Table of content

Kufa Journal For Veterinary Medical Sciences

مجلة الكوفة للعلوم الطبية البيطرية

ISSN: 20779798
Publisher: University of Kufa
Faculty: Veterinary Medicine
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

Kufa j. vet. Sci. is a scientific and refereed journal published by the college of veterinary medicine , University of Kufa , Kufa ,Iraq. It publishes in English original and distinguished research papers , communications , research notes , case reports and reviews in all aspects of veterinary sciences .
Manuscript shall be considered for publication only with the understanding that they are neither under concurrent consideration by any journal nor have been published else where . Manuscript are subjected to peer review for their scientific merit .accepted manuscript will become the property of Kufa j . vet. Sci . the journal is published two times a year.

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البريد الإلكتروني لرئيس التحرير
vetmed@uokufa.edu.iq
أو البريد الإلكتروني للمجلة
kj.vs@uokufa.edu.iq
أو للإستفسار الإتصال بمسؤول المجلة على الرقم 07810115211

Table of content: 2014 volume:5 issue:2

Article
Study the Inhibitory Effect of Aqueous Extract of Punica granatum L. on Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolate from Mastitic milk

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Abstract

Were collected 154 milk samples from 120 animals included (25 sheep ,25 goats,70 cows), subjected these samples to California Mastitis Test, (60) sample showed a positive result. These samples were grown at different common, selective culture media, and depended on the study of the cultural characteristic and microscopic examination and biochemical tests, 32 isolates diagnosed as Staphylococcus aureus , 11 isolates diagnosed as Staphylococci coagulase negative and 17 isolate as gram negative bacteria, the diagnosis was confirmed by using the API STAPH system .The staphylococcus aureus isolates were tested for their sensitivity to commonly used antibiotics .the isolates are more susceptible to Chloramphenicol ,Streptomycin and Ciprofloxacin, and the least sensitivity was observed to Ampicillin, Gentamycin and Cefixime. then selected one isolate from S. aureus (isolate exhibit resistant to large number of antibiotic), for determination antibacterial activity of Punica granatum in different concentration 25mg/mL, 50mgL/ mL, 75mgLmL, 100mg/mL150, mgL/mL ,the mean of inhibitory zone diameter ware 20.66, 23, 24.66, 27, 29.66 respectively The present study provides evidence antibacterial effect of aqueous extract of Punica granatum on resistant staphylococcus aureus isolated from mastitic milk.


Article
Microscopic and morphometric study of the proventriculus and ventriculus of the Striated Scope Owl (Otus Scors brucei) in Iraq

Authors: F. J. Al-Saffar --- Eyhab, R. M. Al-Samawy
Pages: 9-23
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Abstract

The stomach of the Striated Scope Owl (Otus Scors brucei) consist of two externally distinguishable chambers: that are the proventriculus (glandular part which secretes the gastric juices) and the gizzard (ventriculus) which has a mechanical function. The proventriculus of longitudinal shape is cranially continuous with the esophagus. The gizzard was rounded shape with a thin wall is extended caudally to the proventriculus. The proventriculus was thick-walled and short (the mean length was 11.4mm , 7.1mm in diameter and 1mm3 in volume). The wall was constructed of the four typical layers of the tubular organ, that are tunica mucosa, submucosa, tunica muscularis and tunica serosa. The average thickness of each tunicawas 3240 m, 14280 m, 960 µm and 120 µm, respectively. The Gizzard was rounded sac surrounded by fatty tissue. Noticeably, it lack the smooth muscles fibers which are usually found in the developing gizzard and absence of the keratinoid lining of the mucosal surface. The mean length was 24.34 mm, 12.7 mm in diameter and 3 mm3 in volume. Similarly to the proventriculus, the gizzard’s wall was constructed of the same four tunics that are tunica mucosa, submucosa, tunica muscularis and tunica serosa. The average thicknesses of these tunicae are 1560 m, 1680 m, 3240 µm and 120 µm, respectively

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Article
Molecular Diagnosis of Coccidioides Posadasii from Aborted Placenta of Ewes by RT-PCR

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Diagnosis of diseases depends on histology using formaldehyde-fixed paraffin embedded tissue .The polymerase chain reaction (PCR)helps the pathologists to confirm the diagnosis of many disease including mycotic infections. Aborted placentas from 40 ewes were formalin fixed, paraffin embedded and sectioned. Tissue sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosine, and periodic acid Schiff (PAS) for histopathology examination. Fresh tissue parts were cultivated ,subjected to DNA extraction for the purpose of real-time PCR amplification. Histopathological examination of placental tissue revealed extensive necrotizing placentitis with the presence of spherule of Coccidioides Posadasiiin the necrotic area. Only eight samples gave positive growth for coccidioides Posadasii out of forty aborted placental samples. DNA amplification by real-time PCR revealed positive amplification for the eight samples which confirmed the detection of coccidiodes posadasii.


Article
Isolation Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli from gall bladder of buffaloes and determine its sensitivity for antibiotics

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Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) has been associated with hemorrhagic colitis, a severe form of diarrhea, and with hemolytic uremic syndrome, This study was preformed to find EHEC in gall bladder of buffaloes , (150 gall bladder) samples were collected from slaughter house and cultured on MacConky agar then identified by culture on Cefixim Tellurite Sorbitol-MacConkey, agar then tested with several types of antibiotics and serotyping of isolates to determine EHEC, in addition to conjucation methods were preformed .Results showed that 13 isolates of E.coli were obtained and 6 strainS were grown on Cefixim Tellurite Sorbitol-MacConkey agar and positive for specific antisera of (EHEC O157:H7), and all strains were only sensitive for nitrofurane, When conjucation done all recipent cell were resistant for antibiotics: (ampicillin,streptomycin,sulfonamide,trimthoprine,tetracycline,chloramphenicol,gentamycin and amikacin).


Article
Effect of adding Cinnamomum camphora on the testosterone hormone and reproductive traits of the Awassi rams

Authors: Tamara N. Dawood
Pages: 36-45
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This study was aimed to find out the effect of camphor on sexual behavior in male rams. Eight sexually mature Awassi rams were randomly divided into two groups, the experimental group was received Cinnamomum camphora (20 mg/kg/ day) orally with their concentrated diet for four weeks; while the other group (control) were feed on the same diet without adding camphor. Semen was collected from the rams and the results showed that camphor reduced the semen volume, mass activity, testes length and live sperm percentage while there were insignificant differences in the testes circumference, semen concentration, individual motility and testosterone hormone level between the treated and control groups. In addition it was noticed that the abnormal percentage of sperm was significantly higher in camphor group compared with the control group.

Keywords

testosterone --- Awassi rams --- Semen --- camphor


Article
The hematological parameters in clinically normal lactating and ewes affected with mastitis

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The aim of the present study was to the determine the ranges and means ± SE of hematological parameters in Naemi clinically healthy lactating and ewes with mastitis . The study was conducted on 50 normal and 50 ovine mastitis ( 19 clinical and 31 subclinical ) infected with staphylococcus aureus , both groups aged 2-5 years in Salah al-ddin governorate / Iraq . The blood samples were collected from jugular vein during the period October 2012 till April 2013 . Results showed that the means ± SEin normal lactating and ovine mastitis were as follows ; Packed cell volume ( PCV ) 28 ± 0.27 % and 21.76 ± 0.46 % , hemoglobin (Hb) 9.4 ± 0.12g /dl and 7.56 ± 0.14 g / dl , red blood cell count ( RBC ) 9.52 ± 0.11 ×10⁶/µL and 7.67±0.19 × 10⁶/µL , mean cell volume ( MCV ) 29.39 ± 0.19 fl and 28.43 ± 0.32 fl , mean cell hemoglobin ( MCH ) 9.83 ± 0.08 pg and 9.88 ± 0.08 pg , mean cell hemoglobin concentration ( MCHC ) 33.51 ± 0.19 g/dl and 34.94 ± 0.33 g/dl , erythrocyte sedimentation rate ( ESR ) 6.28 ± 0.15 mm / 24 hrs and 27.08 ± 2.97 mm / 24 hrs , Platelets 247.22 ± 17.88 × 10³/µL and 185.58 ± 14.55 ×10³/µL , white blood cell count ( WBC ) 8.18 ± 0.22 x10³/µL and 14.38±0.26 ×10³/µL, lymphocytes 4509.6 ± 127.6 and 5033.4 ± 412.7 / µL , neutrophils 2857.2 ± 129.2 and 7714.8 ± 415.5/µL , monocytes 371.3 ± 32.7 and 846.9 ± 38.8/µL , eosinophils 331.2 ± 18.8 and 294.7 ± 24.4/µL and basophils 100.6 ± 7.3 and 463 ± 33 / µL respectively . The PCV, Hb , RBC and platelets were significantly higher ( P < 0.05) in normal lactating compared to that of ovine mastitis . The MCV, MCH and MCHC showed no significant differences between normal and ewes with matitis. While ESR and WBC count were significantly lower in normal lactating. Moreover the results revealed significant differences (P < 0.05) in some hematological values of different subgroups .


Article
Study the Effect of Protexin® as a Probiotic and levamisole on The Immunity of Broilers

Authors: Emad J. Khammas --- Haider A.H. AL-saigh
Pages: 55-63
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This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Protexin® and levamisole as an immune modulator. A total of 125 unsexed (Ross 308) broiler chicks with an average initial body weight of 43g to all chicks at the age of one day were randomly divided into five equally treated groups (25 chicks per pen ).Group 1 was considered as control group fed with commercial ration without any additives, group 2 was fed with commercial ration with the addition (daily) of 1g protexin® /liter of drinking water 1- 10 days, 1g protexin /2 liters of drinking water 10-20 days and 1g protexin® /4 liters of drinking water 20 day- end of the study, group 3 was fed with commercial ration with the addition (each 3 days a week) of 1g protexin® /liter of drinking water 1- 10 days, 1g protexin® /2 liters of drinking water 10-20 days and 1g protexin® /4 liters of drinking water 20- end of the study, group 4 was fed with commercial ration with the addition of levamisole 10 µg/kg B.w. daily, group 5 was fed with commercial ration with the addition of levamisole 10 µg/kg b.w. 3 days a week. The experiment lasted for five weeks (35 days). Chicks were vaccinated against New castle disease (ND) on age ( 10,20,30) days , by drinking water method, also vaccinated against Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD) on age (14) days by drinking water method. At days 1, 12, 22 and 35 blood samples were collected to estimate the immune response by ELISA test for ND and at 35 day for IBD. The titer of antibody (Ab) increased significantly (P ≤0.05) against NDV and IBD in G2 (Protexin® daily) as compared with G1(control group) at the age of 22 and 35days.


Article
Effect of vildagliptin on atherosclerosis progression in high cholesterol –fed male rabbits

Authors: Sahar A Majeed
Pages: 64-75
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Back ground: Atherosclerosis is a disease of large and medium-sized muscular arteries and is a progressive disease characterized by the accumulation of lipids and fibrous elements in the large arteries. Objective: This study was undertaken to assess the effect of vildagliptin on atherosclerosis via interfering with inflammatory and oxidative pathways Materials and Methods: 18 local domestic male rabbits were included in this study. The animals were randomly divided into three groups (6rabbits in each group): Group I rabbits fed normal chow (oxiod) diet for 12 weeks. Group II rabbits fed 1% cholesterol enriched diet for 12 weeks. Group III rabbits fed with cholesterol enriched diet for 6 weeks, and then continued on cholesterol enriched diet and treated with vildaglipin 50mg/kg/day orally for the next 6 weeks. Blood samples were collected at the start of the study, at 6weeks of the study and then at the end of treatment course to measure Serum lipids profile [(TC), (TG), (HDL)] , hsCRP and TNFα. At the end of the study the aorta were removed for measurement of aortic MDA ,glutathione, sectioning for histopathology and measuring aortic intima- media thickness Results: Treatment of rabbits with vildagliptin for 6 weeks results in a significant reduction (P<0.05) in serum level of TC, TG, hsCRP and TNFα and a significant increase (P<0.05) in serum HDL level. There was a significant reduction (P<0.05) in aortic MDA and intima-media thickness, in comparison to the rabbits in the induced untreated control group. vildagliptin treatment cause significant increment (P<0.05) in aortic GSH in comparison to induced untreated group .Regarding histopathological results, vildagliptin treatment for 6 weeks results in a significant reduction (P<0.05) in atherosclerotic lesions in comparison to the induced untreated group and significant reduction in aortic intima- media thickness(P<0.05) Conclusions : vildagliptin reduced atherosclerosis progression in hyperlipidemic rabbit via its effect on lipid parameters and interfering with inflammatory and oxidative stress pathway.

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Article
Antibacterial activity of ethanolic extract of Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) leaves against Escherichia coli in experimentally infected Rats

Authors: Sarhan R. Sarhan --- Orooba M.S. Ibrahim
Pages: 76-92
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The present study was carried out to investigate the antibacterial activity of Ocimum basilicum (OB) ethanolic extract in-vivo by inducing diarrhea in rats which was caused by oral administration of pathogenic Escherichea coli. The experiment that performed in this present study included study in-vivo antibacterial activity of the extract after inducing infectious diarrhea with oral pathogenic E. coli in five rats groups (eight rats of each). Two doses of O.B extract 100, 200 mg/kg. BW was used to treat this infection for fourteen days orally which compared with group E that treated with Trimethoprim/sulfa at dose 6.85mg/kg BW. The yielding percentage of Ocimum basilicum 95% ethyl alcohol leaves extract was 13%. Phytochemicals analysis indicated the presence of alkaloids, phenols, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, steroids and terpenoids, while glycosides were absent, but Alkaloid, phenols, saponins and tannins were seemed to be found in high levels in the crude extract. Biochemical analysis of serum albumin showed different results; Albumin values returned to normal values during treatment with Ocimum basilicum leaves extract dose of 200 mg/kg BW and Trimethoprim/sulfa at dose 6.85mg/kg BW also these two kinds of therapy returned intestinal secretory nearly to normal levels after treatment for seven days in comparison with other groups, while a dose of 100 mg/kg BW of OB extract showed a little decrease in albumin concentrations after 7 days of treatment. From the results obtained, it could be concluded that ethanolic extract of O.B leaves at dose 200 mg/kg BW was more effective and safe in comparison with antibacterial agent and other O.B dose, this antidiarrheal activity of O.B ethanolic extract may be due to its constituents of secondary metabolites that are responsible for the antibacterial activity with different mechanisms of action.


Article
The influence of chitosan on immune status and survival rate of Cyprinus carpio L. challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila

Authors: Sanaa A. Mustafa --- Jamal K. Alfaragi --- Zeyad Aref
Pages: 93-104
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The aim of our study was to evalute the effect of chitosan on non- specific immunity and survival rate of Cyprinus carpio challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila. A total of 80 common carp (36.4 ± 0.73 g) were devided into four dietary groups: The first group (G1) was served as control fed on chitosn-free diet, the second group (G2) was fed on diet supplemented with 0.75% chitosan, the third group (G3) was fed on diet supplemented with 1.5% chitosan and the fourth group (G4) was fed on diet supplemented with 2% chitosan for 45 days. After 45 day of feeding trail, 6 fish per treatment were sampled for immunity determination (respirotary burst activity, bacteriocidal actvity and lysozyme arctivity). 36 fish in all treatment groups were challenged intramusculary with Aeromonas hydrophila on day 45. The results indicated that the fish fed on diet containing 2% chitosan (G4) had the significant increased (P<0.05) in respirotary burst activity, bacteriocidal actvity and lysozyme arctivity compared to control group and to other treatment groups, followed by G3 and G2 respectively. Also, G4 showed highest resistance to challenged A. hydrophila compared to other groups. Control group (G1) showed the decreased performance in all non sepecific immune parameters and simultaneously increased in mortality rate. Therefore, these results indicate that 2% chitosan as addititive fed could be used as prophylactic in common carp culture to enhance the protection against any possible infection by A. hydrophila which is useful for practical fish culture.


Article
Etanercept ameliorate cardiac damage and Apoptosis Induced by Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion in male mice.

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Ischemia-reperfusion of cardiac tissues may lead to a prominent damage of the cardiomyocyte through either necrosis or apoptosis that seems to be the predominant modes of death during this period. In this study, we investigated the effects of Etanercept in regional ischemia/ reperfusion injury and apoptosis. White albino adult male mice were divided into four groups (six mice per group). Sham group, mice were subjected for all surgical procedure without ligation of the left interior descending coronary artery (LAD). Control group, in which LAD was ligated. Control vehicle and Etanercept treated groups, mice subjected to the surgical procedure with ligation of LAD for 30 minutes followed by 120 minutes reperfusion, mice treated with normal saline (etanercept vehicle) and Etanercept (5 mg/kg, I.P. 5 minute before reperfusion). At the end of reperfusion, cardiac tissue caspase 3 and Bcl-2, as well as plasma cardiac troponin I (cTnI) were measured. It has been found that Etanercept treated group showed significant reduction (P˂0.01) in caspase 3and cTnI but increase (P˂0.01) the level of the Bcl-2 as compare with the control groups. Histopathology study revealed that the treatment with Etanercept significantly (P˂0.01) improved cardiac injury as compared with control groups and the total severity scores showed showed 16.7 % of the group had no damage and 50% had mild cardiac injury and 33.3% had moderate cardiac injury of Etanercept treated group. It is concluded that Etanercept reduces cardiac damage and apoptosis associated with ischemia/reperfusion injury.


Article
Isolation of Some Bacterial Contamination of Egg Shell and yolk in Najaf governante8

Authors: Dhiaa J. Hamzah
Pages: 119-133
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A total of 60 eggs collected from different sources including small farms (15 eggs), large farms (15 eggs), road side vendors (15 eggs) and supermarkets (15 eggs) were cultured for the bacteria in Najaf governante, Bacteria on egg shells have been implicated as a source of bacterial contamination and some of them Proteus spp has been implicated in food poisoning, E.coli and Salmonella spp have been found in egg shell and yolk .The family Enterobacteriaceae were obtained with a higher proportion from shell membrane (54.4%) than from yolk samples (45.6%). There was no significant difference (P< 0.05) in the number of isolates between various sources indicating the contamination at farm level.

Keywords

eggs --- E. coli --- Salmonella --- contamination.


Article
Effect of probiotic “Vetlactoflorum” on some physiological parameters of broiler chickens

Authors: Al-Aqaby Aamer Rassam Ali --- Glaskovich A.A.
Pages: 134-142
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The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of supplemental probiotic preparation “Vetlactoflorum” on some hematological and biochemical constituents of blood in broiler chickens. One hundred fifty broiler chickens breed "Ross-308" used in one day old, divided into three groups of 50 chicks (control" un supplemented probiotic" , first treatment group received “Vetlactoflorum-C” and second treatment group received “Vetlactoflorum-M”). Samples were taken in 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 day-old. Experimental study conducted to determine whether supplementation of probiotic could improve the blood characteristics of broilers chickens, shown that these selected probiotic organisms are able to effect on hematological and biochemical aspects, and also some minerals in broiler chickens.


Article
Effect of probiotics “Vetlactoflorum-M” and “Vetlactoflorum-C” on some serum blood biochemical parameters of broiler chickens

Authors: Al-Aqaby Aamer Rassam Ali --- Glaskovich A.A.
Pages: 143-153
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The aims of this study were to evaluate effect of using liquid preparation "Vetlactoflorum-M" (dissolved in diluted milk) and "Vetlactoflorum-C" (dissolved in whey) on some parameters such as concentration of cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose and uric acid in blood of broiler chickens. One hundred fifty broilers chicken breed "Ross-308" used in one day old, divided into three groups (each of 50 chicks as follow: (control" un supplemented probiotic" , first treatment group received “Vetlactoflorum-C” and second treatment group received “Vetlactoflorum-M”). Blood samples were taken in 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 day-old. The results showed that the selected probiotics ("Vetlactoflorum-M" and "Vetlactoflorum-C") are able to reduce uric acid, increase glucose. Lower concentrations of serum cholesterol and triglycerides were observed in the treatment groups. So the results were improved by using probiotic.


Article
Histopathological Study Of The Effect Of Low Level Laser And Biatain Ag Non-Adhesive Dressing On The Avulsion Wound Healing In Rabbits

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The aims of this study was to compare between the effect of Low level Laser and Biatain Ag non-adhesive dressing on healing of avulsion wound in rabbits. Eighteen adult healthy rabbits were used. It is divided in to two equal groups , Laser group , and Biatain Ag group, also each group divide into three equal sub group for histopathological study at 1 week , 2 week and 3 week post operation. The avulsion wound was done on the back(dorsal) after general anesthesia by blade 1 cm . post-operation , in laser group, the rabbits were exposed to low level laser for 5 minute/daily to period 1week, 2week ,3week continuously , but in Biatain Ag group, the avulsion wound was dressing by Biatain Ag non-adhesive dressing and it fixed on wound by blaster and continuous to 1week, 2week, 3week. The histopathological examination appear in first week, both groups showed ulceration but in biotin group showed more ulceration than laser group. In two week, laser group some animals showed absence of ulceration with dermal fibrosis. In two week, in biatain group showed reduce the size ulcer with dermal fibrosis. In three week, laser group showed complete healing with moderate thickening of epidermis and hyperkeratosis with dermal fibrosis. While biatain group showed complete healing with marked dermal fibrosis but presence of foci of hair folliculitis. Conclusion In two week, laser group all showed healing of ulcer except one animal while biatain group there was only reduce size of ulcer but not complete healing.

Keywords

Laser --- Biatain --- wound --- Radiation


Article
Determination of some biochemical parameters in clinically healthy and anemic goats

Authors: AL-Dujaily A.H. --- AL-Hadithy H. AH
Pages: 168-178
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The study was conducted on 130 healthy and 72 affected with iron deficiency anemia (IDA) by used local breed goats to determine serum iron, total iron binding capacity (TIBC), unbound iron binding capacity (UIBC), copper concentration and transferrin saturation (TS%). The 130 normal goats (40 males and 90 females). while 72 diagnosed iron deficient anemic goats (18males and 54females), both groups aged 6 months- 4 years in Najaf governorate. Blood samples were collected from the jugular veins into plain tubes during October 2013 till February2014, and the separated sera were directly used for chemical investigation. Result showed in normal and iron deficient anemic goats; Serum iron concentration was 7-17.9 and 11.8±0.22, 1.2-6.9 and 4.3±0.17 respectively, TIBC 67.5-107.3 and 89.7±0.69, 67.3-265 and 112.4±4.35 respectively ,UIBC 59.1-94.9 and 78±0.69, 60.9-260 and 108.1±4.36 respectively, TS% 7.4-20 and 13.1±0.25, 0.90-10.1 and 4.1±0.23 respectively and serum copper 1.1-4.6 and 2.4±0.05, 0.7-3.0 and 1.7±0.06 respectively. However, There were a significant (P<0.05) decrease in serum iron, TS% and copper, while there was a significant increase (P<0.05) in serum TIBC and UIBC of IDA goats as compared with normal control. Also, a significant differences(P<0.05) between males and females, as well as, in subgroups of normal and anemic goats have been recorded . In conclusion the present data recorded reference ranges of some biochemical parameters in local breed goats with a significant differences between normal, anemic ,males and females, and in different physiologic status .

Keywords

Serum Iron --- TIBC --- UIBC --- TS% --- Copper --- local breed goats.


Article
Isolation and identification of vibrio fluvailis from goldfish Carassius auratus In AL NajafAl-Ashraf Governorate

Authors: Ali Adnan AL-Darwesh
Pages: 179-185
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This study aimed to diagnose the Vibrio fluvailis and identify some of the virulence genes, Eighty six samples were obtained from gold fish Carassius auratus which were suffering from infection. Fourty one samples of gold fish Carassius auratus gave a positive result for the Vibrio fluvailis, in percentage ( 47.6%) . The biochemical tests were conducted to confirm the infection as well as the examination of API 20. Polymerase chain technique was used to identify virulence genes hupO that have a role in the pathogenesis of bacteria isolated.


Article
Study the effect of cumin and garlic powders on the blood picture, production performance and liver function in turkey

Authors: Mohammed A. aboktifa
Pages: 186-195
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This experiment was conducted to study effect of addition of garlic powder and cumin powder on blood picture and liver enzymes function in turkey, the experimental group randomly divided in to three groups as following: group one control the second and third group was given garlic powder and cumin powder respectively then, these groups were given garlic and cumin for aged 32 days in the drinking water at dose (2 g /5 liters). Blood samples were taken from each group at day 52, 72 respectively. The results showed significant increased at p < 0.05 for parameters of hematological analysis. There were significant (p> 0.05) differences between garlic and cumin groups with control to blood plasma GOT and GPT. There were significant increase in body weight at (p> 0.05).


Article
Molecular diagnosis of Newcastle disease Iraqi Virulent strain virus HN gene by specific primers design

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Newcastle disease is considered the most contagious poultry disease and may cause severe economic loss in the poultry industry, The first report in which NDV was consider as zoonotic disease and a human pathogen that was published by Burnet, in 1943. The aims of this study was to detect HN gene of two NDV Iraqi isolates (Najaf APMV1/ Chicken/ Iraq-najaf/ ICCMGR/2012and Baghdad ICCMGR) by designing specific priemrs for the Iraqi isolates. DNV isolates propagated in embryonated chicken eggs and showed to kill embryos in different times intervals ( more than 40 hours and less than 72 hours) with marked sever hemorrhage in infected embryos and it was similar in the two isolates, agglutination activity reflect titer (1024) for Najaf isolate and (512) for Baghdad isolate. The present study successfully detected part of (HN) gene by using specific primers designed for one-step RT-PCR undertaken to use them on molecular diagnosis of the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) gene in the Iraqi isolates and can be used for NDV virus detection in Iraq.


Article
Serosurvillance on Toxoplasmosis in Camels (Camelus dromedarius) at Al-Najaf Province

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The current study was conducted to evaluate the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in camels resident in Al-Najaf province in Iraq . Serum samples were collected from 360 camels, 219(60.83%) of samples represents males and 141(39.16%) were collected from females. Latex Agglutination Test(LAT) was applied to screen all serum samples for Toxoplasmosis while ELISA was also used to confirm the positive result obtained by LAT Using LAT, out of 360 serum samples 91 (25.2% ) were positive to Toxoplasma gondii. Percentage of positive cases was more in females (30.4 %) than it is in males (21.9 %); the percent of seropositivity increased by increasing animals age. The ELISA test showed that 15 (16.4 %) samples were positive for toxoplasmosis, the males were 7 (14.5 %)which was lower than the percentage in females 8 (18.6 %). Also the percentage of positivity increased with increasing animals age.


Article
Epidemiological and Histopathological study of Hepatic Hydatidosis in slaughter animal house in AL- Najaf AL- Ashraf Province

Authors: Maytham Askar Alwan Al-Shabbani
Pages: 211-222
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The study was carried out in Al-Najaf slaughterhouse to show the prevalence of hydatid cysts among the slaughtered animals during the period from 1/1/2011 to 31/12/2011 , the slaughtered animals were local breeds , both sex ( male & female ) , different ages and from different region in Al-Najaf province . the hydatid cysts was examined grossly by naked eye and palpation . The study was conducted on 114717 slaughtered animals ( 21799 cattle , 51332 sheep , 41586 goats ) . The morbidity of hydatidosis was 0.93% in cattle , 0.62% in sheep and 0.61% in goats . The gross pathological changes of liver revealed variety necropsy findings represented by enlargement, discoloration to dark and red zones surrounding the hydatid cysts as responses to the inflammatory reaction. Cysts mostly protruded from the surface of the organ and sometimes embedded in the parenchyma. White wall covered the cysts has been observed . The histological changes of livers represented by infiltration of inflammatory cells such as neutrophils, monocytes and phagocytes. Hepatocytes appeared separated from each other and there was vaculation in liver tissue, which contain huge number of kupffer cells .


Article
Study the effect of number of parturitions on the measurements of reproductive performance of dairy cows

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This study is conducted in Latifiya station for dairy cows in south east of Baghdad. Which have Holstein and Friesian and cross breed among them, from the first of April 2012 until the first of August 2014. Dystocia rate 69.81% recorded and also 26.8% retained placenta with 16% ovarian problem and 53% uterine problems for (386) cows. The cows of research are divided into four group according the number of parturition and four reproduction performance parameters are used.(calving interval) ,(open day) ,(conception from first service) and finally (services per conception).The results are in the first group (2parturitions) (121) cows were 423.7 day for calving interval ,107.1 days open ,27.4% conception from first service and 2.3 services per conception ,the result of second group (3parturitions) (106)cows were ,458.3 day calving interval ,188.1 day open days, 25.3% conception from first service and 2.28 services per conception that statically significant. The result of third group (4 parturition ) (120)cow record 427.6 days calving interval ,156.2 days open ,37% conception from first service ,and2.15 services per conception. with statistical significant difference at p< 0.01. The last group (5 parturitions) (58) cow also record 378.8 days calving interval ,101.8 days open ,49% conception from first services and 1.76 services per conception .The results of last two groups have statically significant at p<0.01 from first and second groups.


Article
Effect of alcoholic extract of urtica dioica leaves and Aspirin in experimentally induced prostatitis in mice

Authors: Huda F. Hasan
Pages: 230-240
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Abstract

Urtica dioica leaves were powdered and extracted with methanol 70 %. 17 beta-estradiol was used to induce prostatitis. Fifty mice were divided into five groups, The first control group (T1) , The second induction group (T2) was treated by distilled water, the third induction group (T3)was treated with crude extract of Urtica dioica leaves 300mg/kg B.W, the fourth induction group (T4) was treated with aspirin 50mg/kg B.W, the fifth induction group (T5)was treated with crude extract of Urtica dioica leaves 150mg/kg B.W and aspirin 25mg/kg B.W. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) for induction groups treated with 17 beta-estradiol showed significant decrease as compared with (T1), while the T3,T4 and T5 showed no significant difference as compared with T1. The result of testosterone hormone of (T3) showed significant increase as compared with (T1) and other groups. The results of body and prostate weight for T3,T4 and T5 revealed no significant difference as compared with T1. The fertility index of (T3) was increased as compared with T1 while the T4 was decreased as compared with T1. The histopathological changes after induction of prostatitis revealed hyperplasia of the prostatic glands and infiltration of inflammatory cells, while the T3 revealed the return of the acini to normal shape, and hydropic degeneration in the epithelium of prostatic glands disappeared. The T4 showed decreased hydropic degeneration, few inflammatory cell and epithelial hyperplasia, while the T5 was characterized by few inflammatory cell infiltration and the acini showed very decreased hydropic degeneration. In this study we concluded that the alcoholic Urtica dioica extract could markedly treat proststitis by its anti-inflammatory effect with reduce side effect of aspirin such as infertility.


Article
Cow, Sheep And Goat Hematological Parameters: Comparative Studies Between Automated Analyzer and Manual Methods

Authors: Ibraheem E.Ibrhim
Pages: 241-248
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Abstract

This study was designed to compare the values of some hematological parameters in some farm animals estimated by Automated Analyzer and Manual method estimation. The blood samples were collected randomly from five animals from each of the following species; cow, sheep and goat (5 sample for each). The blood samples were divided into two parts, the first were used for manual estimation and the second was analyzed by automated hematology analyzer.. The blood profile showed no significant variation ( p; < 0.05) in White Blood Cells (WBC), Red Blood cells (RBC) between all animals groups. The results of this study showed significant differences that revealed decreased in the Hemoglobin (HB) (20 g/dl) and (20.5g/dl) in cow and sheep respectively and increased of Package Cell Volume(PCV) (33.33%) . However, goat revealed significant increase in Package Cell Volume and Hemoglobin (6.04%and 21g/dl).


Article
Epidemiology of cystic echinococcosis in Al-Najaf province

Authors: Rasha Amer Nouri Al- Tufaili
Pages: 249-257
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Abstract

Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a zoonosis disease of worldwide distribution caused mainly by the metacestode Echinococcus granulosus. In Najaf, its distribution reaches endemic levels. This is results of this study were to investigate the trends in suspected cases of human CE recorded in Al-Sadder Medical City, Al-Hakim General Hospital and Al-Zahraa Teaching Hospital in Najaf city during a period November 2013 to September 2014 and to study demographic and clinical characteristics of cases together with epidemiological factors associated with the disease. Clinical records of operated and/or diagnosed patients were reviewed with regard to this disease. 217 cases (68% female; mean age 21-30 years and 32% male; mean 21-30 ) were included in this retrospective study, 79% of which lived in rural areas. Indirect Haemagglutination (IHA) test to detect anti Echinococcus granulosus antibody, and ultrasonography were used to diagnose the disease. Lung infection is the most common and most cases frequently


Article
Study the Effects of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Extract on Serum Lipid in Hypothyroidism Male Rats Induce by Propylthiouracil

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Abstract

This study was undertaken to investigate the protective role of Ginger against the hypothyroidism induce by Propylthiouracil in male rats on serum lipids. Eighteen adult male rats were randomly divided into three equal groups (each of six) and treated as follows for four weeks, First group (C) was daily orally gavages with saline solution served as control.. Second group (G1) was daily orally gavages with Propylthiouracil (6 mg/kg B.W.). Third group (G2) was daily orally gavages with Propylthiouracil (6 mg/kg B.W.) in addition to ginger (200 mg/kg B.W.) Overnight fasting blood samples were collected from the all animals of the experiment at end week of experiment for the determination of serum triiodothyonine (T3), thyroid stimulation hormone (TSH), total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol (TAG), very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C) and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C). The results showed that the A significant (P<0.05) statistical increase in the activity of TSH was observed in propylthiouracil treated groups G1 (3.72±0.73) and G2 (3.28±0.25) as compared to the control (0.0795±0.003) and A significant (P<0.05) statistical decrease in the activity of T3 in treated (G1) (2.62±0.2) as compared to the control (3.92±0.08). As well as the results show, a significant(P<0.05) elevation in serum TAG, TC and VLDL-C and decrease in HDL-C were observed in animals daily orally gavages with Propylthiouracil 6 mg/kg B.W. (G1) group as compared with control. Oral administration of ginger extract caused a non significant (P>0.05) depression in the elevated TAG and VLDL-C concentration in G2 group compared to G1 and control groups . From these results indicating that the effect of orally administration of propylthiouracil to induced hypothyroidism and induction of Dyslipidemia. On conclusions, the present study confirmed the beneficial effects of ginger extract as a hypolipidemic effects gains the dyslipidemia due to hypothyroidism.


Article
Some aspects of histological alteration in the tapeworm Hymenolepis nana infected white mice by transmission electron microscopy

Authors: Jasim Hameed Taher
Pages: 267-274
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Abstract

This transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study has shown that the all of sections were obtained from tapeworm, Hymenolepis nana infection which were administered by eggs to white mice at 28 days of age, except in the case of cortisone- treated mice, in which infection was carried out at 38 day of age . The appearance of the brush border does not vary with the age of the worm, nor does treatment with cortisone affect it . The same may be said of distal cytoplasm . There is, however, a dramatic change in the appearance of the perinuclear layer . In older worms (45 day) the number of nuclei is reduced and those which remain are dark in colour . Unidentified structures, which appear to be abnormal, granulated mitochondria, are seen, and lipids accumulate both within and around the cells . Older worms from with cortisone - treated mice also have an altered perinuclear layer, but the changes are different . All of the normal structure are present, but they look as though they are dying because their membranes have a tendency to collapse . As in older worm from hosts which were not treated with cortisone, there was an increase in oil droplets .


Article
The effect of different concentration of Ethyl alcohol on the seminiferous tubules of the mature rabbits.Histo-physiological study

Authors: Enaam.Mahdi Dawood
Pages: 275-281
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Abstract

This study was applied to investigate the effect of different concentration of ethyl alcohol on seminiferous tubules in adult male rabbits . the study was conducted on the eighteen mature male rabbits were divided randomly into three groups ,each group have six animals first and second treated group were injected subcutaneously (S/C) four milliliter ethyl alcohol (15%), eight milliliter ethyl alcohol (25%) respectively for period (six) weeks as one dose every 48 hours, The third group was the control which treated with distil water at the same doses of treated groups . The result showed :- 1.First group was revealed increase in mean diameter of seminiferous tubules (250.75 ± 7.8) micrometer, and decrease in testosterone level ( 18.85 ± 10.52) microgram/milliter. as compared with the control group(distil water). 2. The first and second treated groups were observed impairment in spermatogenic process due to reduction of the testosterone level. 3. Significant increase (P<0.05) in the mean diameter of seminiferous tubules in the second treated group that reached to ( 280 ± 6.85) micrometer. when compared with control group. 4.Degenerative changes and necrosis were occurs in the spermatogenic cells in the first and second treated groups when compared with control group.

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Article
Effect of ferulic acid on Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury In Male Mice.

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Abstract

Myocardial ischemia–reperfusion represents a clinically relevant problem associated with thrombolysis, angioplasty and coronary bypass surgery. Injury of myocardium due to ischemia–reperfusion includes cardiac contractile dysfunction, arrhythmias as well as irreversible myocytes damage. A total of 24 Swiss albino adult male mice were randomized into 4 equal groups. Group (1) sham group; Group (2) control group; Group (3) control vehicle (DMSO) group; Group (4) Ferulic acid treated group. Results of this study showed that levels of myocardial IL-6, were increased (p<0.001) in the control group. Histologically, all mice in control group showed significant cardiac injury (p<0.001). Ferulic acid significantly counteract the increase in myocardium level of IL-6 (P < 0.001). Histological analysis revealed that ferulic acid markedly reduced (P < 0.001) the severity of cardiac injury in the mice underwent LAD ligation procedure.


Article
Effect of long and short-term progestagen treatments combined with PMSG and PGF2α on estrus synchronization in Iraqi goats during breeding season

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Abstract

The objective of this study was to evaluate long and short-term protocols of estrus synchronization and their impact on the fertility in Iraqi goats. This study was conducted in the college of veterinary medicine at Diyala University for the duration extends from May - 2014 until November - 2014. The study included sixteen multiparous goats, these goats were allocated into two groups: Group I (short- term protoco),Group II (long-term protocol) treated with intravaginal sponges contain(20mg) cronolone (fluorogestone acetate) for 9 days for the Group I, and 12 days for the Group II and injection (250µg) cloprostenol for both groups in day of insertion. The goats of two groups were injected (750 IU) PMSG before 24 hours of removal the vaginal sponges and placed with one mature buck. Estrus detection was done by visual inspection. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed trans-abdominally using a real-time ultrasound examination with a 3.5MHz sector transducer, whereas, the scan was performed at 40-50day after estrus (estrus day=day 0).No significant difference was observed in the interval between the ends of the estrus synchronization protocol and standing heat amongst the goats of two groups. Whereas all goats show estrus signs after 36-48 hours from withdrawal of intravaginal sponges. The number of pregnant goats in two groups was (10/16; 62.5 %) while the number of non-pregnant goats in both groups was (6/16; 37.5%) with significant difference between these two groups at (P<0.01). The number of pregnant goats in the short-term protocol and long-term protocol was (4/8; 50%) and (6/8; 75%), respectively, with significant difference between two groups at (P<0.01). Litter size was 300% and166.7% in the short term protocol and long term protocol, respectively, with significant difference between two rates at (P<0.01). Conclusion: It was concluded that both two treatments protocols by using progestagen intravaginal sponges combined with PMSG and PGF2α were effective in estrus synchronization, and had positive effect on the fertility in Iraqi goats during breeding season.


Article
The neurobehavioral and withdrawal effects of diazepam in adult male rats

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Abstract

The study conducted to evaluate the neurobehavioral effects and dependence in adult male rats which showed significant decrease (p<0.05) in exploration, vestibular system (increasing time of rotating on negative geotaxis apparatus), decrease cognition, short term memory, locomotors activity (decrease time of rotating on Rota rod apparatus), where these results was confirmed by histopathological changes of brain which represent by congestion, perivascular edema, focal gliosis and mononuclear cells infiltrations in groups treated with diazepam. The results of withdrawal study after one week of stop dosing of diazepam treatment showed signs of addiction represented by hyperactivity, restlessness, diarrhea and goose flesh in dose dependent manner.


Article
Detection of Cattle Foot and Mouth disease Virus by RT-PCR and ELISA

Authors: Adnan M. Al-Rodhan
Pages: 319-331
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Abstract

This study was conducted with73 cattle in different region of Basrah governorate with typical clinical symptoms of FMD from April to July 2013 in Basrah ,Iraq. Blood ,saliva and vesicle fluid from the affected animals were collected and tested by ELISA and RT-PCR. Collected sera were tested for antibodies against FMDV using a commercial ELISA. Antibodies to FMDV were detected at an overall prevalence rate of 94.5 %. There was no significant seropositivity ratio variation in relation to sex and age.RT-PCR base detection of FMDV for primary and serotype specific diagnosis was done with( universal primer sets 1F / 1R, A- 1C612 and O- ARS4 ) with expected band of(328 ,865 and1301 bp respectively). Universal primer pair 1F/1R detected FMD in 55 out of 73(75.3%), of these 37 (92.5%) Females and 18 (62.1%) males samples, with high significant statistical difference (p<0.01) between males and females in the PCR positivity ratio and there was no positive samples of FMDV Universal primer in suspect seropositive cases . The tested samples with positive universal primer were amplified with specific primers A-IC612 in 15( 27.3%) and nil for serotype O- ARS4.,. The circulation of Serotype A was higher in the males compared to the females with a ratio of 33.3% (6/18) but this difference was not statisticaly significant( p > 0.05) .The statistical analysis showed high significant differences (P>0.01) between animals that tested for Universal primer in relation to age. Out of all animals that tested positive for Universal primer the age group <1-4 year realized a ratio of 58.6 %while ratio of age group >4-8 year was 95%. Serotype A circulation was not significantly differed (P>0.05) between the tested animals in relation to age with overall ratio 27.3% (15/55) and higher ratio (31.6%, 12/38) was observed in the older animals compare with (17.7%, 3/17) in younger.

Keywords

ELISA --- Rt-PCR --- Bovine --- FMD


Article
Histological Study of the Larynx in indigenous male West African guinea fowl (Numida meleagris galeata) In AL-Najaf province

Authors: Morteta H Mohamed AL-Medhtiy
Pages: 332-339
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Abstract

Microscopic investigation of the larynx in Indigenous Male West African guinea fowl (Numida meleagris galeata) In AL-Najaf province, the mean live weight was (1750 g ± 50 gm) our need to have a base line data on the respiratory system of this abundant species of bird in Iraq. It is expected that this work will provide a base for future research and subsequent clinical application as regards the biology of the guinea fowl. Five healthy birds utilize in this study. After bird dead the larynx dissected out and washing by normal saline solution, then were fixed immediately in 10% NBF solution, and then preparing for routine histological processing. The laryngeal mound was covered by non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium. Toward the glottis the thickness of these epithelia decreased and some of epithelial layers were modified to epithelial glands, then epithelium became ciliated, pseudostratified columnar epithelium. Lamina propria-submucosa contained loose connective tissue connected with the perichondrium of the hyaline laryngeal cartilages (Cricoid, Arytenoid, and Procricoid).


Article
Evaluation of some hematological values and ferritin concentration in normal and emaciated Iraqi sheep

Authors: Naseir Mohammed Badawi
Pages: 340-346
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The effect of emaciation and body condition scores on the plateletcrit (PCT %), mean platelet volume (MPV fl), platelets distribution width (PDW %), red blood cell distribution width (RDW %) and serum ferritin concentration were studied on the 60 emaciated sheep and compared these animals with 60 normal sheep. The animals were divided into 20 emaciated males, 40 emaciated females (20 lactating and 20 pregnant ewes), the control divided to 20 normal males and 40 normal females (20 lactating and 20 pregnant ewes), the study was conducted in Baghdad governorate and animals aged between 1.5-4 years. The results displayed a significant increase (P<0.05) in PCT of emaciated compared to normal sheep and in lactating ewes compared to pregnant ewes, also PDW show a significant increase (P<0.05) in lactating ewes compared to pregnant ewes, as well as, RDW a significant increase (P<0.05) in emaciated sheep compared to normal sheep. On the other hand, the ferritin concentration was a significant decrease (P<0.05) in both emaciated males and females compared to normal males and females sheep, in addition to, no significant differences (P>0.05) between lactating and pregnant ewes in ferritin concentration.

Keywords

PCT --- MPV --- PDW --- RDW --- Ferritin --- Iraqi sheep


Article
Histological changes of kidney and Salt glands in response to over load salty water in Mallard Ducks (Anas playhrnchos)

Authors: Reshag, A.F. --- Dhyaa, Ab. Abood --- Maysoon, A. Ahmed
Pages: 347-356
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Abstract

Present study were carried out on Fifteen adults of the fresh water Mallared ducks, divided into three groups for determinate the histological adaptation of kidneys in absence of salt glands. The results were showed that, the kidneys of birds in group 3 were increased in the size (52±0.8cm) in compared to those of control group (40±0.3cm). Histologically, showed marked congestion in renal tubules, glomerular congestion, and thickening of bowman capsule. The lining cells of proximal and distal convoluted tubules showed enlarged acidophilic cytoplasm and their nuclei were heterochromic. The collecting tubules were lined with low cuboidal cells, most of them showed degeneration, and increased in their acidic mucus secretion. In group 2, the size of kidneys was (42±0.2cm) and in control group was (40±0.1cm), the histological results in this group appeared as that of control group. The salt glands of birds in group 2 showed enlargement of these glands, each gland consisted of an array of secretory lobules surrounded by vascular capsule. Each lobe was made up of branched secretory tubules radiate from central canal. The secretory tubule lined with simple cuboidal epithelium. The secretory tubules and central canals drain in a main duct. These histological structures showed mild congestion in blood capillaries. The secretory units at the periphery of glandular lobules appeared hypertrophied. Hematological results showed significant increase in levels of the blood urea in birds of group three (24.7± 0.5 mg/dl), while the results of birds in groups two and control were 17.9±0.4 mg/dl and 16.12±0.2 mg/dl respectively. The present study concluded that, the salt glands in marine bird will be rest and non-functional in bird that watered on fresh water and be activated in salt water intake and the kidney can’t play a role of salt gland instead of its absence.


Article
The possible cardioprotective effect of valsartan in the amelioration of myocardial I/R injury induced by ligation of coronary artery in a rat model

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Ischemia/reperfusion injury describes the experimentally and clinically prevalent finding that tissue ischemia with inadequate oxygen followed by successful reperfusion initiates a wide and complex array of inflammatory responses that may aggravate local injury as well as induce impairment of remote organ function by mechanisms that involves oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis. In this study, we investigated the cardio protective effects of Valsartan in regional ischemia/ reperfusion injury. adult male Albino rats were randomized into 4 equal groups. Group (1) sham group: rats underwent the same anesthetic and surgical procedure as the control group except ligation of LAD coronary artery , Group( 2) control group: rats subjected to regional ischemia for 25 min by ligation of LAD coronary artery and reperfusion for 2 hours ,Group( 3) control vehicle group: rats received (normal saline) vehicle of valsartan via I.P injection and subjected to regional ischemia for 25 min and reperfusion for 2 hours , Group( 4) valsartan treated group : rats pretreated with valsartan 10mg/kg I.P 30 minutes before ligation of LAD coronary artery then subjected to the surgical procedure with ligation of LAD for 30 minutes followed by 120 minutes reperfusion. At the end of reperfusion, Heart was divided into two parts, the apex for histopathology and the remaining part used for determination of tissue TNF-α,and IL-6 It has been found that Valsartan treated group showed significant reduction (P˂0.05) in TNFα with respect to the control groups.Histopathology study revealed that the treatment with Valsartan significantly (P˂0.05) improved cardiac injury as compared with control groups, we concluded that Valsartan reduces inflammatory reaction associated with ischemia/reperfusion injury induced by LAD ligation in addition to its reduction for cardiac injury induced by ischemia reperfusion.

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