

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Abstract

The aim of this study was to detect the cytogenetic effects of Dexamethazone drug by using head sperm abnormalities test on white mice (Musmusculus) fivety five male mice were used in this study, these animals were divided into five groups. The first was the negative control group while the second was treated with MMC as positive control, and the three groups (45 mice) treated with three doses (0.02, 0.04 ,0.08mg/kg.bw) from dexamethasone drug.The result refer that the dexamethasone cause increasing in many kind of head sperm abnormality (p<0.01).Which indicate the high side effect of this drug on germ cells so we can conclude that this drug may permanently sterilize in the mice.هدفت هذه الدراسة للكشف عن التأثيرات الوراثية الخلوية للعقار Dexamethazone من خلال أختبار التشوهات في رؤوس النطف للفئران البيض) Musmusculus (أستخدمت) 55 (فأراً ذكراً قسمت الى خمس مجاميع المجموعة الاولى ) 5(فئران أعتبرت كسيطرة سالبة)أعطيت الماء المقطر( والمجموعة الثانية ) 5(فئران أعتبرت كسيطرة موجبة عوملت بالماده المسرطنة المايتومايسين سي في حين قسمت الباقية الى ثلاث مجاميع عوملت كل مجموعة) 55 ( فأراً بالتراكيز التالية 0.02) ، 0.04 ، 0.08 (ملغم/كغم من وزن الجسم وجرى أختبار التشوهات في رؤوس النطف للفترات 55،15،7 ( يوم بعد التجريع وقد أظهرت النتائج زيادة حصول التشوهات في رؤوس النطف بأنواعها المختلفه مقارنة ( بالعينة القياسية. )الاحتمالية p<0.01 (مما يشير الى التأثير الجانبي السلبي للعقار على الخلايا الجنسية ،والتي يمكن أن تؤدي الى حالات عقم في الفئران.


Article
Antimicrobial Activity of Populous Euphratica Leaves Extract on Growth of Some Gram Negative Bacteria
الفعالية الضد ميكروبية لمستخلص أوراق نبات الغرب (القوغ الفراتي) على بعض أنواع البكتريا السالبة لصبغة كرام

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Abstract

Three kinds of extracts (hot , boil water and ethanolic extracts) had been prepared from populous euphratica leaves .Known chemical reagent was applied to different various function groups( flavonoid , alkaloid , polyphenoles , Tannins, Saponions and Proteins) present in the plant leaves. Different concentration of these extract (120, 180 and 240 mg/ml) were used against various bacterial spp.( Escherichia coli ، Klebsiella pneumonae ، Salmonella typhi , Shigella sonei and Protus mirabilus ) to detect the antibacterial activity. The result of the antibacterial activity of populous euphratica leaves extract has been varied according to the kind of extract used and bacterial spp. applied. The results clear that the mean diameter of inhibition zone increased with increasing concentration of the extract used and The results showed that the mean diameter of inhibition zone in the range 4-26 mm for hot water extract , 4-22 mm for boiling water and 2-14 mm for ethanolic extract .Finally , the results of hot water extract plant leaves has shown of the higher biological activity (26 mm) for E.coli among other extract of the same concentration(120 , 180 and 240 mg/ml) and 22 mm to extract boiling water in Shigella soni The alcoholic extract higher inhibition zone 14 mm recorded in each of the (Salmonella typhi Shigella soni, Protus mirabilus).Statistical analysis of the results of all kinds of extracts was showed significant different(p<0.01).تم تحضير ثلاث أنواع من المستخلصات لأوراق نبات الغرب (القوغ الفراتي Populus euphratica (وهي المستخلص المائي الحار ( water extract Hot ) ، المستخلص المائي المغلي ( Boiling water extract (والمستخلص الكحولي الايثانولي ( Ethanolic extract ) . تم التعرف على محتوى النبات من المركبات الفعالة بواسطة الفحوصات الكيميائية الأولأية لمستخلص أوراق النبات ، حيث لوحظ احتواء مستخلص أوراق النبات على الفلافونويدات ( Flavonoids ) ، القلويدات( Alkaloids ) ، البولي فينول Polyphenols) ) ، التانينات Tannins) ) ، الكلايكوسيد ات( Glycosides ) ، الصابونيات( Saponions ) والبروتينات (Proteins) . استخدمت تراكيز مختلفة من هذه المستخلصات ( 120 ، 180 ، 240 ملغم/مل) للكشف عن تاثيرها التثبيطي على انواع مختلفة من البكتريا ( Escherichia coli ، Klebsiella pneumonae ، Salmonella typhi ، soni Shigella ، Protus mirabilus ( . تباينت نتائج دراسة الفعالية التثبيطية لمستخلصات أوراق الغرب باختلاف نوع المستخلص واختلاف نوع البكتريا، وكانت هناك زيادة واضحة في معدل قطر مناطق التثبيط بزيادة تركيز كل من المستخلصات النباتية تجاه نمو البكتريا ، حيث تراوحت لالالالات أقطار مناطق التثبيط للمستخلص المائي الحار تجاه نمو البكتريا بين 4 26- ملم ، 4 - 22 ملم لمستخلص الماء المغلي و 14-2 ملم للمستخلص الايثانولي ومن خلال معدلات أقطار مناطق التثبيط اتضح ان المستخلص المائي الحار لأوراق نبات الغرب كان ذا فعالية واضحة حيث انه سجل أعلى معدلات التثبيط بلغت 26 ملم لبكتريا E.coli عند التراكيز 120 ، 180 ، 240 ملغم/مل و 22 ملم لمستخلص الماء المغلي في بكتيريا Shigella soni اما المستخلص الكحولي فقد سجل اعلى منطقة تثبيط 14 ملم في كل من ) Salmonella typhi, Shigella soni, Protus mirabilus ). نتائج التحليل الاحصائي اظهرت فروقات معنوية واضحة لجميع المستخلاصالا p<0.01) .(


Article
Preparation of NanoPorous Alumina by Anodization Method and Study of Their Structural Properties
تحضير الألومينا ذات المسامات النانومترية بطريقة الانودة ودراسة خصائصها التركيبية

Authors: Ali J Addie علي جبر عداي
Pages: 176-185
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Abstract

Highly ordered nanoporous alumina structures have been prepared by electrochemical anodization for high purity Al-foils, electrolyte cell parameters have controlled to obtain optimum preparation conditions. Anodization potential, current density and electrolyte concentration effects on the prepared porous layer, surface morphology have been studied by scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy have used to analyze chemical composition of the samples. Results of the SEM show that the pore size was about 20-80 nm and it depends strongly on the anodization potential & electrolyte concentration, the higher anodization potential can destroy the barrier layer & cause a hi-dissolution rate of aluminum in the electrolyte, while with low potential a porous layer cannot be obtained. The highest degree of order and hexagonal distribution of pores was obtained with anodization potential of 20 volts and 0.2M of the electrolyte concentration. Results of EDS confirm the formation of the aluminum oxide layer with traces of sulfur which belong to the electrolyte.حضرت تراكيب اوكسيد الالمنيوم المسامية النانومترية ذات التنظيم العالي بالانودة الكهروكيميائية لرقائق الالمنيوم عالية النقاوة، وجرى التحكم بمعلمات الخلية الكهروكيميائية للحصول على أفضل معل مات تحضير. درست تأثيراتالجهد والتيار الكهربائي المار في الخلية وتركيز المحلول على خ صائص الطبقة المسامية المتكتم .ةنو التركيز على دراسة مورفولوجية السطوح المتكونة باستخدام المجهر الالكتروني الماسح ودراسة التركيب الكيم يائي باستخدام مطياف الاشعة ا..ينية. بينت نتائج تحليلات المجهر الالكتروني الماسح ان اقطار المسامات التي تم الحصول عليها تراوحت بين 20 و 80 نانومتر وهي تعتمد بشكل كبير على جهد الأنودةوتركيز المحاليل، و أدت زيادة الجهد الى تدمير طبقة الحاجز وحصول اذابة سريعة للألمنيوم وتكوين سطوح متاكلة غير مسامية، بينما ادت الجهود المنخفضة الى عدم تكون طبقة مسامية، وقد تم الحصول على درجة انتظام عالي وتوزيع سداسي للمسامات عند جهد انودة 20 فولت وتركيز محلول 0.2M ، فيما بينت تحليلات مطيافيةالاشعة السينية المشتتة للطاقة تكون طبقة اوكسيد الالمنيوم مع وجود نسب من تراكيز الكبريت التي تعود لللالالول لالالكترول يتي.


Article
Doping Effect on Structure, Optical, & Sensing Properties of Nanocrystalline (SnO2) Thin Films Prepared by Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD) Technique
تأثير التشويب على الخواص التركيبية , البصرية والتحسسية لأغشية ثنائي اوكسيد القصدير نانوية التبلور

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Abstract

Thin films of Nanocrystalline Tin Oxide SnO2 and SnO2: Cu have been prepared on glass substrates using Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD) technique, The thickness of the deposited film was of the order of (300) nm . The films annealing in air at temperature 500◦C for 60 min .Structural, optical and sensing properties were studied under different preparation conditions like Cu-doping concentration (2%, 4% and 6%). These prepared films are polycrystalline with a tetragonal & orthorhombic crystal structure. The crystallinity and the particle size of the prepared samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), the results indicated the particle size of the prepared samples decreased with the increase of Cu doping concentrations some of the structure properties are changed by the addition Cu concentrations as dopants. The films are preferentially oriented along the (110) direction. We have got some surface morphology by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), the results show decreasing of particle size with increasing doping concentration. The films have moderate optical transmission from (65% up to 88% at 800 nm), and the transmittance, absorption coefficient and energy gap were measured and calculated with Cu doping concentration. The results show that the doping caused to decreased the transmittance and energy gap from (3.55 to 3.8) eV while it caused to increase the absorption coefficient. It has also been found that Cu doped nanocrystalline SnO2 thin films gas sensing & recovery time material was presented a better sensitivity to CO gas compared to the pure SnO2.في هذا البحث تم تحضير أغشية SnO2 غير المشوبة والمشوبة نانوية التبلور المرسبة على قواعد زجاجية بتقنية الترسيب بالحمام الكيميائي ، وان سمك الاغشية المحضرة بحدود ( 300 ) نانومتر ,لدنت الاغشية بدرجة حرارة بحدود ( 500 °C ) درجة مئوية في الهواء وبزمن ساعة واحدة. ودرست الخواص التركيبية والبصرية والتحسسية لاغشية ثنائي اوكسيد القصدير الغير مشوبة والمشوبة بالنحاس وبنسب تشويب % ) 2,4,and 6 ) . قد بينت نتائج فحوصات حيود الاشعة السينية ان جميع الاغشية المحضرة متعددة التبلور ومن الطور الرباعي والمع يني وباتجاهية سائدةبا تجاه ( 110 ( , وان زيادة نسبة التشويب ادى الى انخفاض في قمم الحيود وزيادة عرضها .كما واوضحت نتائج تحليل AFM و SEM ان متوسط الحجم الحب يبي قد تناقص بزيادة نسبة التشويب . سجل طيفا النفاذية والامتصاصية ضمن المدى ( 300-1000 ) نانومتر وقد تبين ان النفاذية وفجوة الطاقة البصرية انها تقل بزيادة نسبة التشويب حيث ان قلت من eV ) 3.8 to 3.55 ) بينما يزيادة معامل الامتصاص. وعند قياس تحسسية الاغشية لغاز اول اوكسيد الكاربون تبين قيم التحسسية وزمن الرجوع لغاز اول اوكسيد الكاربون تزداد بازدياد نسب التشويبمقارنه بالاغشية النقية.


Article
Image Categorization Based Color Detector

Authors: Hayder Ayad --- Nidaa Flaih Hassan --- Suhad Mallallah
Pages: 621-628
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Abstract

Due to the investigation of the images in several parts of the life and the arising of the fast technology make the management of these images an open research area. Basically, the color feature considered as informative information that can be extracted from the image and help in improve the application performance. Based on the literature, this research found that there are several datasets that content images considered as a colorful images but some of these images content poor color information. For that, it’s unfair to treat all the dataset images as colorful images and this may lead to unsuccessful classification due to unfair color features that extracted from these images. To overcome this problem, this paper has proposed a color detector that can be used as a pre-processing stage to separate the dataset images into two classes colorful and colorless. The experiments have been carried out by using Caltech 101 dataset and the proposed method shows high level of discriminative power.

Keywords

Color Image --- Gray Image --- SVM --- Caltech 101.


Article
Arabic Language Text Steganography Based on Singular Value Decomposition (SVD)

Authors: Hanaa M. Ahmed --- Maisa'a A. A. Khohder
Pages: 629-637
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Abstract

With the fast development of internet innocent over communication in the network environment has become an important research direction. Steganography means that secret information is embedded into cover data imperceptibly for transmission. Linguistic Steganography covers all the techniques that deal with using written natural language to hide the secret message. This paper, presents a linguistic steganography for Arabic language texts, using Kashida and Fast Fourier Transform on the basis of using a new technique entitled Random Singular Value Decomposition Image as a location to hide a secret message. The proposed approach is an attempt to present a transform linguistic steganography using levels for hiding to improve implementation of kashida, and improve the security of the secret message by using Random Singular Value Decomposition Image. The proposed algorithm achieves typical steganography properties such as capacity, security, transparency, and robustness.


Article
A General Formula for Characteristic Polynomials of Some Special Graphs

Authors: Nawras A. Alwan --- Nadia M. G. Al-Saidi
Pages: 638-650
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Abstract

The calculation of characteristic polynomials (Ch. Poly.) of graphs of any size, especially for the large number of vertices n is an extremely tedious problem if used the traditional methods, so in this paper, the general formulas of the characteristic polynomial of some graphs, such as, path, complete, circle and star graphs are introduced. It is constructed based on adjacency and Laplacian matrices. The efficiency of the proposed method is demonstrated in terms of complexity to show an improvement over traditional methods.


Article
Gabor-based Fingerprint Authentication for Anti-phishing System

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Abstract

E-banking is banking system in which the customers conduct transactions electronically via the Internet. Most of these sites are prone to a phishing attack. The usual fears with phishing attack are that the user may be an attacker and impersonating the identity of the authorized user, but the most dangerous in E-bank that the website which is to be hacker (phisher website), and this will lead to steal sensitive information of customers. The trend of this research is to introduce proposed security system represent "E-bank website anti-phishing attack". The proposal tries to prevent that the security concerns remain on the attacker impersonating an authenticateduser. In traditional authentication techniques, such as use of username and password is not sufficient for securing E-banking system. The reason of using fingerprint in authentication is based on fingerprint individuality. The proposal introduces a suggested treatment of pattern recognition of fingerprint with lowest False Acceptance Rate "FAR" and False Rejection Rate "FRR" among all traditional fingerprint authentication mechanism. The proposal enhances the traditional recognition system by applying Gabor filter during the preprocessing stage which makes our proposal able to recognize the rotated impression, so the accuracy of fingerprint matching is improved.


Article
Using Chebyshev Polynomial and Quadratic Bezier Curve for Secure Information Exchange

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Abstract

Information exchange approaches are still an important research issue in the network security, generation and sharing the secret session key is the important factor during the group key transfer protocols. In this paper, we propose a new approach for information exchange based on PGP protocol as behavior. The proposed approach aims to combine chaotic techniques and curve security features based on chebyshev polynomial and quadratic Bezier curve, respectively to improve NTRU algorithm to increase the security features in the session key transfer process and improve DES algorithm in the encryption process. The proposed approach adds more security levels In the case of confidentiality and authentication with acceptable results.


Article
Optimal Conditions for Bromelain Extraction from Pineapple Fruit (Ananas comosus)

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Abstract

Bromelain is a cysteine protease which is found in the tissues of Bromeliacea plant family of which pineapple Ananas cosmossus is best known. The investigated parameters for optimal Brome-lain extraction are optimum buffers, pH, Molarity, time, and amounts of husk free pineapple fruit to volume (ml) of buffer ratio. Sodium phosphate was best buffer for bromelain extraction from pine-apple fruit because its showed high activity, with casein as a substrate. Subsequent experiments, using sodium phosphate as an optimal buffer for extraction and casein as a substrate, reviled that the optimal bromelain extraction conditions were achieved at pH 7.0, 0.1 M of sodium phosphate, 2.5 min of extraction time, 1:0.5 (gm of pineapple fruit/ v of sodium phosphate buffer) extraction per-centage, and 30 min of incubation time. Additionally, Bromelain extracted from pineapple fruit showed a maximum enzyme activity at pH 7and at 30 min of incubation with casein as substrate.


Article
Text Hiding in 3D Object

Authors: Luma Fayeq Jalil --- Muna M. Laftah
Pages: 683-690
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Abstract

In this research was to propose a new way to hide data from the text in the tri-dimensional images type depending on the geometric style is proposed, this can be done via the manipulation of the location of the (vertex) in most areas of softness in the triangular object dimensions of any of the many details areas so we make sure not to detect the presence of the data eye human. The experimental results showed, a high rate of failure note the presence of hidden data depending on the scale "RMS" Tripartite-dimensional images, and the way showed good resistance to the types of geometric attack such as "translation"," rotation" and "scaling" and out where he was retrieving a full hidden data without any destruction and this is what boosted "BER".


Article
Effect of Solvents on the Photophysical Properties of the Polystyrene Solutions

Authors: Esam A. Tawfi --- Mohammed M. Rasheed
Pages: 691-696
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Abstract

The aim of this work was to investigate the photophysical behavior of polystyrene solutions under the effect of different solvents at different concentrations .Testband at 262 nm. There was no effect of solvents and concentration on the position of the maximum absorption wavelength. The data show that a strong dependence between absorbance intensity and concentration. Polystyrene in chloroform, cyclohexane and dichloromethane showed fluorescence monomer emission at 296nm. Excimer emissions were recorded for polystyrene in chloroform, cyclohexane, dichloromethane and tetrahydrofuran at 307nm, 325nm, 327nm and 330nm respectively. Solvents have effect on the fluorescence quantum yield magnitude, where highest value of it had been recorded in cyclohexane (55%)


Article
Manufacturing of Aluminum Foam as a Light Weight Structural Material

Authors: Safa Hasan Mohammed --- Ali A. Aljubouri
Pages: 697-702
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Abstract

In this study, aluminum foam was fabricated using sintering and dissolution process (SDP). Aluminum powder with a particle size (3.63μm) as a raw material was mixed with NaCl with a particle size between (212-400μm) as a space holderat different ratio (30, 40, 50 ,60, 70 and 80) wt. % and compacted at 200 MPa followed by sintering at 650° C for 2 hrs. The sintered samples were placed into hot water for 10 hrs to dissolve NaCl particles. Uniaxial compression test was carried out to determine the foam structure influence on plastic deformation and damage in the Al foam. The foam porosity increased from 28% to 81% for 30wt. % and 80wt. % of NaCl content respectively. The mechanical properties (compressive strength, yield stress and young’s modulus) decrease with increasing NaCl content.


Article
Preparation and Characteristics Study of Diamond - Like Carbon (DLC) Film onn-Si Substrates by Electrolysis of Methanol

Authors: Ali M. Mousa --- Raid A. Ismail --- Mustafa A. Hassan
Pages: 703-710
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Abstract

The electrolysis of methanol was used to deposit diamond-like carbon (DLC) film on an-type Si (100) substrate under constant voltage (1200V) at ambient pressure and temperature40oC. The surface morphology and composition of the synthesized film was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive x-ray (EDX), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and Raman spectroscopy.Deposited DLC film has a compact structure of dense grains, and the film contained irregular shape particles (clusters) of DLC. Raman spectraconfirmed that the DLC film contains carbon atoms with sp3hybridization.


Article
Unification of Multiple Treebanks and Testing Them With Statistical Parser With Support of Large Corpus as a Lexical Resource

Authors: Ahmed Hussein Aliwy
Pages: 711-720
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Abstract

There are many Treebanks, texts with the parse tree, available for the researcher in the field of Natural Language Processing (NLP). All these Treebanks are limited in size, and each one used private Context Free Grammar (CFG) production rules (private formalism) because its construction is time consuming and need to experts in the field of linguistics. These Treebanks, as we know, can be used for statistical parsing and machine translation tests and other fields in NLP applications. We propose, in this paper, to build large Treebank from multiple Treebanks for the same language. Also, we propose to use an annotated corpus as a lexical resource. Three English Treebanks are taken for our study which arePenn Treebank (PTB), GENIA Treebank (GTB) and British National Corpus (BNC). Brown corpus is used as a lexical resource which contains approximately one million tokens annotated with part of speech tags for each. Our work start by the unification of POS tagsets of the three Treebank then the mapping process between Brown Corpus tagset and the unified tagset is done. This is done manually according to our experience in this field. Also, all the non-terminals in the CFG production are unified.All the three Treebanks and the Brown corpus are rebuilt according to the new modification. Our test for the proposed unification are made in three types: (i) statistical parsing test for each Treebank alone without modification, (ii) statistical parsing test for each Treebank alone after the modification, (iii) statistical parsing test for the collection of the three Treebanks after modification without support of lexical resource, and (iv) statistical parsing test for the collection of the three Treebanks after modification with support of lexical resource. The unknown words are processed using a very simple suggested method. We can show, simply in our work, that (a) the unification of multiple Treebanks can be done and will increase the accuracy. (b) A large annotated corpus as Brown corpus can be used for (i) decreasing the unknown words and (ii) we can extract the probabilities nearest to the reality. (c) The mapping between the unified tagset and the lexical tagset (used in Brown corpus) can be done straightforward.


Article
Speech Encryption Based on Wavelet Transformation and Chaotic Map

Authors: Hala B.Abdul Wahab --- Sundus I. Mahdi
Pages: 721-729
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Abstract

In this paper a new algorithm is presented for speech encryption. It includes dividing the speech signal into overlapped blocks then shuffling those blocks in the time domain. A second permutation is done for the coefficients of the block which generated from wavelet transform by using chaotic key based on Hénon map, and partially encrypting the shuffled online speech signal in a transform domain. The security for the proposed system will depend on different parameters, including secret block sizes, the amount for overlapping along the x-axes and y-axes, permutation key and dynamic encrypted key. By having a new level of security the eavesdropper has to choose the amount of overlapping correctly. Many online speech signal tests demonstrate the validity of the proposed algorithm. The results show that it provides secure approach to real-time speech encryption and at the same time gives high intelligibility for the recovered speech.


Article
Effect of Antibiotics, Anesthetics, Sugars and Saltson The Oxidation Activity of Human Ceruloplasmin in vitro

Authors: Ali J.Al - Sa'ady --- Dalal S. Bedan
Pages: 730-737
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Abstract

The optimum conditions for Ceruloplasmin (CP) activity have been measured in serum samples of a healthy individual without any detectable diseases. CP activity was evaluated by measurement of its p-phenylenediamine oxidase activity. This study showed the optimum pHforCP activity of a healthy human serum was 6.0 and the optimal temperature for CP activity was 45°C using in vitro conditions. The maximum value of oxidation activity was in incubation period70 min using optimal substrate concentration 60 mmol/l. Several types of antibiotics were experimented in order to detect their effect on ceruloplasmin oxidation activity; these are consisted of Cephalexin, Amoxicillin, Erythromycin, Ampicillin, Ampicillin & Cloxacillin, Streptomycin Sulfate, Chloramphenicol, Cefrtriaxone, Benzathine, Pencilline and Aspegic. Results showed that Ampicillin and Streptomycin Sulfate had maximum influence on ceruloplasmin activity. Different types of sugars, salts and anesthetics were used to evaluate their effect on p-phenylenediamine oxidation by serum ceruloplasmin. Results appeared that starch, FeSo4 and lidocaine 4% were activator for oxidation process. This study aimed to measure the optimal conditions of ceruloplasmin activity and to evaluate effect of different antibiotics and anesthetics onproteins from the serum of a healthy individual using in vitro conditions.


Article
A new Approach for Detection and ExtractionTables in Scanned Document Image using Improved Hough Transform

Authors: Hasanen S. Abdullah --- Ammar H. Jasim
Pages: 738-753
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Abstract

In this paper, an improvement approach of Hough transform for tables detection and extraction from scanned document images is achieved as one of the main stages in document recognition to recognize between original and faked documents. The improvements fundamentally originate from the modulation of the standard Hough transform (SHT)parameter selection, peak threshold and voting scheme. Peakvalues formed by noise edges are thus lowered compared with those formed by clear edges. Experimental results show the proposed method leads to significant suppression of false peaks in Hough space and is thus effective. The parameters can be determined empirically in advance, which their advantage to use the proposed method in fully automated lines detection applications.


Article
SAR Images Watermarking Based on Multiwavelet and Curvelet Transforms

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Abstract

Protect the digital media and provide the copyright is a very important process to confirm their owners, digital watermarking play a vital role which is used to check the copyright contravention. In this paper, a new mixing watermarking algorithm is proposed by using discrete multiwavelet transform and curvelet transform on SAR images. The results showed that the proposed algorithm offers good performance in both subjective and objective tests. When the PSNR values equal to (19.1446, 20.7941, 19.4537 and 19.8802), they were increased in the proposed method to (22.8046, 23.7941, 22.5031 and 22.9106) respectively.

Table of content: volume:34 issue:5 Part (B) Scientific