Table of content

Al-Nahrain Journal of Science

مجلة النهرين للعلوم

ISSN: (print)26635453,(online)26635461
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University
Faculty: Science
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

ANJS(Al-Nahrain Journal of Science) has been published by College of Science since 1996. This Journal consists of the latest researches in both English and Arabic Languages within the Specializations of the scientific departments in the College.

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Contact info

Al-Nahrain Journal of Science
P.O. Box: 64055, Al-Jadriah, Baghdad, Iraq .
Email: alnahrain-sci@hotmail.com
Webmaster Email: webmaster@jnus.org

Table of content: 2017 volume:20 issue:2

Article
Synthesis and Characterization a New 1,3-Diazepine Compounds from New Bis 4-Amino-3-Mercpto-1,2,4-Triazole Derivatives

Authors: Atyaf AQ. Younus --- Nasreen R. Jber
Pages: 1-6
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Abstract

Compounds with two triazole rings IVa,b were synthesized through the reaction of diacid hydrazide firstly with CS2/KOH, and secondly with excess of hydrazine hydrate. The one-step reaction of isatin with benzylidene benzeneamine (S1–S10) in ethanol gave 2-Ar-3-Ar'[3,4b][1,3]benzodiazepine-4,5-diones (D1-D10) in good yields. The products were characterized using FTIR, 1HNMR spectroscopy and CHN elemental analyses. [DOI: 10.22401/JUNS.20.2.01]

Keywords

1 --- 3-Diazepine --- 1 --- 2 --- 4-Traiazole --- Schiff`s bases


Article
Evaluation of Haptoglobin and Neutrophil Gelatinase Associated Lipocalin in Iraqi Patient with Type 2 Diabetic Nephropathy

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Abstract

Diabetic Nephropathy (DN) is refereed as the kidney injury that occurs in individuals with diabetes, the earliest detectable change is the thickening in the glomerulus. The study objectives to estimate the diagnostic value plasma levels of Haptoglobin (HPt) and neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL) as biomarkers for early disclosure of nephropathy in type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients. The present study was conducted on sixty T2D patients diagnosed beforehand, these patients were categorized into two equal groups according to their albumin/ creatinine ratio (ACR), including patients with normoalbuminuria (I) (ACR<30mg/g Creatinine) and patients with microalbuminuria (II) (ACR=30-300 mg/g creatinine), twenty four healthy were chosen as a control group (III). Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), hemoglobin (Hb), U.Mic, U.Cr, ACR, HPt and NGAL were measured in the studied groups. NGAL & HP were found to have a strong positive correlation with fasting plasma glucose (FPG), urine microalbuminuria (U.Mic), urine Creatinine (U.Cr) and (ACR). The present study reveals high significant differences between male and female diabetic patient groups in terms of Hb. In conclusion, a significant role for plasma NGAL and HPt in pathogenesis and progression of renal harm in DM, and a strongly positive correlated with the severity of proteinuria. This may be clinically useful variables for predicting the improvement of DN in the early stages of T2DM in the Iraqi population.


Article
Using Vacuum Distillation Technique to Treat Waste Lubricating Oil and Evaluation its Efficiency by Chromatographic Methods

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Abstract

Today the world cares about recycles of industrial wastes in order to reduce the pollution in the environment and economic purposes. Waste lubricating oil is one of these residues that cause water, air and soil pollution when disposed of without treatment. In this work, vacuum distillation technique was applied to purify waste lubricating oil after primary treatments such as separation of water and filtration. Gas chromatography analysis was used to study the changes in chemical structures of the hydrocarbon fractions of treated lubricating oil and comparison them with those in fresh oil. The results showed that, the C10-C15 hydrocarbon fraction is increased and the C20-C25 is decreased for all type of hydrocarbon chemical structure after use of the lubricating oil. On the other hand, the comparison of hydrocarbon fraction of waste lubricating oil and gas oil showed that, there is close similarity between them according to the results of gas chromatography analysis.


Article
Antibacterial Evaluation of Nerium Oleander Extract Enhanced by Titanium Oxide Nanoparticles

Authors: Raghada S. A. Makia
Pages: 25-30
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Abstract

The antimicrobial activities of ethanolic extract of the Nerium oleander have been screened by anti-bacterial action against Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonie and Escherichia coli utilizing the disc diffusion test. An endeavor was additionally made to enhanced the antimicrobial activity of the ethanolic extract of Nerium oleander by blending of TiO2 nanoparticles with Nerium oleander extract. In view of the general results, the ethanolic extract of Nerium oleander enhanced by TiO2 Nps demonstrated the most activities against a wide range of tested bacteria, yet the ethanolic extract alone was observed to be dynamic against the S. aureus and E. coli, while a powerless antibacterial activity was observed against the ethanolic extract demonstrate a K. pneumonie. Inhibition efficiency increased with increasing concentration of the ethanolic extract of and also with enhanced by TiO2 Nps. The inhibition zone at the concentration 300 mg/mL in presence and absence of TiO2 NPs were 21 mm and 24 mm against Staphylococcus aureus and against Klebsiella pneumonie were 12 mm and 25 mm, finally for Escherichia coli were 23 mm and 29 mm respectively.


Article
Effect of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Hormones Disorder on Enzymes Gammaglutamyl Transferase, Oxaloacetic Transaminase, and Proteins

Authors: Maysoon M. Najeeb M. Saleem
Pages: 31-41
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Abstract

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is complex metabolic disorder of endocrine gland in women of reproductive age. The present work illustrate the effect of (PCOS) and hormone disturbance on serum enzymes activities, iron status parameters and hormone profile in patient women suffering from, PCOS, acute kidney disease (AKD) with PCOS, acute kidney disease and iron deficiency anemia (IDA). A total of 160 women, include 135 patients and 25 of control apparently healthy group, patients were subdivided into four groups,(G1) consisted of 50 patients of PCOS, (G2) of 30 patients of PCOS with AKD, (G3) of 30 patient of AKD and (G4) involve 25 patients of IDA. The specimens were collected from different hospital in Baghdad city. The patients and control were investigated for enzymes, gammglutamyltrasferase (GGT), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) or aspartate transaminase (AST) & glutamicpyruvic transaminase (GPT) or alanine transaminase (ALT) lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), total serum proteins (TSP), albumin, globulin, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), urea, creatinine and uric acid. Also iron status parameters (serum iron, transferrin saturation percent (TS%), transferrin concentration, and total iron binding capacity (TIBC) and ferritin concentration) were estimated. As well as hormone profile (testosterone (TT), Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), lutinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PL), estradiol (E), and progesterone (PRG)) were estimated Results revels highly significant increases for AST or GOT, ALT or GPT, and GGT activities P˂0.001, and a change in LDH of G1 and G2 patients were highly increased P˂0.001 as compared with normal. Remarkable rising was detected in TSP of (G1) patient while there is significant decrease in proteins level of (G2) patients in comparison with normal. Patients of (G3) show significant difference in GGT, LDH and protein. There is significant change in LDH and albumin in (G4), and no change in AST, ALT, GGT, and proteins as compared with normal. Triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), creatinine show very highly significant change for patients of (G1, G2, G3&G4). Patients women with PCOS show no remarkable change in uric acid and urea and a change in creatinine concentration. Serum iron parameters were changed significantly in patients of (G1, G2, G3, and G4) in comparison with healthy control groups. Hormones levels were significantly different in PCOS patients as compared with normal individual. In conclusion there were remarkable changes in the activities of AST, ALT, GGT, and LDH. This is the first time for the estimation of a change in LDH activity in women with (PCOS) this could be due to genetic and envirmental factor and gene mutation. Hormone levels and iron status parameter changed remarkably may be due to metabolic disturbance and abnormality in the function of hypothalamic neurotransmitter.

Keywords

Polycystic ovary syndrome --- GGT --- Iron status --- LDH --- TG.


Article
Investigation of the Nuclear Structure for Some p-Shell Nuclei by Harmonic Oscillator and Woods-Saxon Potentials

Authors: Ahmed N. Abdullah
Pages: 42-48
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Abstract

The single particle radial wave functions of harmonic oscillator potential and Woods-Saxon potential have been used to calculate the charge density distributions, charge form factor and the matter and charge root mean square (rms) radii for some odd-A 1p shell nuclei, namely 9Be, 11B, 13C and 15N nuclei. The calculated results are compared with the measured data. Calculations show that both the Wood-Saxson (WS) and harmonic oscillator (HO) potentials are capable of providing theoretical predictions on the structure of p-shell nuclei and be in a satisfactory description with those of experimental data. The quadrupole form factors contribution for 9Be and 11B nuclei are carried out using undeformed p-shell model and give a well accordance with the measured results.


Article
Synthesis and Characterization of Au:CuO Nanocomposite by Laser Soldering on Porous Silicon for Photodetector

Authors: Juhaina Moatasemballah --- Halah H. Rashed
Pages: 49-59
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Abstract

This work aimed to the synthesize of composite Au:CuO (NPs) by pulsed laser soldering process. The optical properties, stability, structural properties and surface morphology of Au:CuO nanocomposite were characterized by UV–VIS spectrophotometer, Zeta potential measurement, X-Ray Diffraction pattern and Atomic Force Microscope respectively. The band gap of Au doped CuO is about 1.95 eV. The amount of zeta potential is -54 mV, its indicating that the negatively charged of Au: CuO nanocomposite in deionized water and the colloid is good stability against aggregation. Surface morphology of Au:CuO nanocomposite show a large number of particles have diameter about 55nm. Au: CuO nanocomposite deposited on porous silicon by drop casting technique for preparation of silicon photodetector, the electrical properties prove that band gap alignment between Au: CuO nanocomposite and PS facilitates the electron transfer and further increases the photoresponsitivity and Quantum efficiency.


Article
Design and Manufacturing of Single Sloped Solar Still: Study the Effect of Inclination Angle and Water Depth on Still Performance

Authors: Ali A. Aljubouri
Pages: 60-70
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Abstract

The most prominent factors that have a significant influence on the performance of solar distillation are the inclination angle of the solar still cover and the water depth within the still basin. This paper was investigated an experimental performance of a single solar still. Five single sloped solar stills were designed and fabricated to operate under Baghdad city weather condition during August 2016. The inner dimensions of each basin were 0.5x0.5 m. The glass covers were tilted at 20o, 31o, 45o and 50o with respect to the horizontal. The temperatures of the outer glass covers surfaces were measured. Also, this study presents an experimental investigation on the potable water collection amount with the water depths of 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 cm into each still basin and the different glass lid inclination angles. The hourly amount of extracted drinkable water was monitored. The daily produced amounts of fresh water increased by reducing the tilt angle from 50o to 20o, and diminish of water depth in the basin from 7 cm to 1 cm. The highest total daily amount was 495 ml/day (~2 l/m2/day) for solar still with tilt angle of 20o and water depth of 1 cm.


Article
Study the Structure, Morphology and Vibration Modes for K2CrO4 and K2Cr2O7

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Abstract

In this work, the X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement have been done to study the structure of K2CrO4, and K2Cr2O7 powders. The morphology of K2CrO4, and K2Cr2O7 thin films has been studied by using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) technique. Modes of vibrations for both K2CrO4, and K2Cr2O7 compounds were measured and discussed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy


Article
Measurement the Spectroscopic Temperature of Electron in Aluminum Laser Induced Plasma

Authors: Mohammed R. Abdulameer
Pages: 77-81
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Abstract

In this research, optical emission spectroscopic studies have been carried out in Aluminum plasma generated using 1064nm, 10ns pulses from Nd:YAG laser. Temperature was estimated from the analysis of spectral data. The temperature values measurements have been performed by the comparison of two selected spectral lines of the radiation emitted by laser induced plasma of Al using singly ionized Al atom and neutral lines. An initial temperature of 2.6 eV was measured. The relation between electron temperature and laser pulse energy in the laser-generated Al plasma have been analyzed. The electron temperatures values are found to increase from 2.6 eV to 2.8 eV then to 2.9 eV as increasing laser pulse energy

Keywords


Article
Standoff Raman Spectroscopy of C4 Explosive and Study the Effect of Integration Time and Laser Power

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Abstract

In this paper standoff Raman spectroscopy SRS system for explosive materials is developed. Standoff Raman detection of C4 substance under dark laboratory condition at 4 m distance is achieved. A frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm excitation is used. The Raman scattered light is collected by a telescope and then transferred via fiber optics cable to spectrograph and finally into CCD detector. Notch filter used to reject Rayleigh scattering light. Carbon tetrachloride CCL4 and Acetone (CH3)2CO are used as a calibration standard for the Raman measurements because of their strong and intensive scattering capability. Raman measurement of C4 explosive is also acquired using conventional Raman microscopy for verification of standoff Raman measurements. The effects of integration time and laser power on Raman cross section under dark condition were studied. Standoff Raman detection of C4 substance at 4 m distance under partially illuminated condition has been achieved and hence the effect of higher integration time was studied under the same condition.


Article
Effect of Some Growth Factors on Protease Production by Rhizopus oryzae

Authors: Nagham H. Abood --- Suhad A. Ahmed
Pages: 90-95
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Abstract

The main purpose of the present study was to invistgate different parameters of protease productivity and to optimize basal fermentation conditions for the production of protease enzyme under SSF where the isolated mold Rhizopus oligosporus was used. In this study, the effect of a number of determinants of environmental and nutritional factors in the production of the protein hydrolyzing enzyme (protease) from the isolated mold Rhizopus oryzae also studied. These factors which may play an influential role in improving the production of protease was to focus the source of carbon (flower without seeds) weight, the initial pH of the production medium which ingredients sunflower residue flowers without seeds was taken in conical flask as solid substrate and moistened with mineral solution consisting of 2.0g NH4SO4, 0.3g K2HPO4, 0.5g NaCl, 0.5g MgSO4, 0.2g Na2HPO4 and 0.1g CaCl2 per liter of distilled water. The inoculum size of the mold used in the study, the temperature of incubation and the incubation period. It was found that optimum conditions for protease production in the current study using sunflower residue as a source of carbon weighing 20g where the specific activity (2.83u/mg), optimum pH for the production of the enzyme is 5, has the resulted in the use of size 2×106 spores/ml inoculum to increase the production of the enzyme significantly while the optimum temperature for the production was 30ºC and enzyme production has reached to the maximum (17.41u/mg) after 144hrs of incubation.


Article
Increase Helianthus annuus L. Tolerance and Accumulation of Cadmium In Vitro and it's Expression in Intact Plants

Authors: Kadhim M. Ibrahim --- Zainab F. Mahmood
Pages: 96-102
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Abstract

An experiment was carried out to study cadmium tolerance at the tissue culture and whole plant levels of Helianthus annuus. Callus was initiated and maintained on Murashige and Skoog medium (MS) supplemented with 0.2 mg.L-1 Kinetin (KIN), 0.4 mg.L-1 Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and 0.5 mg.L-1 2,4- dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) using hypocotyls explants for callus induction. Different concentrations of cadmium were added directly to the culture medium as a contaminants. Selected tolerant cell lines were subjected to regeneration. The concentration of cadmium accumulated in callus tissues recorded 18 ppm at 2.0 mg.L-1 of Cd. The study included the effect of the cytokinin Benzyl adenine (BA) and the auxin NAA on the number of regenerated shoots percentage from tolerant callus to Cd. Results exhibited that 71% of callus tolerant to Cd, when the combination of 1.0 mg.L-1 BA and 0.5 mg.L-1 NAA was supplemented to the medium. The effect of NAA on rooting of shoots showed that the concentration 2.0 mg.L-1 of NAA gave rooting percentage mounted to 66%. The study also included measurement of plant height and fresh weight. Maximum Cd accumulation reached 12.2 ppm in the shoots. Tolerance to Cd seems to express in the plant shoots according to the current study.


Article
Isolation and Screening of Thermophilic Bacteria for Producing Cellulase Enzyme Using Agricultural Waste

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Abstract

Wheat straw was used as a source for isolating thermophilic bacteria and as a substrate for cellulase production. Twenty five of thermophilic bacterial isolates were isolated from agricultural waste samples on Luria-Bertani (L.B) agar plates. These bacterial isolates were qualitatively tested at 50˚C for cellulose production by flooding plates containing mineral salts medium (MSM) with 2% of wheat straw and 0.5% Congo red dye for 15 min followed by repeating wash with 1M NaCl. Results showed that 12 isolates gave a clear zone, after Congo red dye staining of plates; this indicated that the colonies produce cellulase. Bacterial isolates were screened for enzyme activity in submerged liquid MSM with 2% of wheat straw at 50˚C. The produced enzyme is then examined for reducing sugar release in liquid medium. Results revealed that 2T5, 3T13 and 3T18 isolates were the highest in producing cellulase enzyme 5.9, 13.7 and 14.3 Unit/ml, respectively. The most active isolates 2T5, 3T13 and 3T18 were identified on the basis of morphological, biochemical characteristics and API identification kits, they were identified as Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus licheniformis, respectively.


Article
Isolation and Identification of Three Bioactive Compounds from Endophytic Fungus Trichoderma sp

Authors: Rashid Rahim Hateet
Pages: 108-113
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Abstract

The endophytic fungus Trichoderma sp. was isolated from Ocimum basilicum L. plant and cultivated in the laboratory on potato dextrose agar PDA medium. Three bioactive chemical compounds were isolated and purified from culture of Trichoderma sp. using potato dextrose agar and potato dextrose broth. An investigation of the secondary metabolites by using Thin layer chromatography, column chromatography and Gas chromatography technique was carried out ,The molecular weight of purified compounds 1, 2 and 3 were 202 KD, 137 KD and 197 KD respectively and chemical name of compound 1 is1,10-Decanedioic acid, chemical name of compound 2 is Phenol, 4-(ethylamino)-4-Ethylaminophenol and chemical name of compound3 is Pyrimido [5,4-E]-1,2,4-triazine-5,7(4ah,6H)-dione,8,8a-dihydo-4a-hydroxy-6-methyl-. The antibacterial activity of the purified compounds against two bacterial species E.coli and S. aureus were tested by using a disc diffusion agar method reaching to 32,20mm for compound 1and 24,19 mm for compound 2 and 27, 26mm for compound 3. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values were determined by the standard serial dilution assay.


Article
Water Quality Assessment of Al-Gharraf River, South of Iraq Using Multivariate Statistical Techniques

Authors: Salwan Ali Abed --- Salam Hussein Ewaid
Pages: 114-122
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The multivariate statistical methods (principal component analysis "PCA" and hierarchical cluster analysis "CA"), were used to evaluate the water quality of Al-Gharraf River, the largest branch of Tigris River, south of Iraq. Water quality parameters were calculated monthly at each of the ten stations along the river during the year 2014-2015, to investigate the potential pollution sources and samples were analyzed for 18 physicochemical and biological parameters. The PCA supported in extracting and recognizing the factors that are responsible for river water quality variance over the year. Four factors identified that are responsible for 70% of the total variance in water quality of the river. The first factor is a multi-source factor that explains 31.6% of the total variation. The second factor is organic source factor that explains 14.6% of the total variance. The third factor is soil erosion source factor that explains 12.8% of the total variance. The fourth factor is caused by sulfates and calcium and explains 11% of the total variance. The hierarchical CA classified the 10 monitoring sites into three differentiated groups showed similar water quality features. The natural hydro-geochemical and anthropogenic activities such as domestic wastewater influents were the significant factors affect the water quality. The results of this work can be used to decrease the number of samples analyzed in both space and time to help the decision makers in recognizing priorities to improve water quality.


Article
Comparison between Hypericum triquetrifolium Leaves and Derived Calli in Essential Oil Content

Authors: Hoshyar A. Azeez
Pages: 123-130
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Abstract

The analysis of essential oil using the in-tube extraction technique (ITEX) from the plant leaves and derived calli (fresh calli, dry calli and cell suspension culture) of Hypericum triquetrifolium Turra., initiated from leaves. The plant grows wild in Kurdistan region of Iraq. Studied parameters were determined using in-tube extraction coupled with gas chromatography - mass spectrometry system (ITEX/ GC-MS). A total of 33 compounds were identified as essential oils in leaves, the dominant constituents were measured such as Hexenal, (E) (12.63%), Octane, 2,3,3-trimethyl (11.36%), Pentadecane, 7-methyl- (9.7%), Undecane (6.15%) and alpha. -Pinene (5.75%), while the analysis of fresh calli derived from leaves showed 22 types of essential oil; Dodecane (23.78%), Nonane, 3-methyl- (10.45%), Limonene (9.68%), Furan, 2-pentyl-(9.11%), Toluene (8.18%) and Undecane (7.45%). On the other hand, 21 oil components were found in dry calli; the major compounds were identified as Limonene (17.18%), Undecane (12.21%), Beta.-Myrcene (5.51%) and Toluene (4.93%). However, only 23 oil components were determined in cell suspension culture, the main essential oils were; Undecan (42.92%), Octane, 2,4,6-trimethyl (13.71%), Oxirane, 2-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-3-methyl (9.84%), Limonene (6.69%) and Toluene (2.98%).

Keywords

H. triquetrifolium --- ITEX --- GC-MS --- Lemonene --- Undecan.


Article
On Weak Soft N-Open Sets and Weak Soft - Sets in Soft Topological Spaces

Authors: Sabiha I. Mahmood
Pages: 131-141
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Abstract

The main purpose of our work is to introduce a new general type of soft open sets in soft topological spaces, namely, soft N-open sets and we prove that the set of each soft N-open sets in a soft topological space forms a soft topology on X which is soft finer than . Furthermore we use soft N-open sets to define and study new classes of soft sets, namely, weak soft N-open sets and weak soft - sets in soft topological spaces. Moreover we investigate the relation between the soft N-open sets and each of weak soft N-open sets and weak soft - sets.


Article
Designing Personalized Recommendation in E-Commerce Site Based on Content-Based and Collaborative Filtering

Authors: Shaymaa Ashor --- Ayad R. Abbas
Pages: 142-152
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Abstract

After the great development in the use of the internet and widespread use of e-commerce sites, the problem of the large number of products offered appeared, thus causing confusion for customers in choosing the suitable products for their needs. To overcome this problem, e_commerce sites using the recommendation systems to nominate products to customers personally according to their needs. The proposed system combines two types of recommendation systems they are content-based filtering which uses cosine similarity function to find the similarities between the products described by texts and collaborative filtering, which uses correlation similarity function to nominate products similar in the evaluation to the products that have been previously purchased and evaluation by customers. Several problems are solved by the proposed system in a simple way and at the same time with high efficiency and accuracy, such as the clod start, scalability, synonymy and spared the data problem.


Article
Enhancement the Augmented Reality Framework Using Proposed Registration Method

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The augmented reality field is a visualization technique using the computers, it provides an additional information to support the work of multiple applications. This research presents a proposed method to solve the registration problem in the augmented reality field. This method dealing with a special case of the registration process, when the virtual object registered with the real object, which sometime has an addition above it. It ensures the continuance of the registration process when there is an object exist on or pass through a real object. This method converting the image colors combining with using the interest features principles in order to implement an accurate registration process. This method work accurately to detect the right position and monitor the motion in the used video, depending on finding the important common features and geometric transformation principles.

Table of content: volume:20 issue:2