Table of content

kirkuk university journal for scientific studies

مجلة جامعة كركوك للدراسات العلمية

ISSN: 19920849 26166801
Publisher: Kirkuk University
Faculty: Science
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Kirkuk University Journal-Scientific Studies (KUJSS) is an official publication of the Faculty of Science at the University of Kirkuk. It was originally published in 2006 with two issues per year. Currently the journal is published every quarter (4 issues a year) since 2013. KUJSS publishes original papers, technical and research papers, in different disciplines (Astronomy, Pure and Applied Physics, Computer Science & Engineering, Information Technology, Electronics & Communication, Electrical & Electronics Engineering, Mathematical Sciences, Science of Chemistry, Bio-Science Technologies, Earth Sciences, Geo-physics, and Remote Sensing). English and Arabic are the language used. All manuscript submissions must be made through the journal's online manuscript system at online submissions.
The visions, goals, and the mechanisms of our Journal is to publish scientific research sober in the areas of Applied and Pure Sciences and scientific research, scientific interest large to contribute to the development of various disciplines, which provides significant support to researchers in all scientific facilities to continue to support the development plans in Iraq.
Submitted papers will be reviewed by Technical Committees of the Journal. All submitted articles should report original, previously unpublished research results, experimental or theoretical, and will be peer-reviewed. Articles submitted to the journal should meet these criteria and must not be under consideration for publication elsewhere. Manuscripts should follow the style of the journal and are subject to both review and editing.

date of firist issue 2006
no.issue per year(4)
no.of issue published between 2006-2012 (12)issue



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Contact info

E-mail: kujss@uokirkuk.edu.iq
site: www.uokiruk.edu.iq/kujss

Table of content: 2017 volume:12 issue:2

Article
A new species of soft-winged flower beetles, MalachiusFabricius, 1775 (Coleoptera: Malachiidae) from Iraq
وصف نوع جديد من الخنافس الزهرية لینة الأجنحة في العراق(Coleoptera: Malachiidae) MalachiusFabricius, 1775

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A new species of soft-winged flower beetles, Malachiusraniansis sp. nov.is described and illustrated from Iraq. Distinctive characteristics for this species are Mandibles bidental; Antenna serrate,11th segment tubular shaped 1.2 times as long as 10th segment . Apical part of adeagus nearly tubular, basalcylindrical shaped.


Article
Synthesis and characterization of mercury(II) mixed ligands complexes derived from 5-(4-pyridyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-thione with tertiary phosphines ligands
تحضير وتشخيص عدد من معقدات الزئبق(II) مختلطة الليكاند مشتقة من 5-(4-بيريدال)-4،3،1- اوكسادايازول-2- ثايون مع ليكاندات الفوسفينات الثالثية

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Abstract

Many new mixed ligand mercury complexes have been synthesized with LH = 5(4-pyridyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-thione and tertiary phosphines as co-ligands. The compounds have been characterized by elemental analyses, IR, molar conductivity, and NMR spectroscopy. In the binuclear complexes (2-5), both Hg atoms have tetrahedral geometry, the Hg atom bonded to three halide ions and one thione ligand (LH) through the sulfur atom. The complex (6) show that thionlate ligand(L) is coordinated as monodentate through the sulfur atom. The bis(diphenylphosphino)methane (dppm) behave as bidentate bridging ligand to bonded two Hg(II) ions in the complex (7), Whereas in the complexes (7-10), the thionlate ligand bonded as a monodentate fashion via the sulfur atom, while the diphosphines ligands coordinated as bidentate chelating ligands, and the geometry around the Hg center ion is tetrahedral. And in the complexes (11 and 12), the phosphine bonded as monodentate ligand, and the thionlate bonded via the sulfur atom as monodentate to give tetrahedral complexes.


Article
Investigate and analyze the Electromagnetic Fields levels Emitted by Cellular Base Stations In Kirkuk City
قياس وتحليل شدة المجال الكهرومغناطيسي لمحطات الهاتف النقال في مدينة كركوك الكلية التقنية – كركوك

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With the entry of mobile phone in Iraqi 2004,communication companies began to install cellular to worsen random ways but they ignore the safety conditions imposed for the health and environment. This research concern with the risks and damage that may be caused by radiation emitted from Asia cell base stations in Kirkuk city. Research has been conducted by measuring the power density around base stations using a radiation survey meter model (EMF Strength Meter 480846). First way of measurements has been accomplished by using a constant height of 2meters above ground for different distances ( 0-300 meters)while the second way at a distance of 150 meters for different levels above ground. The maximum measured power density is about (0.65mW/m2). Results indicate that the levels of power density are far below the RF radiation exposure set by (World Health Organization).


Article
Annealing temperature effect on the Structural and Optical properties of Pb(Zr0.7,Ti0.3)O3 thin film prepared by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD)
تاثير التلدين على الخصائص التركيبية والبصرية للغشاء الرقيق Pb(Zr0.7,Ti0.3)O3 المحضر بطريقة الترسيب بالليزر النبضي.

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Pb(Zrx,Ti1-x)O3 (PZT) powder was prepared via solid-state reaction and deposited on glass by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD). X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis carried out to investigate the phase structure, it was found that PZT thin films with x=0.7 are polycrystalline with many peaks, and the results of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) used to studied the samples topographic indicated the film have grain size around 100 nm decrease to around 70 nm after annealing to 723 K. The optiical properties of PZT films with x=0.7 studied at RT and 723 K. The absorbance and transmittance spectra have been registered in the wavelength range (390-1100) nm so as to examine the optical properties at vis-IR wavelengths. It was investigated that the optical energy gap (Eg) increase when annealing temperature (Ta) increase. An extinction coefficient, refractive index, real and imaginary dielectric constant were sensitive to the change in temperature. Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) to know the identity and to study the vibrational frequencies between the bonds of atoms for synthesized (PZT) Nanoparticles which found stretching at (3477.66 cm-1) after annealing to 723 K. the interferometer used to determine the thickness of the deposited film, it found of about 200 nm.


Article
Women's Knowledge about long hours working complication on pregnancy outcome.
معارف النساء الحوامل حول مضاعفات ساعات العمل الطويله على ناتج الحمل.

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Objectives: Assess pregnant women's Knowledge about complication of long hours working on Pregnancy outcome. Methodology: A descriptive study design , content A purposive (non probability) sample of (80) pregnant women's whom aged are ranged from (25-40 yrs) that was selected from North Oil Company ,from the period 152014 to 1042015. A constracted questionnaire consist of three parts sociodemographic characteristic, reproductive characteristic and women's knowledge about long hours working data were analysis thrugh application of discreptive and infreantial statestical approach. Result: The study findings demonstrate that the following variable was contributing significantly in the occurrence of complications on pregnancy outcome (fetus and mother health) which include (age, level of education, smoking, and working stat). In respictivly (67.3 %, 33%, 27.5%, 63.7%) Conclusions: long hours working can be interrupted as a one sources of complication among pregnant women who worked more than 40 hrs weekly. The study recomended. Encourage the females to take adequate completely rest from long working at least one month before delivery time.


Article
Use of Some Plants Color as Alternative Staining of Bacteria
استخدام بعض الالوان النباتية كصبغة بديلة لصبغ البكتريا

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Natural dyes from plants such as Stigma (Isatis sp.), Myrtle (Myrtussp.), Rosella (Hibiscussp.) and crust of Walnut (Juglanssp.) fruits were extracted by 95% ethyl alcohol or distilled water. Myrtle and Stigma weremixed dye with ratio 1:2, respectively, also Rosellaand crust of nut fruits were prepared with same ratio. Mixeddyes or stains prepared as alternative of Gram stainfor staining Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria. The results showedthat the wall of bacteria were stained. This is well comparable to Gram stain in respect to clarity, differentiation, and economic cost.


Article
Developed use of silver nitrate in staining of bacteria
تطوير استخدام نترات الفضة في تصبيغ البكتريا

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It has developed a method for the detection of bacteria using solution of Silver nitrate in concentration of 2%, particular to spore forming and capsulated types of bacteria. The bacteria were fixed on the slid, and adding prepared silver nitrate solution to stain bacteria cells such as (Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Bacillus sp. Klebsiella sp. bacteria formation capsule, and Staphylococcus aureus) on the slide and left for ten minutes at room temperature. Later, exposing the slid to ultraviolet rays for 25 minutes where the color change of fixed bacteria sample on the slide to red - light brown color as a result of the reduction of silver metal which penetrate the cell. As result brighten bacterial cells were examine under an optical microscope, which distinguishes the bacterial cells.


Article
Procalcitonin, Interleukin-1, Interleukin-10, Interleukin-13 and Tumor necrosis factor-alpha predictive value in the diagnosis of sepsis
القيمة التخمينية للبروكالسيتونين, انترليوكين-1, انترليوكين -10, انترليوكين-13, وعامل نخر الورم-الفا في تشخيص انتان الدم

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The present study is aimed to evaluate the role of some markers in the diagnosis of sepsis among SIRS (systemic inflammatory response syndrome) patients. The study included 180 patients with SIRS criteria within 24 hour of admission. They were admitted to different hospitals in Mosul city for the period from January 2013 to January 2014. From each patient two blood samples were collected, one for blood culture and the other separated by centrifugation and kept frozen for ELISA tests of PCT, IL-1, TNF-α, IL-10 and IL-13. IL-1, IL-10, IL-13 and PCT were having a significant difference in mean between culture positive and negative cases. PCT was significantly highly elevated in patients with sepsis (P=0.004) with high sensitivity (93.7%) and specificity (90.1%). Many combinations of markers were used in the current study to find out the best combination of markers. The results of using combined sensitivity and specificity of PCT together with 2 anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10 and IL-13) were the best. They were an excellent markers with 100% sensitivity and the highest specificity.


Article
A new non-linear conjugate gradient method based on the Dai-Liao and Kafaki-Ghanbari methods
طريقة جديدة للمتجهات المترافقة غير الخطية أستناداً الى طريقتي Dai- Liao و Kafaki-Ghanbari

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Based on the Dai-Liao and Kafaki-Ghanbari methods, a new non-linear conjugate gradient method is proposed. Under proper conditions, it is briefly shown that our proposed method possess the descent property and generates conjugate directions. We also show that the suggested method with Wolfe line search conditions is globally convergent. Numerical results illustrates that our suggested method can efficiently solve the test problems and therefore is promising.


Article
Vancomycin Resistance among Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from Clinical Samples in Erbil City, Iraq
مقاومة الفانكومايسين في المكورات العنقودية الذهبية المقاومة للمثيسلين و المعزولة من العينات السريرية في مدينة أربيل، العراق

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Objective: To determine the prevalence of VRSA among patients attending Erbil Teaching Hospital and their resistance to community used antibiotics. Materials and methods: Cultural studies using different cultures and biochemical tests were done to ensure the identity of species under study. Susceptibility of the isolates for the antibiotics test were done using discs of twenty two different antibiotic discs including (Carbenicillin (CAR), Vancomycin (VA), Clindamycin (DA), Methicillin (MY), Cephalothin (KF), Pipercillin (PRL), Nitrofurantoin (F), Cephalexin (CL), Rifampicin (RA), Gentamycin (G), Chloramphenicol (C), Trimethoprim–Sulphamethaxazole (SXT), Ceftazidime (CAZ), Polymyxin B (PB), Amoxicillin–Clavulanic acid (AMC), Doxycycline (DO), Amikacin (AK), Oxacillin (OX), Ciprofloxacin (CIP), Cefixime (CFM), Cefoperazone (CEP) and Neomycin (NEO). Results: The results show that resistance for the antibiotics ranged from 26.31% to 98.61% for DA and MY consecutively. 78.94% of those demonstrated resistance to MY have also found resist to VA antibiotic. Thus, the current study concludes that some strains of S. aureus isolates acquired genes that are able to resist those antibiotics. Conclusions: In conclusion, the results of the current study showed an increase of Vancomycin resistance among MRSA and excessive use of antimicrobial agents have worsened the sensitivity, which call for further epidemiological studies


Article
Extraction and characterization of Arylesterase enzyme from (peel and pulp) of Annona muricata fruit.
استخلاص وتوصيف انزيم اريل استيريز من لب وقشره ثمره القشطه

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The extraction of arylesterase from the aqueous extract of (peel and pulp) of Annona muricata fruit was conducted using different biochemical techniques. It was shown that, max activity was obtained in the pulp than in peel, and by using gel filtration chromatography on sephadex G-75 for the pulp part, the solution of the proteinous precipitate produced by acetone precipitation, contained three proteinous peaks. The activity for peak A (1653) and peak B(2310.9) but the third peak C was very low. while maximum specific activity was obtained in the second peak (B) which showed (23107), (18366 ) IU/ml /mg for (A) and very low for the third one (C), and (12.58),(26.531) folds of purification for B and A peaks respectively .Furthermore, the comparative molecular weight of the partially purified isoenzymes arylesterase (peaks B and A) using gel filtration were found to be (92,129), (86,895) Dalton respectively. The optimum conditions of arylesterase were determined as maximum activity was obtained using (9 mM) Tris – HCl as a buffer at pH (7.2), with incubation temperature (37ºC), incubation time (25min) and (4mM) of phenyl acetate as a substrate. Using Linweaver–Burk plot, it was found that maximum velocity (Vmax) and Michaela’s constant (Km) had the values of (211UI/ml) and (2.8 mM) respectively.


Article
Theoretical study of the Electron energy distribution Function and the ionization coefficient for pure Krypton, Chlorine discharge and their mixtures
دراسة نظرية لدالة توزيع طاقة الالكترون ومعامل التاين في غازي الكربتون والكلور النقيين وخليطيهما

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Abstract

Theoretical calculations performed on the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) and ionization coefficient ( ) in pure Krypton (Kr) and pure chlorine (Cl2) and their mixtures by using Boltzmann transport equation. The numerical solutions are utilized within the international computer code kinema-Elendif. The results have been compared successfully with other researcher's results and there was a good agreements. A set of electron cross-section data have been used in the calculation. The calculated distribution function found to be remarked non-Maxwellian that have energy variations which reflect the import electron-molecule energy exchange processes. It is noted that a small quantity of Cl2 add to pure Kr affects the electron energy distribution function and the ionization coefficient of the mixtures.


Article
Vitamin D Status Among Women Living in Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region and HPLC-MS Analysis for MeasuringVitamin D in Organic and Non-organic Eggs
نسبة فيتامين (د) عند النساء في مدينة السليمانية ,أقليم كردستان واستخدام مقياس الطيف الكتلي لقياس نسبةهذا الفيتامين في صفار البيض البلدي والتجاري

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Vitamin D is a suparstar of our health. Sun exposure is the major source of vitamin D for most humans, and the primary cause of vitamin D deficiency in women living in Kurdistan is the lack of appreciation of the sun. Very few foods naturally known to contain vitamin D, and these foods are not a part of these women daily meals. In the first section of this study, the measured serum 25(OH), D levels for 1128 women and girls were considered. Over 79% of these results were below the standard range value. In the second part of this study, we use analysis with the Hight Performance Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-MS) method to elucidate the ratio of Vitamin D between commercially produced eggs (non-organic eggs) and Vitamin D in eggs produced by hens raised on pasture (organic eggs). Data showed vitamin D content in organic eggs 7.66 fold higher than non-organic eggs. It is clear that attention should pay to the vitamin D status of women in Kurdistan


Article
Preparation of Some mercurated Polyacrylamide and It’s Copolymers and Their Industrial Applications
تحضير البولي أكريل أمايد و بعض بوليمراته المشتركة الحاوية على الزئبق و دراسة تطبيقاتها الصناعية

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polyacrylamide and some of its copolymers with styrene and N-vinyl carbazole have been prepared by free radical polymerization and some chemical modifications by using bromine, xanthhydrol and mercuration with mercury oxide and mercuric acetate have been done on polyacrylamide and its copolymers. This study was carried out to remove dibenzothiophene from model light oil (benzene containing DBT, 3080 ppm. sulfur content) by using the mercurated polymers.The analysis of the resulting treated DBT solution to know the sulfur concentration was obtained by using atomic absorption The mercurated polymers were identified spectroscopicaly using infrared spectroscopy.


Article
Synthesis and Characterization of Copper Substituted Lithium Nano Ferrites by Sol-Gel Auto combustion
دراسة خواص اوكسيد الحديد النانوي المعوض بأيونات النحاس واليثيوم والمحضر بطريقة الاحتراق الذاتي للسائل الهلامي

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In this work sol-gel method used for preparing nanoscale iron oxide ferrites dopant by copper and lithium, which carries the chemical formula Li1-xCuxFe5O8 where x is the added ratio as molar ratio (x = 0,0.1,0.2,0.3,0.4,0.5,0.6 and 1), during the self- combustion for sol-gel which happen at temperature of 200oC, after that the samples were divided into four groups , the first group namely that have not been annealed while the other groups ; the second, third and fourth were annealed at 500oC , 700oC and 900oC respectively. In this work the crystalline structure have a dominate phases which have been studied by using the X-ray diffraction as well as examination of the electron microscope and examine the infrared -mediated model of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer either the topography of the surface has been studied by using an atomic force microscope, examine the properties of electrical capacitive mediated capacitance measuring device, resistance and the inductor also studied. And indirectly through these tests was to know the size of the structural unit of the crystal density theory and fixed lattice, as well as the size of the grain has been measured by X-ray diffraction, while a microscopic blocs have checked mediated electron microscopy scan scanner, either measuring the size of the granules on the surface of the sample and the coefficient of roughness has been measured mediated by an atomic force microscope and the type of bonds that bind atoms in the crystal and the type of crystalline eccentric may checked mediated infrared while measuring the properties of capacitive and portability electrical conductivity of the alternating current it may have been mediated by checking capacitive properties. he current study focuses on measuring the properties of capacitive, which takes into account the effect of changing the copper content in the samples and the degree of sintering temperature as well as the change altered applied to the samples from the external voltage source, as well as the loss of electric power when the power is in the passage of the samples


Article
Novel vortex phases and vortex manipulation in highly anisotropic superconductors by Scanning Hall Probe Microscopy (SHPM)
اطوارالدوامية الجديدة والتلاعب الدوامية في الموصلات الفائقة ذات خواص عالية التباين بواسطة مستشعرهول الماسح مايكروسكوبي

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Scanning Hall probe microscopy (SHPM) has been used to demonstrate the interaction of pancake vortices with the Josephson vortex lattice in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ (2212) single crystals at large in-plane fields in the ‘‘crossing lattices” regime of highly anisotropic cuprate superconductors. SHPM has been used to study vortex structures in the interacting crossing lattices regime under applied in and out-of- plane magnetic fields. The interactions between the pancake and Josephson vortices (JV) depend on the values of crossing fields and temperature and the space between chains varies inversely with the in-plane field. These chains are clearly visible at very high in-plane fields HII~315 G over a range of out-of-plane fields 1.7- 6.8 G at 85 K. The study of such chains allows a better understand the regime of crossing vortex lattices in highly anisotropic cuprate superconductors.


Article
Studying effect of Zr concentration on the properties of Pb(Zrx,Ti1-x)O3 /n-Si and Pb(Zrx,Ti1-x)O3 /n-PS Photodetectors prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD)
دراسة تاثير تركيز Zr على خصائص الكواشف Pb(Zrx,Ti1-x)O3 /n-Si and Pb(Zrx,Ti1-x)O3 /n-PS المحضر بطريقة الترسيب بالليزر النبضي.

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Pb(Zrx,Ti1-x)O3 (PZT) powder was prepared via solid-state reaction and deposited on n-type silicon wafers ( Pb(Zrx,Ti1-x)O3/n-Si ) and on n-type porous silicon ( Pb(Zrx,Ti1-x)O3/n-PS ) of (111) orientation and (0.015 Ω.cm) resistivity by (PLD). We used the photoelectrochemical etching cell for creation the porosity layers on the silicon wafers. Using thermal evaporation system to evaporate Al on the back of the wafer to make an ohmic contact thick film. Spectral measurements ( responsivity, quantum efficiency, detectivity and noise equivalent power ) for Pb(Zrx,Ti1-x)O3 /n-Si and Pb(Zrx,Ti1-x)O3 /n-PS devices show ( 1.2482, 0.4422% , 2.207×1010 and 0.45×10-10 ) and ( 1.5695, 0.5561%, 2.618×1010 and 0.36×10-10 ) respectively. the favorite x content of Zr is 0.5 for all samples. spectral parameters for devices assign to the stable behavior of the samples after etching procedure and its values are larger than that for without porous


Article
Influence of Surface Roughness and Hub Thickness on Interference Fitting
تأثير خشونة الأسطح وسمك المحمل على التركيب التداخلي

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In this study the mechanical behaviors of shaft and hub were investigated by using the experimental tests by measuring the required axial load during coupling and decoupling in interference fitting. The surface roughness of the shaft and hub thickness effects on the mechanical property of interference was studied. All tests were performed for constant interference fit classes for three different surface roughness of the shaft without changing the inner surface roughness of the hub. Also four different outer diameters of hubs with keeping constant surface roughness of the inner diameter of hub studied, thus 21 samples of interference studied. The analysis of variance reveals in this study is that the best interference tightens condition is achieved at fine surfaces, the results also show that the hub thickness effect and increases the stresses are usually generated immediately and reach maximum value in the inner site of hub after the assembly completed. Finite element model of shaft and hub was established, and the equivalent stress and contact stress for different hub thickness were computed after interference coupling, diameters in the thin hubs increase when coupling complete which reduces the interference between the shaft and hub.


Article
Design of Voltage Mode 6th Order Elliptic Band-pass Filter Using Z-Copy Current Follower Transconductance Amplifier )ZC-CFTA(
تصميم مرشح حزمة ذو نمط فولتية من الدرجة السادسة من نوع (elliptic) باستخدام مضخم نوع ZC-CFTA

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This paper describes the realization of the new configuration of an active element namely, Z Copy Current Follower Transconductance Amplifier (ZC-CFTA). In this study, the elliptic 6th order voltage-mode (VM) Band-pass filter was configured based on the ZC-CFTA, which operates at a high frequency of about 30 MHz. The active element also contains floated and grounded inductance with one capacitor. The ZC-CFTA which is an ABB (Active Building Block) is configured with a passive element that is the 6th order elliptic Band Pass Filter. The results LT-SPICE software simulation using 0.18µm CMOS processing parameter show that the designed filter could be operated at a supply voltage of 0.9V and it offers the advantages of a small size and high gain.


Article
Head lice infestation among local and displaced secondary school girls and its effect on some haematological parameters in Kirkuk city.
اصابة قمل الراس لدى الطالبات في المدارس الثانوية المحلية والنازحة وتأثيرها على بعض القياسات الدموية في مدينة كركوك

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Background: Head lice infestation is one of the most important health problems throughout of the world. The species which cause pediculosis in humanus beings is Pediculus humanus capities. Objectives: The aim of the current study is to estimate the distribution of head lice among local and displaced secondary school girls to assess haemoglobin and packed cell volume in Kirkuk city. Methods: The hair of all students was examined by researchers and blood samples were drawn from each student for determination of haemoglobin concentration and PCV percentage. A questionnaire form was filled for each student including personal and family information. The student t-test was used to show significant difference of PCV and Hb between lice infested and non infested students. Results: The overall rate of head lice infestation among secondary students girls was 34.7% (displaced 42.7% and local 26.7%). The highest rate of infestation was among 16-18 years and lowest was among 13-15 years. The highest rate in displaced students was among middle educated status, while in local students among low educated status. The PCV and Hb values in infested girls were lower than non- infested ones.


Article
Three-terms conjugate gradient algorithm based on the Dai-Liao and the Powell symmetric methods
خوارزمية التدرج المترافق ذواتَ الحدود الثلاثة أستناداً الى طريقتي Dai-Liaoو Powell Symmetric

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Based on the Dai-Laio and Powell symmetric methods, we developed a new three – term conjugate gradient method for solving large-scale unconstrained optimization problem. The suggested method satisfies both the descent condition and the conjugacy condition. For uniformly convex function, under standard assumption the global convergence of the algorithm is proved. Finally, some numerical results of the proposed method are given.


Article
Fractionation and characterization of Crude Oil Components from Al-Rashidiya Field - Eastern Baghdad using Chromatography Method
فصل وتشخيص المكونات الاساسية للنفط الخام من حقل الراشدية - شرقي بغداد باستخدام تقنية الكروموتغرافيا

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Study and separating of crude oil components from Al-Rashidiya field - Eastern Baghdad- Iraq was achieved. Samples were taken and separated into two important parts Asphaltene and Maltin (saturated, aromatic and resin). The separation was done by organic solvent such as n-hexane. Maltin separated by column chromatography technique (liquid – solid) to basic saturated, aromatic and resin components, this technique called (SARA) (saturated, aromatic, resin and asphaltene). Three absorption layers used, alumina layer Al2O¬3, silica SiO2 and combination layer from Al2O3 and SiO2. All the components were collected dried and weighted. In order to determining the classification types, isolated compounds were studied spectrally using NMR spectrum (13CNMR, 1HNMR) by identify structures of separated materials.


Article
Study of the Possibility of Achieving the Same Per-Port Outflow in a Dividing Manifold
دراسة إمكانية تحقيق تدفق متساوي خلال منافذ الخروج في مشعّب توزيع

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There have been several attempts to optimise fluid flow manifolds; these, however, have shown are limited and further investigation into the efficiency of these systems is needed. This work focuses on improving the distribution manifolds efficacy in outflow division, i.e. attaining the same flow rate per each exit port of the manifold. Water has been selected to be the working fluid. A numerical investigation utilising CFD (by ANSYS Fluent R16.2) analysis into two-dimensional, incompressible, and turbulent flow has been carried out to resolve the flow manifold problem using two turbulence modelling, Standard k-ε and RNG k-ε, approaches. Four values of flow rate have been considered, which are specified by the Reynolds numbers 101×103, 202×103, 303×103, and 404×103. These values correspond to the fluid inlet velocities 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 m/s, respectively. The manifold configuration is defined by the given area ratio (total cross-sectional area for laterals /header cross-sectional area). Three values of area ratio are considered; these are 0.703125, 0.84375, and 0.984375. The results indicate that the flow uniformity has a reverse proportional relationship with the fluid flow rate and area ratio for all manifold arrangements. However, there is no significant effect of the flow rate increase on flow mal-distribution. Also, the use of RNG k-ε model has shown higher values of the non-uniformity coefficient than those obtained by the Standard k-ε model. The outcomes of this analysis have been compared with experimental data and a good agreement among them has been found.

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