Table of content

kirkuk university journal for scientific studies

مجلة جامعة كركوك للدراسات العلمية

ISSN: 19920849 26166801
Publisher: Kirkuk University
Faculty: Science
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies (KUJSS) is an official publication of the Faculty of Science at the University of Kirkuk. It was originally published in 2006 with two issues per year. Currently the journal is published every quarter (4 issues a year) since 2013. KUJSS publishes original papers, technical and research papers, in different disciplines (Astronomy, Pure and Applied Physics, Computer Science & Engineering, Information Technology, Electronics & Communication, Electrical & Electronics Engineering, Mathematical Sciences, Science of Chemistry, Bio-Science Technologies, Earth Sciences, Geo-physics, and Remote Sensing). English and Arabic are the language used. All manuscript submissions must be made through the journal's online manuscript system at online submissions.
The visions, goals, and the mechanisms of our Journal is to publish scientific research sober in the areas of Applied and Pure Sciences and scientific research, scientific interest large to contribute to the development of various disciplines, which provides significant support to researchers in all scientific facilities to continue to support the development plans in Iraq.
Submitted papers will be reviewed by Technical Committees of the Journal. All submitted articles should report original, previously unpublished research results, experimental or theoretical, and will be peer-reviewed. Articles submitted to the journal should meet these criteria and must not be under consideration for publication elsewhere. Manuscripts should follow the style of the journal and are subject to both review and editing.

date of firist issue 2006
no.issue per year(4)
no.of issue published between 2006-2012 (12)issue



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Contact info

E-mail: kujss@uokirkuk.edu.iq
site: www.uokiruk.edu.iq/kujss

Table of content: 2016 volume:11 issue:3

Article
Synthesis and Antibacterial activities of some Arabinofuranose-Schiff bases Derivatives
تحضير ودراسة الفعالية البايولوجية لبعض مركبات الاربينوفيورانوز – قواعد شيف

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Abstract

As a continuous research for the discovery of new antibacterial agents due to the developing resistance toward conventional antibiotics, we reported a convenient synthetic approach for the preparation of methyl-α-D-arabinofuranoside shiff-bases. A series of arabinose-Shiff bases were prepared through the trityl protection of the primary hydroxyl group of methyl-α-D-arabinofuranoside, benzoylation, the removal of the trityl protective group, tosylation, azidation, conversion to the amine in the presence of triphenylphosphine, condensing reaction with a variety of aromatic aldehydes, and subsequent debenzoylation. New compounds were characterized by 1H NMR and FTIR spectroscopy. Synthesised compounds were screened for antibacterial activity against several bacterial strains namely, Escherichia coli; Staphylococcus aureus; Bacillus subtilis; Candida albicans; Aspergillus niger, and they showed enhanced antibacterial activity.


Article
Non-Polynomial Spline Method for the Solution of the System of two Nonlinear Volterra Integral Equations
طريقة الثلمة غير متعددة الحدود لحل منظومة من معادلتين فولتيرا تكامليتين غير خطيتين

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Abstract

في هذا البحث, استخدمنا طريقة الثلمة التكعيبية غير متعددة الحدود لحل منظومة مكونة من معادلتين فولتيرا التكاملية غير الخطية من النوع الثاني وقد استخدمنا برنامج matlab14 لحل النظام. وأخيرا، قدمنا العديد من الأمثلة التوضيحية لإظهار فعالية ودقة هذه الطريقة.


Article
Study of Joints in Baba Dome - NE Iraq
دراسة الفواصل في قبة بابا - شمال شرق العراق

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The present work involves detailed study for joints in Baba dome within the foreland fold belt of north Iraq. It aims to identification and classification of various joint sets and systems, extraction predominant directions of joint sets and systems and estimation stress direction in the study area. The study includes only Injana (Miocene) and Mukdadiya (Pliocene) formations. The field work has been executed by means of nine traverses, each of them includes mainly two stations, as a result, 719 measurements of joint planes were extracted. The study comprises several categories: carefully scanning the joint plane for any shear movement, measuring the attitude, classification of joints according to tectonic axes a, b and c, determining the predominant direction, calculation of causative stress, estimation the structural history of Baba Dome .The types of joint which distinguished are (ab, bc, ac, hko system acute about a, hko set acute about b, hol system acute about a and hkl set).All measured joints have no visible shear displacement on their planes. The hko system and hol system appeared as single set and as conjugate system. The predominant direction of the joints is determined to be nearly along the strike of exposed beds. The mean causative stress direction is calculated to be: 046° from hko system and 315° from hol system. Trend of measured joints ( ab = 315° , ac = 045° , bc = 315° , hko1>a = 058° , hko2>a = 033° , hko3>b = 336° , hol1>a = 316° , hol2>a = 312° and hkl = 257° ). An attempt to put the measured joints in order according to timing sequence and from older to younger: hko system acute about a &ac set, hol system acute about a and hko system acute about b &bc set.


Article
Synthesis and identification Of Four Membered Rings Heterocyclic Compounds Derived From Trimethoprim
تحضير وتشخيص مركبات حلقية رباعية غير متجانسة مشتقة من الترايميثوبريم

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Abstract

This study includs the preparation and identification of four membered rings Hetrocyclic Compounds derived from Trimethoprim by reaction Schiffs, bases(1a-h)( prepared by reaction some aromatic aldehyde with Trimethoprim using Microwave technique) with chloro acetyl chlorid in the presence of triethylamine , the prepared compounds were identified by I.R spectroscopy and some of them by NMR spectroscopy and C.H.N.S micro analysis.


Article
Syntheses of some new Formazan derivatives , derived frome isoniazid and study their biological activity
تحضير مشتقات فورمازان جديدة , مشتقة من الايزونزايد ودراسة فعاليتها البايولوجية

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Abstract

This research includes the preparation of a new series of formazan derivatives . In the beginning was prepared hydrazon derivatives through condensation izonzaid with compensators benzaldehyd different , then formazan derivatives were prepared by condensation hydrazon and diazonium salt different compensation for aromatic amines. All the reaction completion were routinely monitored by TLC.The structures of the compounds have been confirmed by ,(C.H.N) analysis of the elements for some compounds , 1H NMR, IR spectral data and melting points. The antibacterial activity of the compounds has also been screened


Article
Some Hormonal Assay in Toxoplasma Infected University Students
بعض الاختبارات الهرمونية في طلاب الجامعة المصابين بالمقوسة الكوندية

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Abstract

Background: Toxoplsma is a parasite with a global distribution that infect both human and animal, most of human toxoplasmosis is chronic infection. Chronic toxoplasmosis can affect human behavioral and hormonal status. Objective: In this study the effect of toxoplasmosis on the level of certain hormones (total testosterone, estradiol (E2), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) have been investigated. Methods: One hundred and ninety serum samples from Kirkuk university students were assayed for Toxoplasma antibody (IgM,IgG), among them 40 (21.1%) samples were positive The serum of positive samples along with control group were assayed for some hormonal levels by using ELIS technique. Results: From the obtained results after conducting statistical analysis, it has been found that there is a significant differences in testosterone and estradiol concentration in both infected males and females comparing with the uninfected control cohort. The concentration range of testosterone were (12.8-15.5, 1.6-3.1 ng/ml) for each of infected male and female respectively which was significantly higher than the control (6.9-8.0,0.39-o.58 ng/ml) respectively for male and female. The estradiol concentration range in infected cohort were (34.3-39.6, 184.3-197.0 pg/ml) for male and female respectively, comparing with the control (22.2-26.9, 72.8-75.5 pg/ml) for male and female respectively. No significant differences were appeared between the FSH concentrations in infected and control cohort in both male and female. The infected males were a little taller and more depressed than uninfected one. Conclusions: From the current study we concluded that chronic toxoplasmosis can affect some hormonal concentration in human blood which may change or influence human behavior.


Article
Finite Element Analysis of Shear Transfer Strength of SFRC Models
بموديلات العناصر المحددة SFRC تحليل مقاومة القص المباشر لنماذج

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Direct shear stress may be the main reason in failure of some typical concrete members like corbels, brackets and ledger beams. The theoretical analysis of these members simulated as push-off specimens were based on a two-dimensional plane stress by finite element method. The main variables to be studied theoretically were fiber percentage, the shear rebar reinforcement ratio crossing the shear plane at right angles and the actual distribution of shearing stress in the shear plane. The comparison shows that the theoretical results are in good agreement with the experimental values conducted by other researchers


Article
A Study of Infrared Spectra of Some Semiconducting Oxide Glasses
دراســة اطياف اشعة تحت الحمراء لبعض الزجاجيات الشبه الموصلة

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Glass samples in the systems of (P2O5)75-(CuO)25-X- (CdO)X,(P2O5)75-(CuO)25-X-(ZnO)X, (P2O5)75-(CuO)25-X-(V2O5)X, (P2O5)50-(TeO2)50-x-(ZnO)X, (P2O5)50-(TeO2)50-X-(CdO)X and (P2O5)50(TeO2)50-X-(V2O5) X of different compositions where(X=0,5,10,15, 20)were prepared by the melt-quenching technique. Density measurements of (P2O5)75-(CuO)25-x-(CdO)x,(P2O5)75-(CuO)25-x–(ZnO)x and (P2O5)50-(TeO2)50-x-(CdO)x show decreasing in density with the increasing of CdO and ZnO contents. The density of (P2O5)75-(CuO)25-x-(V2O5)x,(P2O5)50-(TeO2)50-x-(ZnO)x and (P2O5)50- (TeO2)50-x-(V2O5)x glasses show increasing in density with the increasing of V2O5 and ZnO contents in the glass.The infra-red spectra were recorded for (P2O5)75-(CuO)25-x-(CdO)x,(P2O5)75-(CuO)25-x–(ZnO)x and (P2O5)75-CuO)25-x-(V2O5)x The band positions of such glasses show that (475.27-503.15) cm-1can be attributed to (PO4)-3,The infra-red spectra of (P2O5)50-(TeO2)50-x-(CdO)x,(P2O5)50-(TeO2)50-x-(ZnO)xand(P2O5)50-(TeO2)50-x- (V2O5)x were recorded in the range(4000-400) cm-1.The band positions of such glasses shown that(494.83-498.77)cm-1can be attributed to Te-O-Te linkages


Article
Distribution of the Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in AlJabal Alakhdar Area, East Libya
توزيع فطريات المايكورايزا الشجيريه في منطقة الجبل الاخضر, شرق ليبيا

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In order to investigate occurrence and distribution of Arbscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) in Aljabal Alakhthar area, east Libya. Roots and rhizosphere soil of 49 cultivated plants belonging to 7 families from 8 locations were collected. The percentage of root colonized by AMF was estimated. Spores extracted from soil samples were counted and morphologically identified to genus. The results indicate that all examined plants were colonized by AMF. Colonization rate and spore abundance differed according to location and plant. Colonization rate range from 97% in Petro selinum at Alqubbah location to 29 % in Vicia faba at Almarj. While spore abundance range from 992 spores / 100gm soil accompanied with Vicia faba at West alawilia location to 121 spores / 100gm accompanied with Avena sativa at Alqubbbah. As average of all locations, the plants belonging to Apiaceae had the highest colonization percentage where the plants belonging to Cucurbitaceae had the highest spore abundance. Lumloda location records the highest colonization rate. There was no correlation detected between root colonization rate and spore abundance. However, soil available phosphorus and clay percentage negatively correlated with degree of AM root colonization. Positive correlation was found between silt percentage and spore abundance. Glomus was the most abundant genus in all studied locations followed by Acaulosora, Gigaspora and Scutellospora


Article
Penetration Testing of Wireless Networks
إختبار الاختراق من الشبكات اللاسلكية

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This project focuses on performing security assessment on wireless networks, and to crack the password assigned to it. The idea of wireless network brings to mind lot of ways of attacking and penetrating a network compared to the traditionally wired network. Because wireless typically extends beyond walls and boundaries, it has become prone to attacks. This project intends to find the password of near-by wireless networks and focuses on performing security assessment on wireless networks, and to crack the password assigned to it. As WPA2 is considered as the most secured password encryption algorithm for wireless network, we will be performing penetration testing on it and will crack the password for WPA2 encryption. This project mimics the penetration testing scope to find the password of one of the trusted wireless network.


Article
A Study of the Effects of Gaussian Noise on Image Features
دراسة حول تأثيرات ضوضاء (Gaussian) على ميزات الصور

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Abstract

في هذا البحث، تم اجراء اختبار تأثير الضوضاء على ميزات الصور الرقمية حيث أن معظم أنظمة الحاسبات والاتصالات معرضة للتأثر بـالضوضاء المعروفة بالـ (Gaussian Noise) التي قد تأتي من مصادر طبيعية مختلفة فكان من المثير للاهتمام أن يتم قياس تأثير هذه الضوضاء على ميزات الصور. لهذا الغرض، تم استخدام مجموعة من الصور المعرضة لـ (Gaussian Noise) لتوليد الصور المشوهة مع قيم مختلفة للمتوسط والتباين في كل مرة مع نفس مجموعة الصور وذلك لاجل قياس حالات متنوعة من تاثير هذه الضوضاء. ثم، استخدمت أربع مرشحات تعزيز مختلفة لإزالة الضوضاء (Gaussian Noise) واختيرت مجموعة من 10 ميزات لهذه الدراسة. ان الميزات من الصور الأصلية ، الصور المشوهة، والصور المعززة قد احتسبت وتمت المقارنة بينها. أظهرت النتائج ان بعض مرشحات التعزيز اثرت على ميزات الصور اكثر من الضوضاء (Gaussian Noise) نفسها, اضافة إلى أن بعض مرشحات التعزيز لها التاثير نفسه على ميزات الـ (Texture) و الـ (Entropy) واثنان من الميزات المعتمدة على التحويل (Wavelet). استنادا إلى ميزات الـ (Texture), مرشح التعزيز المتوسط اعطت افضل النتائج, بينما استنادا إلى الميزات المعتمدة على التحويل (Wavelet) فان مرشح تعزيز الحركة اعطت افضل النتائج. البرنامج الذي تم استخدامه في هذا البحث هو Matlab 2013 .


Article
Aseries of M-M_heterometallic coordination polymers: syntheses structures properties (M=Ni+2/M-=Ag+1 ,Cd+2 ,Zn+2)
البوليمرات التناسقية المتعددة الفلر الحقيقية: دراسة خصائص المركبات (M=Ni+2/M-=Ag+1 ,Cd+2 ,Zn+2)

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In this paper a series of new mono and heterometallic Ni(II) complexes of the general formula[Ni(3-Hophdtc)2],[Ni(Ag(3-Hophdtc)2}2],NiLn(Ag(3-Hophdtc)2}2],NiM(3-Hophdtc)4] ,[Ni(L)nM(3-Hophdtc)4].3-Hophdtc=3-hydroxy phenyl dithiocarbamate.when n = 2,L quinoline,4-picoline,when n = 3,L = ethylenediamine ,1,10 phenanthroline, M=Zn+2,Cd+2. All the isolated complexes have been characterized by atomic absorption , elemental analysis,molar conductivity , Infrared , electronic absorption spectra and magnetic measurement.The conductivity measurements proved the non-electrolytic behaviour of all the compounds, suscetptibility measurements and electronic spectra shows a tetrahedral geometry for complexes of the type [Ni(3-Hophdtc)2],[Ni(Ag(3-Hophdtc)2}2], NiM(3-Hophdtc)4] and octahedral geometry for complexes of the type NiLn(Ag(3-Hophdtc)2}2],[Ni(L)nM(3-Hophdtc)4].


Article
Analysis Studying For Improving Cooling Tower
دراسة تحليلية لتحسين اداء ابراج التبريد

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The present investigation includes a detailed study of the proposed equation for counter flow wet cooling tower using Merkel and Poppe models to show the difference and solutions techniques of the proposed models . A mathematical model has been suggested to construct computer software MATLB R2013 program for simulation of natural draft wet cooling tower for summer (hot and dry) and winter (cold and wet ) weather according to Iraqi weather . The fill height changed from (0.2 -1.4)m at different water inlet temperature (37، 40 ،45)oC and constant mass flow rate of air .It was found that the range of cooling increases when the fill is high and the cooling range ,relative humidity ,cooling approach ,air temperature change are higher at winter than at summer while the effectiveness and enthalpy change show higher value at summer than winter . Also the mass flow rate of water changed from(1- 7.5) kg/s with water inlet temperature 45 oC with constant fill height 1.2 m the result obtained show that tower range ، air temperature change ,are higher in winter than at summer where the enthalpy change and effectiveness show higher values at summer than at winter which matches with the other experimental researches.


Article
SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND BACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF SOME METAL COMPLEXES OF N-PHENYL- Ń-(3-CARBOXYPHENOL) THIOUREA
تحضير , تشخيص وقياس الفعالية البكتيرية لبعض معقدات N - فنيل –Ñ- (3-كاربوكسي الفنيل ) ثايويوريا.

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A thiourea ligand; N-phenyl- Ń-(3carboxyphenol) thiourea (PCTH) is synthesized from the reaction of phenyl isothiocyanate with 3-aminobenzoic acid. Treatment of the ligand (PCTH) with metal salts MCl2, where M = Cu(II), Zn(II), Pb(II) and Co(II) gave metallic complexes of the types: 1- [M(PCTH)2Cl2] where M=Cu(II) and Co(II) and 2- [M(PCT)2] where M=Zn(II) and Pb(II). The ligand (PCTH) behaves as a bidentate and coordinated to the metal ion centers either through sulfur atom of its thioamide group and through nitrogen atom of the amine group or through oxygen atom of the carboxylic group. All the synthesized ligand metal complexes are characterized by micro-elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy and UV-Vis. spectroscopy, 1H.NMR, 13C.NMR, conductivity and magnetic susceptibility measurements. Finally, bacterial activity of the ligand (PTCH) and its metal complexes are tested against Klebsiella pneumonia and Escherichia coli and gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aurous. Using well-diffusion method and the results are discussed.


Article
A New species of comb-clawed beetles Cteniopus Solier, 1835 (Coleoptera: Alleculidae) from Erbil Governorate Kurdistan Region-Iraq
وصف نوع جديد من خنافس ذات المخالب المشطية (Coleoptera: Alleculiidae) Cteniopus Solier, 1835 في محافظة أربيل – إقليم كردستان العراق

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A new species of comb-clawed beetles, Cteniopus erbilensis sp. nov. from Erbil governorate Kurdistan region-Iraq was described and illustrated . The important taxonomic features have been drawn. Locality, host plant and date of the collection have been mentioned.


Article
Assessment of Adult Patients Satisfaction Regarding Nursing Care in Different Hospitals in Kirkuk City
تقييم رضى المرضى البالغين حول العناية التمريضية في مختلف مستشفيات مدينة كركوك

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Background: Patients’ satisfaction has been used as a significant indicator of quality services provided by health care personnel. Consequently, the most important predictor of patients’ overall satisfaction with hospital care is particularly related to their satisfaction with nursing care. Patient’s satisfaction with nursing care is important for any health care agency because nurses comprise the majority of health care providers and they provide care for patients 24 hours a day. Aim of the study: The aim of the current study was to identify the patients’ satisfaction regarding nursing care provided in different hospitals at Kirkuk city. Methodology: Quantitative design (descriptive study) conducted to assess patient's satisfaction about nursing care in Kirkuk city hospitals (Azadi teaching hospital and Kirkuk general hospital) include medical and surgical wards. The period of the study was carried out from the 2nd August 2015 to 10th April 2016. A formal consent was taken from all participants. A nonprobability (purposive) sample was selected, it consisted of 300 patients, whereas 150 patients were taken from each hospital. In order to reach the objective of the study, a questionnaire was constructed depending on Word Health Organization (WHO) questionnair and related literature review. The overall questions included (40) items scored by 3 likert scale option was used in the rating scale as: (Always = 3), (Sometimes = 2), (Never = 1), Satisfaction of the patients in items are determined as following (High =2.35 - 3), (Moderately = 1.69 - 2.34), and (Low = 1 - 1.68). Result: The result of present study revealed that high percent (23.7%) the study sample at age (18 – 27) years old . In relation to gender, the majority of the patients are females and account (61.7). Also the data analysis shows that mean of scores of patients responses regarding to communication items , shows high satisfied in (3) item (The nurse listen to the pt.'s complaining carefully, The nurse answers all the pt.'s questions, The nurse communicates with the pt. purposefully & therapeutically), and moderately satisfied in (3) items (The nurse explains the procedures to the patient, The nurse gives the pt. time to discuss the condition &treatment plan, The nurse encourages pt.'s participation in decision making) and low satisfied in (4) items (The nurse asks about the pt.'s condition frequently, The nurse gives the patient chance for asking questions. The nurse communicates with a clear tone of voice. The nurse respond for the pt.'s calling immediately). Conclusion: This study concluded that Patients were low satisfied regarding communication, while highly satisfied with the Skills and Competences nursing care. Recommendation: Establish an educational training program for nurses to upgrades their knowledge and practices, and further studies should be conducted concerning patients' satisfaction with nursing care provided in all hospitals.


Article
Synthesis Characterization of Some New Heterocyclic Compounds Containing1, 3-Oxazepine Ring
تحضير وتشخيص بعض المركبات الغير المتجانسة الجديدة المحتوية على حلقة 3,1-اوكسازبين

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تم تحضير سلسلة من مشتقات 1, 3 - الاوكسازبين من خلال خطوتين الاول: يتضمن تحضير مشتقات الايمين (A7-A1) من تفاعل 4 - هيدروكسي بنزالديهايد مع امينات معوضة مختلفة وباستخدام حامض الخليك الثلجي. الخطوة الثانية: يتضمن تفاعل الايمينات المحضرة (A7-A1) مع حامض الماليك اللامائي من خلال الغلق الحلقي من نوع [5+2] في البنزين الجاف والتصعيد لينتج مشتقات 3,1- الاوكسازبين - 7 ,4- دايون(A7m-A1m) , شخصت المركبات المحضرة باستخدام التحلیل الدقیق للعناصر (C.H.N.S) وبعض الخصائص الفيزيائية والطرق الطيفية (H1-NMR, IR).


Article
Use of some plants color as alternative stain in staining of bacteria
استخدام بعض الالوان النباتية كصبغة بديلة لصبغ البكتريا

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Natural dyes from plants such as Stigma (Isatis sp.), Myrtle (Myrtussp.), Rosella (Hibiscussp.) and crust of Walnut (Juglanssp.) fruits were extracted by 95% ethyl alcohol or distilled water. Myrtle and Stigma weremixed dye with ratio 1:2, respectively, also Rosellaand crust of nut fruits were prepared with same ratio. Mixeddyes or stains prepared as alternative of Gram stainfor staining Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria. The results showedthat the wall of bacteria were stained. This is well comparable to Gram stain in respect to clarity, differentiation, and economic cost.


Article
Synthesis of some new Pyrazoline derivatives derived from Ibuprofen
تحضير بعض مشتقات البايرازولين الجديدة المشتقة من الايبوبروفين

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تم تحضير اثيل -2-(4-ايزوبروبيل فنيل) بروبانويت (1) من تفاعل حامض -2-(4-ايزوبروبيل فنيل) بروبانويك مع الايثانول بوجود حامض الكبريتيك المركز . تفاعل المركب (1) المحضر مع الهيدرازين المائي في الايثانول يعطي حامض -2-(4-ايزوبروبيل فنيل) بروبان هايدرازايد. الخطوة الثانية تحضير 2-اريلدين اندان 1و3-داي –اون (3-7) من تكاثف الالديهايدات الاروماتيه مع الاندان داي اون في وسط قاعدي . ثم تصعد حراريا مع الهيدرازايد(2) لتعطي مشتقات البايرازولين . شخصت المركبات بالطرق الفيزياوية والطيفية لاثبات صحة التراكيب المحضرة.


Article
Detection and differentiation of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar by enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay
الكشف والتمييز بين الاميبا النسيجية و الاميبا المتغيرة بواسطة الاليزا

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Amoebiasis is an important parasitic disease in human. The two species Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar are morphologically identical but E. dispar is none pathogenic and is not associated with symptomatic amoebiasis. In this study, from July to December 2013, 397 (212 male, 185 female) stool samples from in and out patients in Kirkuk Azady Teaching Hospital were examined microscopically. 97 samples of them were positive for Entamoeba histolytica / dispar. Blood samples were collected from E. histolytica / dispar positive patients, and the sera were examined by ELISA for differentiating the two species and evaluating the IgG levels in their serum. The overall rate of E. histolytica / dispar detected microscopically was 24.4%, while when the positive samples examined by ELISA technique 89.7% of them were E. histolytica and 10.3% were considered to be E. disbar. The serum samples of 27.58% of the patients whom had E. histolytica were positive for IgG antibody. The most age group which was infected with E. histolytica / dispar in both sexes were 41-50 years with rates of 39.13, 34.6 % for each of males and females respectively. A significantly high frequency (62.9, 94.8 %) of E. histolytica / dispar positive samples were contained RBC and pus cells respectively for each cell type, and the highest rate (28.8, 39.1%) were for those samples contained three pluses respectively for each of RBC and pus cells. The conclusion is that there is a big necessity of a serology confirmatory test after microscopic detection of E. histolytica to avoid un necessary treatment.


Article
Comparison Between the Effect of Metronidazole and some Medical Herbs Extracts on Viability of Entamoeba histolytica Trophozoites in Vitro
المقارنة بين كفاءة الميترونيدازول ومستخلصات بعض الاعشاب الطبية على طفيلي اميبا الزحار في الزجاج

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Abstract

Amoebiasis is is widely distributed in Iraq. In order to search for alternative new anti-amebic drugs, a study was planned to evaluate the efficacy of metronidazole and some medical herbs on the viability of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites in vitro culture. E. histolytica was isolated from stool examination of patients attended Pediatric Hospital Kirkuk, using wet mount technique. The active trophozoites were cultured in Lock egg medium. After isolation of trophozoites tested against various concentrations of metronidazole, and medical herbs including Artemisia herba alba, Punica granatum and Tecurium polium , using viability Pandroff tube, which contain Jones broth medium. Both aqueous and alcoholic extractions of medical herbs were used, at concentrations of 50%, 25%, 12.5% and 6.25%. Results: Metronidazole had highest inhibitory effect on viability of E. histolytica trophozoites than medical herbs. Medical herbs, Artemisia herba alba, recorded highest inhibitory properties against Entamoeba histolytica, followed by Punicaa granatum and Tecurium polium. The effect of alcoholic extract of all medical herbs was greater than aqueous extracts Conclusions: The efficacy of metronidazole was greater than medical herbs. The alcoholic extraction of medical herbs had greatest effect on viability of trophozoites than aqueous ones. Medical herbs can be used as an alternative of metronidazole.


Article
Effect of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi on the Drought tolerance of Sorghum bicolor.
تأثير فطريات المايكورايزا الشجيرية على مقاومة الذرة البيضاء للجفاف

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Abstract

In order to study the role of FAM on water stress tolerance of sorghum plants. Factorial experiment under greenhouse conditions was conducted with four levels of water potential (-0.04, -0.2, -0.4 and -0.8 Map) and two levels of phosphorus (0 and 25 mgkg-1). The results demonstrate that there were no roots colonized with AMF in non-inoculated plants. In inoculated plants roots colonized with AMF percentage increased with increased of water stress and decreased with phosphorus addition and the higher value was 86% in plants grow under water potential -0.8 MPa and received 0 phosphorus while the lowest value was 46% in plants grow under water potential -0.04 MPa and received 25 phosphorus. Inoculation with AMF increased plant fresh weight, roots, shoots dry matter, and plant phosphorus uptake. The results show AMF have protected sorghum plants against drought stress and it is clear that the effects of AMF on plant growth parameters was higher than the effects of phosphorus addition specially in drought stress conditions hence we can suggested that there are addition ways than phosphorus nutrition improvement that AMF can increase host plant drought tolerance.


Article
Synthesis, Characterization and Biological Investigation of Some New Hydroxy – 1,3,4 – Oxadiazole Derivatives
تحضير، تشخيص تقييم بايولوجية لبعض مشتقات هايدروكسي – 4،3،1 – أوكسادايازول الجديدة

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Abstract

تعتبر مركبات 4،3،1 – أوكسادايازول من المركبات المهمة بسبب فعاليتها البايولوجية مثل مضاد للبكتريا, مضاد للملاريا, مضاد للاختلاج وايضا يستخدم كمسكنات ومضاد للسرطان. حضرت المركبات الصلبة من هايدروكسي 4،3،1 – أوكسادايازول في هذه الدراسة من تفاعل هيدرازيدات الحامض مع ثنائي كبريتيد الكاربون بوجود هيدروكسيد البوتاسيوم. تم تشخيص جميع المركبات المحضرة بواسطة التحليل الدقيق للعناصر والتحليل الطيفي (H1 – NMR, IR) مع دراسة الفعالية البايولوجية لاربع مضادات بكتريا (غرام موجب وغرام سالب) وثلاثة بكتريا تعفن.

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