Table of content

Iraqi Journal of Science

المجلة العراقية للعلوم

ISSN: 00672904
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Science
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi journal of science is a quarterly specified scientific journal issued by the Faculty of Science at the University of Baghdad. The members of the Editorial Board representing the Departments of Eight Scientific departments, college of science/ Baghdad University and its related units of research, all are professors, scientists with extensive experience and considerable skills in their field of science, as well as an advisory board in support composed of professors and scientists with great reputation in their field of science from other Colleges, universities, or research institutes. The specialty of publication includes the following fields:

1.Pure and Applied Physics.
2.Mathematical Sciences.
3.Computer Science and Information Technology.
4.Science of chemistry.
5.Bio-Science technologies.
6.Earth Sciences, geo-physics, and remote sensing.
7.Astronomy, Space Sciences, and Remote Sensing Unit.
8.Science and Research of tropical area

The visions, goals, and the mechanisms of the Iraqi Journal of Science is to publish scientific research sober in the areas of Applied and Pure Sciences and instructive Iraqi society, scientific research, scientific interest large to contribute to the development of various disciplines, which provides significant support to researchers in all scientific facilities to continue to support the development plans in Iraq.

Loading...
Contact info

Baghdad University
College of Science
Baghdad
Iraq
ijs@scbaghdad.edu.iq
07903375590
http://ijs.scbaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2017 volume:58 issue:1C

Article
Synthesis and Characterization of New Polyesters Derived From 4, 4'-Azodibenzoic Acid, Malic Acid and Adipic Acid With Aromatic Diols
تحضير وتشخيص بولي استرات جديدة مشتقة من 4,4 ازو ثنائي حامض البنزويك وحامض الماليك وحامض الأديبيك مع مركبات أروماتية ثنائية الهيدروكسيل

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

A series of new aromatic polyesters have been synthesized by polycondensation of different aromatic diols (M1, M2 ,M3) with different dicarboxlic acids (4,4'azo di benzoic acid, malic acid and adipic acid) using dibutyltine dilaurate as catalyst . The preparation of thermally stable polyesters was successfully applied with good yields (60-85%). All polyesters (PE1-PE4) containing aliphatic methylene linkage, and azo group in the main chain. The resulted polymers are readily soluble in aprotic polar solvents , such as (pyridine , CHCl3 , CH2Cl2 , NaOH , H2SO4 , HNO3 , acetone , benzene , DMF , DMSO , THF) without need for heating. Thermal analysis of polyesters by Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) reveals that these aromatic polyesters possess thermal stability. Monomers and polyesters were characterized by FT-IR and1HNMR spectroscopies.


Article
Macrolides –Lincosamides - Streptogramins) and Vancomycin Resistance Phenotypes of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated From Clinical Samples by Using Vitek 2 Compact System
الانماط المظهرية لمقاومة مضادات (الماكروليدات- اللنكوسامايد– الستربتوغرامين)والفانكومايسين Vitek2copmpact system لبكتريا المكورات العنقودية المعزولة من نماذج سريرية باستخدام

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The study was carried out to investigate MLS and vancomycin resistance phenotypes in S.aureus isolated from different clinical samples .A total of 40 of S.aureus isolated from Baghdad hospitals from different clinical samples such as blood , urin, sputum ,skin and ear swabs used to identified MLS and vancomycin resistance phenotypes.The susceptibility pattern showed that 3 islolates (7.5) % constitutive resistance to erythromycin ,clindamycin and streptogramins (cMLS) while 9 isolates (22.5)% gave inducible resistance to erythromycin ,clindamycin and streptogramins (iMLS) , 10 isolates (25)% showed resistance to erythromycin and sensitive to clindamycin (M phenotype) and 18 isolates (45)% of S.aureus isolates had resistance phenotype to streptogramin A and B (SAB). (5)% of S.aureus isolates had resistance to vancomycin (VRSA) (85)% of isolates were vancomycin sensitive (VSSA) and (10)% of S.aureus isolates had intermediate resistance to vancomycin (VISA) with heterogeneously VISA phenotype (hetero-VISA or h-VISA).

Keywords

S.aureus --- iMLS --- cMLS --- MS --- SAB VRSA --- VSSA --- hVISA


Article
Detection of Cadmium and Chromium in some Facial Cosmetics
التحري عن عنصري الكروم والكادميوم في بعض مستحضرات تجميل الوجه

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

This study was done to compare among 120 new and used cosmetic brands to determine the heavy metals concentrations (Cadmium, Chromium) in (face foundation, powder and blushers). Sixty new cosmetic products were bought from local markets in Baghdad city (twenty different brands foe each cosmetic products), while sixty used cosmetic products were collected from Iraqi women and they had been stored for a long time. This study proved that not all analyzed cosmetic products containing heavy metals concentrations and all concentrations are under Iraqi acceptable limits except one new blusher product which contained chromium with (28 ppm), but all used cosmetic products have shown better results in concentrations of heavy metals than new products and we found that foundations are the best from all analyzed products, although these have emulsion texture which is difficult to store and easily to contaminate; even though most of these cosmetic products have label of ingredients and brand, or free from production and expiration date, that will not prevent any presence of heavy metals within their chemical structure. Women must avoid using the same brand and store the products for a long period to prevent expose to the same chemical ingredients of these products because of being vulnerable to biodegradation and refraining to buy products without a certain brand or country origin.


Article
A Comparative Study of Amoxicillin Sensitivity Against Escherichia coli Isolates Isolated from Urinary Tract Infections
دراسة مقارنة حساسية مضاد الاموكسيلين ضد بكتيريا الاشيريشا القولونية المعزولة من التهاب المجاري البولية

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The purpose of this study was to investigate the bacterial etiology of urinary tract infections microbiologic properties of Escherichia coli isolated from urinary tract infection patients against nine amoxicillin antibiotic. E.coli isolates were collected from patients samples suffering from urinary tract infection, based on biochemical tests of Epi 20 system .Nine Amoxicillin antibiotics were selected (some vials and other are capsules) which manufactured in different countries were bought from local pharmacies in Baghdad, for the purpose of knowing the inhibitory activity of these antibiotics on E.coli one of the main microorganisms to cause urinary tract infection, the antibiotics were prepared in a concentration of 100mg/ml and their activity was tested against the growth of the selected isolates and variations in the results were noted. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested by the disk diffusion method. Results showed that. E. coli reveals variations in the susceptibility to amoxicillin.


Article
The adsorption of Cadmium and Lead Ions from aqueous solutions using non living biomass of Phragmites australis
امتزاز ايونات الكادميوم والرصاص من المحاليل المائية باستخدام الكتلة الحيوية غير الحية لنبات القصب

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Adsorption is a simplified new way, easy application , economical and environmentally friendly. In which the use of certain types of plants to remove or reduce toxic heavy metals from water. The current study involved the use of a non-living biomass as a powder for local plant available in the Iraqi environment is Phragmites australis .This the study showed the high ability of this plant to remove cadmium and lead ions from the aqueous solutions within variable experimental factors by column bed method which were used to test different sizes of plant powder were (500.1000, 1500 and 2000) µm . These sizes treated with initial concentration of Cd(II), Pb(II) was 25ppm , separately To test the optimum size for maximum adsorption and was 1000 µm . After that were tested different concentrations of Cd, Pb are (25, 50, 75, 100, 125,150,175,200)ppm with powder size of 1000 µm . And the optimum concentration was 100ppm. Different flow rates (0.5, 1, 1.5, 2) ml / min were tested with the powder size at 1000 µm and concentration for each metal was 100ppm and the optimum flow rate was 1 ml / min . All the experiments conducted at constant the mean of pH was 5, 32, temperature 22 ± 2 , contact time ranged (22-40) minutes. Results of statistical analysis showed that the optimum conditions of the maximum adsorption were at 1000 µm of powder size, 100ppm of initial metal concentration, flow rate of 1 ml / min and the high removal rates of cadmium and lead ions by P. australis were 95,16 % and 92.76% , respectively .


Article
The adsorption of Cadmium and Lead Ions from aqueous solutions using non living biomass of Phragmites australis
امتزاز ايونات الكادميوم والرصاص من المحاليل المائية باستخدام الكتلة الحيوية غير الحية لنبات القصب

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Adsorption is a simplified new way, easy application , economical and environmentally friendly. In which the use of certain types of plants to remove or reduce toxic heavy metals from water. The current study involved the use of a non-living biomass as a powder for local plant available in the Iraqi environment is Phragmites australis .This the study showed the high ability of this plant to remove cadmium and lead ions from the aqueous solutions within variable experimental factors by column bed method which were used to test different sizes of plant powder were (500.1000, 1500 and 2000) µm . These sizes treated with initial concentration of Cd(II), Pb(II) was 25ppm , separately To test the optimum size for maximum adsorption and was 1000 µm . After that were tested different concentrations of Cd, Pb are (25, 50, 75, 100, 125,150,175,200)ppm with powder size of 1000 µm . And the optimum concentration was 100ppm. Different flow rates (0.5, 1, 1.5, 2) ml / min were tested with the powder size at 1000 µm and concentration for each metal was 100ppm and the optimum flow rate was 1 ml / min . All the experiments conducted at constant the mean of pH was 5, 32, temperature 22 ± 2 , contact time ranged (22-40) minutes. Results of statistical analysis showed that the optimum conditions of the maximum adsorption were at 1000 µm of powder size, 100ppm of initial metal concentration, flow rate of 1 ml / min and the high removal rates of cadmium and lead ions by P. australis were 95,16 % and 92.76% , respectively .


Article
Performance of VITEK 2 in the routine identification of bacteria from positive blood cultures in Sulaimani pediatrics’ hospital
أداء جهاز VITEK2 في الفحوصات الروتينية لتشخيص البكتريا من مزارع الدم الموجبة في مستشفى الاطفال في السليمانية

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Sepsis is a major cause of death worldwide among hospitalized patients, however, an accurate and advanced identification method is associated with improved sepsis patient survival. This Retrospective study carried out in Sulaimani pediatric teaching hospital from January 2014 to July 2015 and aimed to compare the effectiveness of VITEK 2 system with traditional manual procedures for identification of pathogenic bacteria in patients with a serious disease like sepsis. The positive blood cultures were divided into two groups; 138 positive cultures identified by conventional manual methods and 104 positive cultures identified by automated VITEK 2 system. The results showed that VITEK 2 system identified 16 genera and 30 species whereas only nine genera with seven species diagnosed by using routine method. The most important result during this study was the identification of five uncommon bacterial genera Kocuria, Leuconostic, Cedecea, Pantoea and Burkhoderia which have never been diagnosed in the microbiology laboratory of the hospital until the modern automated system VITEK 2 use. In conclusion, using VITEK 2 is required to enhance the performance of hospital’s microbiology laboratory which is essential for accurate diagnosis and prompt effective treatment of blood stream infections.

Keywords

Sepsis --- VITEK 2 --- Blood culture


Article
Use of crude plant extract of Adhatodavasica as insecticides againstBemisiatabaci
استخدام المستخلص الخام لنبات حلق السبع الشجيري كمبيد لحشرة الذبابة البيضاء

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The present study evaluates the insecticidal activity of (Acetone, 80% Methanol and water) crude leaf extract of AdhatodavasicaagainstBemisiatabaci. The extracts of (Acetone, Methanol 80%) showed 100, 86.6% mortality of nymphsBemisiatabaci at 5% concentration. Then the extracts of (Acetone, Methanol 80%) showed 100, 90% mortality of pupaBemisiatabaci at 5% concentration. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of (Flavones, Volatiles oils, Tannins, Saponines, Glycosides, Alkaloids,Resins and Terpenoids)in methanol80% crude extract. It can be concluded that the acetone and methanol crude leaf extract of A. vasicaNees can cause mortality in (nymphs, pupa) Bemisiatabaci, so it can be used asinsecticides.


Article
Association between MethylenetetrahydrofolateReductase (MTHFR) GenePolymorphisms and breast cancer in sample of Iraqi women
العلاقه بين تعدد الاشكال للجين مثيل تتراهايدرو فوليت المختزل(C677T) وسرطان الثدي في عينة من النساء العراقيات

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Folate metabolism is fundamental and essential for DNA structure synthesis and repair. Change in genes that participate in folate metabolism can be linked with different types of malignant tumor, Therefore, this study was conducted to find out the association between methylenetetrahydrofolatereductaseMTHFR gene polymorphisms and risk of breast cancer in a sample of Iraqi patients. One Single Nucleotide Polymorphism ( SNP) including MTHFR C677T was calculated using a tetra primer ARMS PCR experiment assay. The results explained that (MTHFR C677T) consists of three genotype (CC, CT, TT), The CC genotype was the most frequent in patients and control group ( 40.00%) and(60.00%) ,respectively, while the lowest frequency was for TT genotype(26.25%) in patients group .This study also revealed that the higher frequency 56.88 % for allele C and 43.12 % for T allele in patients group . On the other hand the Odd Ratio ( O.R.) for CC, CT , TT genotypes were 1.073, 0.862 and 1.148 respectively, and the genotypes TT show a highest O.R.


Article
Preparation and Characterization of Chemical Bath Deposition synthesis CdS Nanocrystalline Thin Films
تحضيراغشية CdS النانوية بطريقة الترسيب بالحمام الكيميائي ودراسة خصائصها

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanocrystalline thin films are prepared onto ITO-glass and Si(111) substrates by chemical bath deposition method. The scanning electron microscope images showed that the CdS thin film onto Si substrate is more homogenous without vacancies. The XRD patterns of the CdS nanocrystalline thin film confirm that they have polycrystalline with cubic phase. Room temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectrum of the CdS nanocrystalline thin films shows emission band located at 502nm for CdS/Si sample while the CdS/ITO-glass thin films shows a broad emission band peaked at 505nm. The Raman spectra of CdS nanocrystalline thin films prepared onto Si and ITO-glass substrates contain two main peaks which are corresponding to the first and second-order longitudinal optical (LO) phonon modes.


Article
Facies Analysis of The Siliciclastic-calciturbidites, Gercus Formation In Dokan Area, Ne-Iraq; New Insight On Deposition Enviroment And Basin Evolution
التحليل السحني لصخور المتعكرات السليكاتية الفتاتية - الجيرية لتكوين الجركس في منطقة دوكان, شمال العراق: نظرة جديدة في بيئة الترسيب البحرية وتطور الحوض الرسوبي

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Sedimentologic and facies evidences reveal a marine environment for the Gercus Formation. Facies analysis and associated sedimentary structures including graded beddings decide turbidity origin of the rocks. Marine environment is supported by the identifying glauconite and fossils types reported for the first time. The formation composed of seven lithotypes; shale/claystone, mudstone, sandstone, carbonate, conglomerate, breccias and debris flow, which are arranged in repeated cycles of mixed siliciclastic-carbonate turbidites in a range of gravity-flow regime. The Gercus successions are grouped into four facies associations confirming marine depositional systems, these are (from bottom to top); slump siliciclastic-calciturbidites (dolomite/shale dominated), proximal siliciclastic-calciturbidites (dolomite/sand dominated), distal siliciclastic-calciturbidites (sand/mud dominated) and slope siliciclastic turbidites (sand/clay dominated) respectively. Petrographic analysis of sandstone units show predominant of lithic fragments, most of it are carbonate with subordinate tuffaceous fragments, chert, chalcedony, volcanic ash, metamorphic and detrital iron oxides grains, with noticeable grains of glauconite. Varieties of marine fossils are identified includes planktonic bivalves and benthic forams of cool water, which support the deeper marine environment. Petrographic examination of carbonate units reveal skeletal grains of benthic and planktonic forams, stromatolite, planktonic bivalves, corals and algae, with non-skeletal grains of chert, chalcedony, tuffaceous fragments, volcanic ash, and volcanic bubbles. Petrography, lithofacies and lithostratigraphic analysis of the Gercus Formation suggest deposition in developed marine environment, mainly effected by gravity-flow turbidity currents, and displays successive submarine fans of high density turbulent currents in deeper margins. Mixed siliciclastic-carbonate cycles were deposited in intervals of weaning of turbulent currents. Based on clast type and size, it seems likely that a weakly turbulent to laminar gravity-flow phase was present when the flow event entered the basin at the end part of the fan. A change in flow behavior may have led to deposit sand-rich unit with ‘turbidite’ characteristics, which was subsequently grades upwards to clay-dominated unit. This paper presents new details of lithostratigraphic subdivisions and associations of the Gercus Formation in Koi Dokan area, and new suggested marine environment of deposition. The previous workers suggest continental and probably mixed with deltaic environments in the upper part.

Keywords

Gercus --- turbidites --- gravity flow --- Eocene --- NE Iraq.


Article
Examples of α-Skew π-Armendariz Rings
امثلة على حلقات تعاكس α-ارمندرايز من النمط π

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

In this paper extensive examples and related counterexamples of the category of α-skew π-Armendariz rings are given. This category of rings regards a new generalization for the concepts of α-skew Armendariz and skew π-Armendariz rings. A ring Α is called α-skew π-Armendariz if for any φ(χ)=∑_(z=0)^λ▒〖ι_z χ^z 〗 and ψ(χ)=∑_(s=0)^μ▒〖ν_s χ^s 〗∈Α[χ;α] such that φ(χ)ψ(χ)∈N(Α[χ;α]), then ι_z α^z (ν_s)∈N(Α) for each 0≤z≤λ and 0≤s≤μ. First some general properties of α-skew π-Armendariz rings are studied and then relations between α-skew π-Armendariz rings and other related rings are investigated. Also various examples of non α-skew π-Armendariz rings are established.

Keywords

-skew


Article
Schauder Fixed Point Theorems in Intuitionistic Fuzzy Metric Space
مبرهنات شاودر النقطة الصامدة في الفضاء المتري الضبابي الحدسي

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

In this paper, we will study a concepts of sectional intuitionistic fuzzy continuous and prove the schauder fixed point theorem in intuitionistic fuzzy metric space as a generalization of fuzzy metric space and prove a nother version of schauder fixed point theorem in intuitionistic fuzzy metric space as a generalization to the other types of fixed point theorems in intuitionistic fuzzy metric space considered by other researchers, as well as, to the usual intuitionistic fuzzy metric space.


Article
Fuzzy Entropy in Adaptive Fuzzy Weighted Linear Regression Analysis with Application to Estimate Infant Mortality Rate
الأنتروبي الضبابي في تحليل الإنحدار الخطي الضبابي الموزون المكيف مع تطبيق لتقدير معدل وفيات الرضع

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

An adaptive fuzzy weighted linear regression model in which the output is based on the position and entropy of quadruple fuzzy numbers had dealt with. The solution of the adaptive models is established in terms of the iterative fuzzy least squares by introducing a new suitable metric which takes into account the types of the influence of different imprecisions. Furthermore, the applicability of the model is made by attempting to estimate the fuzzy infant mortality rate in Iraq using a selective set of inputs.


Article
Performance Evaluation of IPv6 Header Compression over MPLS via Satellite
تقييم اداء ضغط عنوان بروتوكول IPv6 عبر بروتوكول MPLS عبر الستلايت

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Broadband satellite is playing a main role in provision global coverage and onboard processing ability over IP networks to assess user applications. In order to lower the cost, get better security, solve IPv4 addressing limitation, expand the expected advantages of modern routing and mobility characteristics; the next-generation satellite systems ought to support IPv6 and seamlessly incorporate with terrestrial networks including wireless local loops. Satellite communication links have a number of limitations compared to terrestrial communications networks such as large delay and high header overhead for IPv6 consumes the bandwidth and causes lower transmission effectiveness; however, the quality of service (QoS) (such as delay, jitter, and goodput) is adversely influenced by these demerits. Current paper proposes UDP/IPV6 header compression over Multi-Protocol Label Switch (MPLS) via satellite scheme called (MPLSHCompViaSat). The aim of the proposed scheme is to save the required bandwidth in order to provide better network utilization and consequently improves the efficiency and QoS. For the sake of performance evaluation, the proposed scheme has been tested using Network Simulator (NS2).

Keywords

IPv4 --- IPv6 --- QoS --- MPLS --- NS-2 simulation.


Article
A Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithm based Feature Selection for Intrusion Detection
اختيار الميزة المعتمد على الخوارزمية التطورية متعددة الاهداف لكشف التطفل

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Nowad ays, with the development of internet communication that provides many facilities to the user leads in turn to growing unauthorized access. As a result, intrusion detection system (IDS) becomes necessary to provide a high level of security for huge amount of information transferred in the network to protect them from threats. One of the main challenges for IDS is the high dimensionality of the feature space and how the relevant features to distinguish the normal network traffic from attack network are selected. In this paper, multi-objective evolutionary algorithm with decomposition (MOEA/D) and MOEA/D with the injection of a proposed local search operator are adopted to solve the Multi-objective optimization (MOO) followed by Naïve Bayes (NB) classifier for classification purpose and judging the ability of the proposed models to distinguish between attack network traffic and normal network traffic. The performance of the proposed models is evaluated against two baseline models feature vitality based reduction method (FVBRM) and NB. The experiments on network security laboratory-knowledge discovery and data mining (NSL-KDD) benchmark dataset ensure the ability of the proposed MOO based models to select an optimal subset of features that has a higher discriminatory power for discriminating attack from normal over the baselines models. Furthermore, the proposed local search operator ensures its ability to harness the performance of MOO model through achieving an obvious feature reduction on average from 16.83 features to 8.54 features (i.e., approximately 50%) in addition to the increase in NB classifier accuracy from 98.829 to 98.859 and detection rate from 98.906 to 99.043.


Article
The Use of Wavelet, DCT & Quadtree for Images Color Compression
استخدام التحويل المويجي وتحويل الجيب تمام وترميز الشجرة الرباعية لضغط الصور الملونة

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The need for image compression is always renewed because of its importance in reducing the volume of data; which in turn will be stored in less space and transferred more quickly though the communication channels. In this paper a low cost color image lossy color image compression is introduced. The RGB image data is transformed to YUV color space, then the chromatic bands U & V are down-sampled using dissemination step. The bi-orthogonal wavelet transform is used to decompose each color sub band, separately. Then, the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) is used to encode the Low-Low (LL) sub band. The other wavelet sub bands are coded using scalar Quantization. Also, the quad tree coding process was applied on the outcomes of DCT and quantization processes. Finally, the adaptive shift coding is applied as high order entropy encoder to remove the remaining statistical redundancy to achieve efficiency in the performance of the compression process. The introduced system was applied on a set of standard color image; the attained compression results indicated good efficiency in reducing the size while keeping the fidelity level above the acceptable level, where it was obtained compression ratio which is around 1:40 for Color Lena, 1:30 for color Barbara.


Article
Proposed Hiding Text in Text Based On RNA for Encoding Secret Information
نطام مقترح لأخفاء نص في نص بالأعتماد على أر أن أي لترميز المعلومات السرية

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

In any security system, we need a high level of security, to maintain the secrecy of important data. Steganography is one of the security systems that are hiding secret information within a certain cover (video, image, sound, text), so that the adversary does not suspect the existence of such confidential information. In our proposed work will hide secret messages (Arabic or English) text in the Arabic cover text, we employed the RNA as a tool for encoding the secret information and used non-printed characters to hide these codes. Each character (English or Arabic) is represented by using only six bits based on secret tables this operation has provided a good compression since each Arabic character needs 16 bits and each English character needs 8 bits in a conventional method, using RNA with secret table has provided a good degree of security, moreover using non-printed characters, these characters do not appear on screen so have provided a complete similarity between the Arabic cover text and stegotext.

Keywords

Security --- Steganography --- RNA --- Codon --- Coding.


Article
Auto Crop and Recognition for Document Detection Based on its Contents
طريقة مقترحة لتميز محتويات الوثيقة بالاعتماد على القطع الالي

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

An Auto Crop method is used for detection and extraction signature, logo and stamp from the document image. This method improves the performance of security system based on signature, logo and stamp images as well as it is extracted images from the original document image and keeping the content information of cropped images. An Auto Crop method reduces the time cost associated with document contents recognition. This method consists of preprocessing, feature extraction and classification. The HSL color space is used to extract color features from cropped image. The k-Nearest Neighbors (KNN) classifier is used for classification.


Article
Simulations of Four Types of Optical Aberrations using Zernik Polynomials
محاكاة أربعة أنواع للزيوغ البصرية باستخدام متعددة الحدود لزرنيك

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

In this paper, a computer simulation is implemented to generate of an optical aberration by means of Zernike polynomials. Defocus, astigmatism, coma, and spherical Zernike aberrations were simulated in a subroutine using MATLAB function and applied as a phase error in the aperture function of an imaging system. The studying demonstrated that the Point Spread Function (PSF) and Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) have been affected by these optical aberrations. Areas under MTF for different radii of the aperture of imaging system have been computed to assess the quality and efficiency of optical imaging systems. Phase conjugation of these types aberration has been utilized in order to correct a distorted wavefront. The results showed that the largest effect on the PSF and MTF is due to the contribution of the third type coma aberrated wavefront.

Table of content: volume: issue: