Table of content

Iraqi Journal of Science

المجلة العراقية للعلوم

ISSN: 00672904
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Science
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi journal of science is a quarterly specified scientific journal issued by the Faculty of Science at the University of Baghdad. The members of the Editorial Board representing the Departments of Eight Scientific departments, college of science/ Baghdad University and its related units of research, all are professors, scientists with extensive experience and considerable skills in their field of science, as well as an advisory board in support composed of professors and scientists with great reputation in their field of science from other Colleges, universities, or research institutes. The specialty of publication includes the following fields:

1.Pure and Applied Physics.
2.Mathematical Sciences.
3.Computer Science and Information Technology.
4.Science of chemistry.
5.Bio-Science technologies.
6.Earth Sciences, geo-physics, and remote sensing.
7.Astronomy, Space Sciences, and Remote Sensing Unit.
8.Science and Research of tropical area

The visions, goals, and the mechanisms of the Iraqi Journal of Science is to publish scientific research sober in the areas of Applied and Pure Sciences and instructive Iraqi society, scientific research, scientific interest large to contribute to the development of various disciplines, which provides significant support to researchers in all scientific facilities to continue to support the development plans in Iraq.

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Contact info

Baghdad University
College of Science
Baghdad
Iraq
ijs@scbaghdad.edu.iq
07903375590
http://ijs.scbaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2017 volume:58 issue:2A

Article
Role of enzymes catalase, peroxidase and amino acid (proline) in Raphanus sativus and Lepidium sativus in exposure levels different water pollution of ion lead
دور الإنزيمات الكتاليزو البيروكسيدز و الحامض الاميني البر ولين في نبات الفجل والرشاد عند تعرضهم لمستويات مختلفة من المياة الملوثة بالرصاص

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Abstract

Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and (Lepidium sativus) is commonly grown in urban and suburban areas where the soil may be polluted with heavy metal such as lead. In this study, short exposure of radish and cress plantlets to (0,10,20,30,50)ppm lead in nutrient solution (three months) in growth chamber conditions elicited an antioxidative response, measured in terms of lipid peroxidation, protein and proline accumulation and peroxidase and Catalase activity. Longer exposure to lead when radish and cress was grown outdoors for 90 days in pots filled with field soil with different lead content also resulted in higher lipid peroxidation and proline accumulation and altered protein content and enzyme activity. The results also showed significant decrease antioxidant enzymes activity with the decreased oxidative stress. Also, the antioxidant enzymes activity (CAT and POD) were more activity after 30 days because of resistant for (50 ppm ,30 ppm) . Besides, at high level, the response of the antioxidant enzymes activity (CAT and POD) and proline accumulation were similar to that observed in control treatment. The highest proline content (81and 96 μmole/g) were recorded by control treatment after 30days radish and cress, respectively. The maximum average increase in peroxidase activity (43.76 and 68.38 unit/ml) were though control level treatment after 30 days, respectively. Maximum results were found in treatments (56.25 and 56.52 unit/ml) after 30 days in radish and cress, respectively.


Article
The Effect of Zinc oxide Nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) on the Viability of Leishmania tropic In Vitro
تاثير الدقائق المتناهية الصغر لأوكسيد الزنك على حيوية اللشمانيا الاستوائية في المختبر

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Abstract

Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) also known under local names like (tropical sore, oriental sore and Baghdad sore) is the most common form of leishmaniasis. It is a public health and a social problem in many developing countries. The Old World disease primarily is caused by Leishmania major in dry desert areas and Leishmania tropica in urban areas. Recently, metal oxide nanoparticales have been versatile platforms for biomedical applications and therapeutic interventions. There is an urgent need to develop new types of antileishmanial agents instead of classical drug (pentostam), especially, when its efficacy showed a decline towards some strains of Leishmania. Therefore, the present work was aimed to evaluating antileishmanial activity of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) on metabolic activity (viability) of Leishmania tropica parasites in both phases (promastigote and amastigote) in vitro condition. This study revealed the effects of different concentrations (2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4, 4.5 and 5µg/ ml) of ZnO NPs and pentostam drugs on L. tropica promastigote viability, which was recorded the maximum cytotoxic effect (25.12 ±1.47 and 40.81± 1.47) % at high concentration (5 µg/ml) for ZnO and pentostam respectively after 72 hr. The IC50 was calculated depending on the results of MTT assay to determine the most effective concentrations of ZnO NPs on the viability of L. tropica promastigotes. The result was 4.318 µg/ ml after 72 hr., while pentostam drug recorded an IC50 value only after 72 hr. which was 4.897 µg/ ml. On the other hand, the study also showed the effects of ZnO on amastigote phase, and the viability decreased by increasing the concentrations and incubation time. So the highest concentration (5 µg/ ml) recorded lower percentage of viability (18.17 ± 0.60 and 36.07 ± 2.68) % for ZnO NPs and pentostam respectively after 72 hr., while the IC50 of the results of MTT assay for both ZnO NPs and pentostam drug was 3.84 µg/ ml and 4.734 µg/ ml respectively after 72 hr.


Article
Removal of Some Traces Heavy Metals from Aqueous Solutions by Water Hyacinth Leaves Powder
ازالة بعض العناصر الثقيلة من المحاليل المائيه بواسطة مسحوق اوراق نبات زهرة النيل المائي

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Abstract

The pollution of aquatic ecosystems with toxic heavy metals is representing a major environmental issue, as a result of releasing these metals to ecological ambient without treatment, leading to their persistence and non-biodegradation in the environment. Various traditional methods are utilized as an attempt to remove heavy metals from waste water but still without making any actual progress. This study hypothesizes that Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth) dried leaves powder is potential in removing some of these heavy metals (HM), including lead, copper, cadmium and chrome from aqueous solutions via biosorption influenced by some variable experimental factors. This aim was approached by using two different experimental conditions: (i) investigating the effect of different pH values, ranged between 4-8 with a constant (HM) concentration (1000 ppm), (ii) using variable (HM) concentrations with a range (250, 500, 750 and 1000 ppm) in which constant pH value equal to 7 was maintained. Additionally, the amount of leaves powder used throughout the study was 1g. The data obtained from this study revealed that higher removal efficiency was observed with lead (Pb) which reached to 99.9%, whereas the lowest was with chrome (Cr) which its removal was up to 80% in both experimental conditions. These results suggest that E.crassipes in its non-living form is efficient in the treatment of waste water and other industrial effluents containing trace elements.


Article
Histopathological study on liver of mice during aspergillosis infection
دراسه نسيجيه مرضيه لكبد الفئران خلال الاصابه بمرض الاسبرجلس

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Abstract

In this study ,the Aspergillus fumigatus histopathological activity on the mice livers during aspergillosis became more obvious. The total number of 40 male Albino swiss mice were randomly divided into 8 groups (Five mice/group). The 1st group were immunosuppressed , while the 2nd group are not immunosuppressed , and control mice were instilled nasally with Phosphate buffer saline and Tween 20 ( five mice / control). The mice were sacrificed after 7th , 14th and 21st day post infection. It was found that immunosuppressive treatments increase substantially the susceptibility of animals to infection by invasive aspergillosis, with higher progression of disease and earlier expression of inflammatory cells comparing with the non immunosuppresed mice,as the hepatic fungal colony has increased earlier and become more rapid than in the non- immunosuppressed mice, despite the fact that the initial doses which have been administered were identical in above models.


Article
Genotyping of Staphylococcus aureus Isolates Based on Methicillin-Resistance Genes and its Relatedness to some Putative Virulence Factors
التنميط الوراثي لعزلات بكتريا المكورات العنقودية الذهبية على اساس الموروثات المشفرة للمقاومة للمثيسلين وعلاقتها ببعض عوامل الضراوة الشائعة

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Abstract

The emergence and spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was a public health problem worldwide that causes nosocomial and community infections. Forty three isolates (71.66%) were characterized as S.aureus, were isolated from 60 different clinical specimens (blood, nose, wound, urine and vaginal) collected from patients from different hospitals of Baghdad. All isolates were resistant (100%) to Aztreonam, Carbenicillin, Cifixime, Cefoxitin, Ceftazidime, and showed high resistance to each of Methicillin, Oxacillin, Ampicillin and Penicillin . the MRSA isolates were typed based on (SCCmec) typing ,the result revealed that SCCmecIVa was the most common in isolates (41.86%), following type IVc (20.93%), type II(16.27%). Virulence factors were identified to detect genes encoding for Hlg,Pvl,ClfA,Tsst-1 and Eta, and the result showed the most prevalent gene was hlg (65.11%), following pvl (53.48%), clfA (51.16%), tsst-1(18.60%),eta (11.62%). The virulence genes profiles were observed, and the most frequent was clfA-hlg-pvl (23.25%), clfA-hlg-pvl-tsst-1 (6.97%),clfA-hlg-tsst-1(4.65%).Analysis of genetic similarity relationship, showed the isolates of S.aureus were classified into two main clusters . This result indicates that there a diversity in virulence genes profiles among MRSA isolates according to SCCmec types, and SCCmec IVa carried hlg, pvl , clfA genes was the most prevalent in Baghdad hospital isolates .


Article
Evaluation of some Biochemical and Endocrine Profiles in transfusion-dependent Iraqi major β - thalassemia patients
تقييم بعض المعاملات الهرمونية والكيميائية في مرضى الثلاسيميا المعتمد على نقل الدم في العراق

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Abstract

Endocrine Abnormalities in β-thalassemia major are common disturbing complications, that need prompt management. Importance of this work was to evaluate the some biochemical parameters and endocrine hormones related to the pubertal maturity and fertility status in cases with thalassemia. A sixty patients [38 males and 22 females] with β - thalassemia major against 30 healthy subjects [17 males and 13 females] were enrolle . The Blood levels of, Leptin, Vitamin D, thyroid function test, parathyroid hormone, ghrelin, and sex hormones were determined in the blood. Body Mass Index (BMI) was also evaluate. Results showed that besides lower BMI, all hormones assessed were significantly lower in thalassemia β-major cases compared to healthy (p<0.001). Furthermore, the ghrelin/ Leptin ratio in female cases was lower than the values obtained in the controls (p<0.001) .Finally, significant negative correlations, (p<0.05) were detected between circulating levels of ghrelin and Follicle stimulating hormone ( FSH ), Luteinizing (LH) in male and female . The lower values of ghrelin and Leptin in thalassemia β-major possibly constitute another hormonal imbalance which may cntribute to the obstruction of growth and sexual maturation encountered in patients group. Hypothyroidism occurs in proportion of β-major thalassemia patients in the absence of clinical signs of hypothyroidism. Regular follow-up, for early detection and timely treatment of such complications could improve, the type of life of those patients.


Article
HARLIN model for prediction of solar radiation for Baghdad city, Iraq
الموديل التوافقي -الخطي لتقدير الاشعاع الشمسي لمدينة بغداد في العراق

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Abstract

In this study a combination of two basics known methods used to daily prediction of solar insolation in Baghdad city, Iraq, for the first time, the harmonic and the classical linear regression analyses, thus it is called HARLIN model. The resulted prediction data compared with basics data for Baghdad city for two years (2010-2011), where the model showed a great success application in the accurate results, compared with the linear famous and well known model which is used the classical linear Angstrom equations with various formulations in many previous studies.


Article
Characterization of Ag:Ni Nano Particles Produced by Pulse Nd:YAG laser
تشخيص دقائق Ag:Ni النانوية المنتجة بواسطة ليزر النيوديميوم-ياك النبضي

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Abstract

This work presents the characteristics of plasma produced by fundamental wavelength (1064 nm) Q- switched Nd:YAG laser on Ag:Ni alloy in distilled water were investigated at different laser energies by optical emission spectroscopy technique. The size of produced nanoparticles from Ag:Ni target in distilled water were studied, by x-ray diffraction, UV-visible absorbance and atomic force microscopy, at different laser energies. Spectroscopic measurements show that electron temperature and electron density increase with increasing laser energy. It was found from AFM measurements that the produced nanoparticle size decrease from 97.13 nm to 71.20 nm, while XRD shows that the crestalline size decrease from 15.5 nm to 9 nm with increasing pulse laser energy. UV- visible absorbance shows at plasmon peaks shifted from 410 to 395 nm with increasing laser energy.


Article
Radon Gas Concentration Measurement in Air of Al - Haswaa City in Province of Baghdad
قياس تركيز غاز الرادون في هواء مدينة الحصوة في محافظة بغداد

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Abstract

In this study the radon gas concentration in air in Al - Haswaa city in province of Baghdad in Iraq have been calculated using CR-39 solid–state nuclear track detector technique. A total of 8 samples selected from 8 region in Al – Haswaa city in province of Baghdad have been placed in the dosimeters for 30 day. The average radon gas concentration was found to be 486.26 Bq/m3 which is lower than the standard international limit (1100 Bq/m3). The potential alpha energy concentration and annual effective dose have been calculated. A proportional relationship between the annual effective dose and radon gas concentration within the studied region has been certified.


Article
Sedimentology and Lithostratigraphy of the Pila Spi Formation in Koi Sanjaq area, NE Iraq; New insight for depositional Environment and Basin Configuration
الدراسة الرسوبية والطباقية الصخرية لتكوين البلاسبي في منطقة كويسنجق شمال العراق: نظرة جديدة في بيئة الترسيب البحرية وتطور الحوض الرسوبي

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Abstract

The Pila Spi formation composed of seven lithotypes; carbonates (dolomite and dolomitic limestone), marl, shale/claystone, red argillaceous mudstone, sandstone, carbonate breccias and debris flow, which are arranged in repeated cycles of mixed siliciclastic-calciturbidites in a range of gravity-flow regime in the Koi Sanjaq area. Sedimentologic and facies evidences suggest developed marine environment for the Pila Spi Formation. Facies analysis and associated sedimentary structures including graded beddings decide turbidity and gravity flow regime origin of the rocks. Marine environment is supported by the identifying glauconite and fossils types, which is reported here for the first time rather than lagoon environment. The Pila Spi sequences are grouped into four facies associations confirming developed marine depositional systems, these are (from bottom to top) channeled-slumped fine and mega carbonate breccias, calciturbidites, faulted and slump carbonate mega-breccias, slump/slide carbonate mega-breccias facies associations respectively. Petrographic analysis of carbonate units of the Pila Spi rocks in Koi Sanjaq area indicated that they are composed of skeletal grains with subordinate non-skeletal grains of tuffaceous fragments, chert, chalcedony, volcanic ash, metamorphic and detrital iron oxides grains, with noticeable grains of glauconite. Varieties of marine fossils are identified includes planktonic bivalves and benthic forams of cool water, which support the deeper marine environment. Microfacies analysis reveals (15) types, these are; green algal boundstone, algal wackestone dolomudstone, algal dolostone/mudstone, framestone-mudstone, small benthic foraminiferal wackestone, algal packstone-mudstone, foraminiferal packstone-mudstone, algal dolostone, fossiliferous grainstone, foraminiferal packstone, stromatolite framestone, algal boundstone, calci-microbial grainstone-packstone, and large benthic Foraminiferal bioclasts floatstone. These microfacies types are grouped in four facies associations representing the depositional environments of the formation, these are; outer shelf, reef, forereef, reef, backreef.


Article
Jordan Permuting 3-Derivations of Prime Rings
حول تعميم المشتقات جوردان الثلاثية التبادليه للحلقات الاولية على مثالي لي

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Abstract

The main purpose of this work is to generalize Daif's result by introduceing the concept of Jordan (α,β) permuting 3-derivation on Lie ideal and generalize these result by introducing the concept of generalized Jordan (α,β) permuting 3-derivation


Article
Hollow Modules With Respect to an Arbitrary Submodule
المقاسات المجوفة بالنسبة الى مقاس جزئي افتراضي

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Abstract

In this paper ,we introduce hollow modules with respect to an arbitrary submodule .Let M be a non-zero module and T be a submodule of M .We say that M is aT-hollow module if every proper submodule K of M such that T ⊈ K is a T-small submodule of M .We investigate the basic properties of a T-hollow module .


Article
A Mathematical Model for Iraqi Airways Company about Evaluating Its Objectives and Strategies
نموذج رياضي لتقييم الاهداف و الاستراتيجيات المثلى لشركة الخطوط الجوية العراقية

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In this paper, we introduced a mathematical model for Iraqi Airways Company about evaluating its objectives and strategies. First, we studied Iraqi Airways schedules with different departure cities for each airline path. Then, we applied some fuzzy integrals for determining the best airline path.


Article
Constructing of Analysis Mathematical Model for Stream Cipher Cryptosystems
بناء نموذج تحليلي رياضي لنظم التشفير الانسيابي

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The aim of this paper is to construct the analysis mathematical model for stream cipher cryptosystems in order to be cryptanalysis using the cryptanalysis tools based on plaintext attack (or part from it) or ciphertext only attack, choosing Brüer generator as study case of nonlinear stream cipher system. The constructing process includes constructing the linear (or non-linear) equations system of the attacked nonlinear generator. The attacking of stream cipher cryptosystem means solving the equations system and that means finding the initial key values for each combined LFSR.


Article
Classification of Iraqi Anber Rice by Using Image Processing and KNN Algorithm
تصنيف الرز العنبر العراقي بأستخدام المعالجة الصورية و خوارزمية أيجاد اقرب جار

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Abstract

Image classification takes a large area in computer vision in term of quality or type or data sharing and so on Iraqi Anber Rice in they need this kind of work, where few in the field of computer science that deal with the types of Iraqi Anber rice, and because of the Anber Rice are grown and produced in Iraq only, and because of the importance of rice around the world and especially in Iraq. In this paper a proposed system distinguishes between the classes of Iraqi Anber Rice that Grown in different parts of Iraq, and have their own specifications for each class by using moment invariant and KNN algorithm. Iraqi Anber Rice that is more than Fiftieth class Cultivated and irrigated in different parts of Iraq, and because of the different methods of agriculture and irrigation, they differ in their characteristics and qualities and taste, and the image shape of grains differs from one class to another one. All grain enters the image processing stage to prepare the image to the next stage. A feature extraction stage to extract seven moments for each grain and then began the classification process using an algorithm 1-nearest neighbor (KNN) and it calculates the Euclidean distance between test image and training images. After the implementation of the proposed system the result was good, where its compared test image (one image) with the training image(100 image). The success rate of the classification(83%) and after applying the confusion matrix to calculate the recall and precision. The value f recall is (84.0585) and the value of precision is (82.6358), these results for the use of nine classes of Iraqi Anber Rice.


Article
Palm Vein Recognition Based on Centerline
تمييز اوردة راحة اليد اعتماداً على الخط الوسطي

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The palm vein recognition is one of the biometric systems that use for identification and verification processes since each person have unique characteristics for the veins. In this paper we can improvement palm vein recognition system have been made. The system based on centerline extraction of veins, and employs the concept of Difference-of Gaussian (DoG) Function to construct features vector. The tests results on our database showed that the identification rate is 100 % with the minimum error rate was 0.333.


Article
Face Detection by Using OpenCV’s Viola-Jones Algorithm based on coding eyes
كشف الوجه باستخدام مكتبة برمجية مفتوحة للرؤية الحاسوبية في خوارزمية فيولا جونز على اساس شفرة العيون

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Facial identification is one of the biometrical approaches implemented for identifying any facial image with the use of the basic properties of that face. In this paper we proposes a new improved approach for face detection based on coding eyes by using Open CV's Viola-Jones algorithm which removes the falsely detected faces depending on coding eyes. The Haar training module in Open CV is an implementation of the Viola-Jones framework, the training algorithm takes as input a training group of positive and negative images, and generates strong features in the format of an XML file which is capable of subsequently being utilized for detecting the wanted face and eyes in images, the integral image is used to speed up Haar-like features calculation for each image in (MIT, FERET) dataset and the adaboost algorithm is implemented to collect the weak classifiers and produce strong classifier. By using classifier cascade process, the speed and accuracy of face detection system is increased .The proposed method has accuracy is about 98.97% for detection faces.


Article
Multilevel Analysis to Recognize Original Voucher from Faked Voucher
تحليل متعدد المستويات لتميز المستند الاصلي من المستند المزيف

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Abstract

Voucher documents have become a very important information carrier in daily lives to be used in many applications. A certain class of people could exploit the trust and indulge in forging or tampering for short or long term benefits unlawfully. This holds a serious threat to the economics and the system of a nation. The aim of this paper is to recognize original voucher document through its contents. Forgery of voucher document could have serious repercussions including financial losses, so the signature, logo and stamp that are used to determine being a genuine or not by using multilevel texture analysis. The proposed method consists of several operations. First, detection and extraction of signature, logo and stamp images from original voucher document by using auto crop method. Second, each image is processed in allotted level. Third, the voucher document is classified depending on a result of each level to determine being a genuine or not. Accuracy of 94% for identification process and 95% for verification process were achieved.


Article
Propose an Efficient Face Recognition Model in WSN Based on Zak Transform
افتراض موديل لتمييز الوجوه في شبكات التحسس اللاسلكية بالاعتماد على النقل زاك

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The need for a flexible and cost effective biometric security system is the inspired of this paper. Face recognition is a good contactless biometric and it is suitable and applicable for Wireless Sensor Network (WSN). Image processing and image communication is a challenges task in WSN due to the heavy processing and communication that reduce the life time of the network. This paper proposed a face recognition algorithm on WSN depending on the principles of the unique algorithm that hold the capacity of the network to the sink node and compress the communication data to 89.5%. An efficient hybrid method is introduced based upon the advantage of Zak transform to offprint the farthest different features of the face and Eigen face method to assort acceding to the minimum value of the distance with feature vectors on a flat architecture to the WSN with gossiping routing protocol. An Excellent recognition rate is achieved reaching to 100% with a minimum computation time.


Article
Estimation of Suaeda aegyptiaca Plant distribution regions at Iraq using RS & GIS Applications
تخمين مناطق توزيع نبات السويدا في العراق باستخدام تطبيقات التحسس النائي ونظم المعلومات الجغرافية

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For ecosystem functions factors monitored the natural changing of environmental systems, and the managing ability expectation or prediction the plantation regions, (e.g. desert decreasing, air pollution reducing and weather wet stabilization). How, depends on the ability to understand how a particular ecosystem functions and the automation that control the elements distribution, such as (Suaeda aegyptiaca) plant in this study. Which recognized plants Iraq native, and, that are widely found in some regions of Iraq finding randomly. Amplitude plantations regions and automation wealth can be observed diffusion and growth this plantation, as well as estimated the far-reaching and unknown locations to form control and improve environmental and ecosystem relief. We will be used Botany mapping techniques, this map is identified many indicators about the spatial variability distribution areas, and the maps can be a clear indication display significant spatial points of environmental. This process Required different techniques such as spatial description locations. For purpose, this study applied RS, GIS techniques and Kernel density estimation (KDE) achievement this study. In this study are finding distribution regions of Suaeda aegyptiaca determination often in middle and a lot of in western south of Iraq, for this, Kernel density estimation is an effective tool to identify species of Suaeda aegyptiaca plant areas within point patterns of plantations by producing a smooth and continuous surface. Also, kernel density estimation represents a powerful way to find hot spot analysis and dimensions visualize over large areas easily.

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