Table of content

The Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Science

مجلة العلوم الزراعية العراقية

ISSN: ISSN:00750530 / EISSN:24100862
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Agriculture
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi Journal of Agricultural science (TIJAS) was established in 1966 in the college of Agriculture – University of Baghdad. It was published with two issues each volume. In 2000, TIJAS started with six issues each volume till now . In this year the volume number of TIJAS is (47). TIJAS covers papers in plant & animal sciences, besides, Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Extension, Agricultural Mechanization and basic sciences, such as Chemistry and Physics Related to light, heat, water and winds. Each volume includes around 75 articles, about 20-25 article/ issue depending on a reliable accepted paper for publication.

Loading...
Contact info

tijasub@yahoo.com
tel :
009647804541817
009647512748875
address:
college of Agric. / Univ. of Baghdad
Al Jadreah, Baghdad, Iraq

Table of content: 2016 volume:47 issue:1

Article
EFFECT OF IRRIGATION METHODS ON WATER CONTENT DISTRIBUTION, WATER AND CORN PRODUCTIVITY
تاثير طرائق الري في توزيع رطوبة التربة و انتاجية المياه والذرة الصفراء

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Field experiment was carried out during spring seasons of 2015 in AL-Rasheed township southern of Baghdad, Iraq to study the effects of irrigation methods on water content distribution, water use efficiency and yield of corn. Four surface irrigation treatments were used: 100% conventional basin (control), 70% of control treatment basin irrigation, Conventional furrow and shallow furrow. Water content distribution results showed that shallow furrow irrigation decreased moisture content to 14.7, 18.3 % for 0-10 and 10-20 cm depth respectively, compared to conventional basin irrigation. The result showed that treatments of conventional furrow, shallow furrow and 70% basin irrigation reduced the depth of added water in rate of 33, 28 and 30%, respectively comperd to control treatment (884mm season-1). Conventional furrow irrigation significantly increased corn grain yield to all treatments except conventional basin. In the mean while, other treatment did not differ from the conventional irrigation method. Water use efficiency of conventional furrow irrigation was significantly higher than all other treatments with 80% increment than others. Thus the 70% basin irrigation and shallow furrow irrigation is more productive yield when compared with traditional irrigation.


Article
EFFECT OF USING IRRIGATION WATER IN DEFFIRENT QUALITIES AND BIO-FERTILIZER IN SOME CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF CALCAREOUS SOIL
تأثير استعمال مياه ري مختلفة النوعية واللقاح البكتيري في بعض الصفات الكيميائية لتربة كلسية

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

A pots experiment was conducted at the canopy wood of Agriculture - University of Baghdad (Abu-Ghraib) during summer season of 2014 to study the effect of irrigation water quality and biofertilizer and their interactions on some soil chemical properties and growth of corn. Treatments included three water qualities river water (1.5 ds.m-1 ''Q1''), well water (4.4 ds.m-1 ''Q3'') and mixed water (3.0 ds.m-1 ''Q2'') and two levels of biofertilizer (without inoculation ''B0'' and inoculation with Azotobacter chroococcum, Bacillus megaterium and Pseudomonas fluorescens ''B1'') applied to clay loam soil, using complete randomization design (CRD) in three replicates. The results of study Soil EC values increased with increasing water salinity giving 5.18, 6.03 and 6.70 ds.m-1 for Q1, Q2 and Q3, respectively. And significantly increased exchange capacity of the cation ions CEC reached 22.20, 23.01 and 24.31 c mole c kg-1 soil for Q1, Q2 and Q3, respectively. Irrigation water salinity also led to a significant increase in soil organic matter content reached 11.06, 12.55 and 13.90 gm.kg-1 soil for Q1, Q2 and Q3, respectively. Biofertilization led to decrease in rates a significant values electrical conductivity (EC) increase exchange capacity of the cation ions CEC and organic matter soil.


Article
EFFECT OF DIFFERENT COMBINATION OF MACRO AND MICRONUTRIENTS ON THE GROWTH AND YIELD OF GARLIC Allium sativum L
تأثير توليفات من المغذيات الكبرى والصغرى في نمو وحاصل الثوم Allium sativum L.

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

A field trial was conducted in Silt loam soil at Al-bu-Farraj, northen Ramadi, 110 km west of Baghdad) , to study the effect of fertilization with macro and micronutrients on growth and yield of garlic ( Allium sativum L.). Randomized complete block design with three replicate was used. Four fertilizer formulations from nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium i.e. A0 (0,0,0) , A1 (80, 80, 80) , A2 (120, 120, 120 and A3 (160, 160, 160) kg.ha-1 were applied. Four concentrations of nutrient solution( B0,B1,B2,B3) (0 , 0.5 , 1 , 1.5) g.L-1 were foliar applied.Results showed no significant difference among treatments regarding plant height. Leaf area , mean head weight and yield were significantly (0.05) increased with rate of application for individual factor and interaction between factors. The combination of fertilizer A2B3 gave higher Leaf area rate of 1166.9cm2.plant-1, and the weight of the head 97.30 g and higher yield of heads was 25.90 Mg.ha-1, compared with less yield 14.30 Mg.ha-1 which was given without A0B0 fertilization. Soil application and foliar spray individually led to significant (0.05) increases in leaves number per plant, while interaction had no significant effect on these trails. For cloves per head only the soil application was significantly active in increasing this trail.


Article
DETERMINATION OF TRANSPORT PARAMETERS FOR SOLUTES IN SALT-TREATED SOIL COLUMNS
تقدير معايير انتقال المذابات في اعمدة تربة معاملة بالاملاح

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

A laboratory experiment was carried out at the Department of Soil Sciences and Water Resources, College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad. Silty clay soil was treated with three salt solutions (NaCl, CaCl2 and mixed NaCl–CaCl2). Homogeneously packed soil columns (10 cm, 40 cm) were leached six times using tap water. Effluent samples were collected to determine ion concentration Cl-, Ca++, Na+, K+ and Mg++. Breakthrough curves were used to estimate solute transport parameters (retardation factor, peclet number) using an analytical solution of convection-dispersion equation (CDE) by CXTFIT program. The results showed that relative concentration of chloride was increased rapidly with calcium chloride, which increased sodium leaching rate at starting of breakthrough curve. Sodium chloride increased water requirements for calcium displacement. Results indicated a good fitting of convection-dispersion equation with breakthrough curves data. The best-fit were used to calculate peclet number, retardation factor and dispersion coefficient. When soil was treated with calcium chloride, Peclet number of chloride was increased from 3.13 to 6.48, while it has been decreased for calcium, sodium and potassium. Sodium chloride decreased peclet numbers of chloride, calcium and sodium. Also mixed salts increased sodium peclet number from 1.01 to 9.02. Results showed, calcium chloride decreased retardation factor of chloride from 1.59 to 0.50, while it has been increased from 1.39, 1.58 to 175.00, 493.36 for each of sodium and potassium, respectively. Retardation factor of calcium was decreased when soil was treated with sodium chloride or mixed salts. Dispersion coefficient was decreased for chloride, and increased for calcium and magnesium. When soil was treated with calcium chloride, dispersion coefficients have been increased from 24.29, 25.56 to 40.51, 40.89 cm2hr-1 for sodium and potassium, respectively.


Article
USING OF REMOTE SENSING FOR MONITORING GEOMORPHOLOGICAL TEOMPRAL CHANGES FOR TIGRIS RIVER IN BAGHDAD CITY
إستخدام تقانة الاستشعار عن بعد لمراقبة حالة التغايرات الزمنيه لجيومورفولوجيه نهر دجلة في مدينة بغداد

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Tigris River was chosen as astudy area in Baghdad province to study the geomorphological temporal changes due to the effect of erosion and deposition by remote sensing .Normalized Difference Suspended Sediment Index (NDSSI) was calculated by data of Landsat 7 and 8 for +ETM and OLI ,respectively , between 1989 and 2014. Ten sites were selected within five regions represent all geomorphologic forms in the study area starting from Altajee to Alga’ara site located between the longitude 44° 19´ 50.512" E, 33° 23´ 24.754" N and 44° 32´ 07.762" E , 33° 09´ 21.432" N, with distance of 59945 m. The results indicated that there is a difference in the activity of geomorphologic processes associated with the movement of the Tigris River in Baghdad province, particularly sculpture and sedimentation processes. It was easy to find the existence of activity of sedimentation, especially in some curves that have helped to reduce the movement factor of the carrier sediments speed, and the results showed a significant contrast in the sedimentary material area between the selected sites during the study period in the year 2014 than it was in 1989. The results indicated there is an inverse relationship between the sediment guide values and deposits outstanding.


Article
THE USE OF MIXED BIOSOLIDS COMPOST AND SOIL AS AGIRICULTURAL MEDIA FOR PEPPER PRODUCTION
أستعمال خلائط كمبوست المخلفات الصلبة الحيوية والتربة اوساط زراعية عضوية لانتاج الفلفل (Capsicum annum L.)

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

This study was conducted in two phases included, production of high quality composts from Bio solids, and the enrichment of this compost through mixing the waste with buffalo, poultry and sewage sludge at ratios of 1: 3 of each and 1: 1: 1: 2 one of them the decomposition and curing process was completed during 14 weeks. Chemical, physical and biological characteristics of mature compost as well as its elemental component and its suitability as agriculture media were determined. The results showed that Coliform bacteria and Salmonella and Shigella did not appear at the end of maturation. Total fungi count continued to increase to end of maturation when temperature fell to 30 °C. The second phase of the study included, a biological experiment of pepper at plastic house.The experiment included 24 treatment representing six cultural mediums , mixing with soil and fertilizers application. The results of biological experiment revealed that the use of organic media and their mixing with soil or chemical fertilization, led to a significant increase in plant height number of branches per plant, dry matter weight, the concentration of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in plant leaves, as well as the increase of early and total yield of pepper fruit compared with the soil alone.Mixing of municipal waste with poultry manure at 1:3 was the best among other mixtures. The use of mixed media with the soil at ratio1: 1 on the basis of size with half of the recommended amount of chemical fertilizer gave the best results in vegetative parameters and fruits yield compared with the use of organic media alone or using the recommended does of chemical fertilizer alone.


Article
INFLUENCE OF SPRAYING BY SOME PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS ON DATE PALM SALT TOLERANCE ENHANCEMENT
تأثير الرش ببعض منظمات النمو النباتية في زيادة تحمل نخيل التمر للملوحة

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

This research was conducted to study the impact of foliar spraying by some plant growth regulators to increase salts tolerance of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cv. Shakar. Thirty young date palm trees (seven years old) and same number of fruiting trees (18 years old) were selected and spraying with naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) solutions at the concentrations (0.50, 100 and 150 ppm), Salicylic acid (0, 0.25, 0.50, and 1.0 mM) and putrescine (0, 0.025, 0.050, 0.1 mM). Results indicated that the application of growth regulators led to reduction trunk diameter comparing with control (121.33 cm). Spraying NAA with concentration of 100 ppm, gave the highest height of the offshoots and a significant difference from the rest of the treatments (253.70 cm). Spraying putrescine with 1.0 mM concentration led to a significant increase in the number of leaves (fronds) as it increased to 24.33 leaf/offshoot, and leaf area which reached 691 cm2. Application of 0.25 mM Salisylic acid increased the number of bunches under saline conditions amounted to 12.67 bunch as well as increased the weight of the fruit to 8.82 g, which differed significantly from the control which gave 7.37 g. As for the size of the fruit, it was found that Spraying of NAA with 100 ppm led to increase the size of the fruit under saline conditions (8.67 cm). We can conclude that the spraying date palm with the above plant growth regulators under saline conditions can lead to increasing absorption of nutrients and subsequent growth and yield improvement.


Article
EFFECT OF IRRIGATION INTERVALS AND FOLIAR OF SALICYLIC ACID ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF POTATO
تأثير مدد الري و الرش بحامض السالسيليك في نمو و إنتاج البطاطا

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

An experiment was carried out in one of the private field in AL-Radwaniah westeren south of Baghdad to study the effect of irrigation intervals, irrigation after 6, 8 and 10 days (D1, D2 and D3) and irrigation of salicylic acid concentration (0, 50, 100, and 150 mg/l) (S0, S1, S2 and S3) on some vegetative growth and yield parameters. Potato tuber were planted on 1 Feb 2015 using application N, P, K in the rate 120: 60: 200 kg/ ha. Plants were irrigated after 6,8 and 10 days and spraying of salicylic acid three time, First in vegetative growth stage and in stolon intiation stage and in tuber intiation stage. Factorial experiment in Nisted design with three replication was used. Results showed that using 10 days as irrigation period (D3) significantly decreased vegetative growth and yield parameters compared to D1. Salicylic acid significantly increased in same characteristics. Interaction treatments showed D1S2 and D1S1 significantly increased wich gave highest plant length (91.70 and 90.30 cm) respectively and greatest leaf area (72.63 and 69.87 dsm2/plant) and gave highest yield per plant (1093 and 1069 g/plant) and highest total yield (58.25 and 56.98 ton/ha-1) respectively. The suggestion could be made that spraying of salicylic acid 50 mg/L three times with Irrigation duration 6 days resulted in highest yield per plant and highest total yield.


Article
EFFECT OF SPRAYS NUMBER AND FOLIAR MICRONITE 35 ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF PEPPER UNDER UNHEATED GREEN HOUSE
تأثير عدد الرشات والمغذي الورقي مايكرونيت35 في نمو وحاصل الفلفل (Capsicum annuum L.) داخل البيت الزجاجي غير المدفئ

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

This research was conducted during the season of 2014 - 2015 inside unheated green house to investigate the effect of sprays number and different concentrations of micronite 35 (0.0, 1.0, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 cm3 .l-1) and their interaction on growth and yield of Pepper var. California Wonder with using (RCBD) with three replicates. Results showed that the sprays number and the concentrations of micronite 35 and their interaction had a significant effect on all the characteristics that studied. The interaction of three sprays with 3 cm3 .l-1 of micronite 35 gave the highest average of plant height (103.12cm), branches number.plant-1 (11.61), leaves number.plant-1 (107.41) leaf area.plant-1,(121.31dc2) flowers number (80.96) and set of flowers percentage (92.403). Results also gave the highest average of fruits number.plant-1, fruit long, fruit weight, yield-1. plant, early yield, and yield /greenhouse that were (38.81, 11.63cm, 80.99gm, 3.143kg, 0.229ton, 6.034ton) respectively. While the average was 10.86 fruits number.plant-1, 5.08cm fruit long, 30.71g. fruit weight, 0.333 kg. yield. Plant-1, 0.136ton early yield and 0.639ton yield.greenhouse-1 respectively at compared with control treatment.


Article
EFFECT OF BENZYL ADENINE AND SALICYLIC ACID ON GROWTH AND TOTAL ALKALOIDS PRODUCTION OF WETHINIA (Withania somnifera L.) In Vitro
تأثير البنزل ادنين وحامض السالسليك في النمو وانتاج القلويدات الكلية لنبات الوذنية (L. Withania somnifera) خارج الجسم الحي

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

An experiment was conducted in the tissue culture laboratory, College of Education For Pure Science, Diyala Uinversity in 2014-2015,to investigate the influences of Benzyl adenine and Salicylic acid on growth and total alkaloids production for Wethinia plant )Withania somnifera L (.in vitro .Four concentrations of Benzyl Adenine)BA (0.0, 1, 2 and 3 mg.l-1, which were represented with A0 ،A1 ، A2 and A3 were used respectively، and also four concentrations of Salicylic acid (SA( 0, 10, 20, and 30 mg.l-1 which were represented with B0, B1,B2 and B3 respectively, with the interaction between of Benzyl adenine and Salicylic acid,these are concentrations added to culture media(MS) in multiplication stages. Seeds were soaked with gibberellic acid 500 mg.L-1 for 18 h at room temperature.Benzyl adenine at 1 mg.L-1 significantly increased shoots number 4.22, and Chlrophyll content 34.07 SPAD Unit ,there was no significant differences at 2 mg.L-1 in leaves number12.05 ,11.32, fresh and dry weight of vegetative parts 1.42, 1.40g, and 0.134, 0.128 g, also the addition of SA at 10 mg.L-1 led to increased in number of shoots 3.45, number of leaves 14.05, dry weight of vegetative parts 0.140 g ,and fresh weight of root system 0.06 g, there was no significant differences at 20 mg.L-1 in Chlrophyll content 33.77, 35.47 SPAD Unit, fresh weight of vegetative parts,1.47, 1.40g, number of roots 18.00,20.10, and percentage of rooting 7.89% ,8.51%. Interaction between of Benzyl adenine and Salicylic acid (A1B1) showed a significant superiority in all studed vegetative characters, there was no significant differences with (A2B1) in leaves number15.30, 14.80 leaf, fresh weight of vegetative parts1.61,1.59 g, dry weight of vegetative parts 0.160 ,0.160 g, A0B1 treat ment which rooted and acclimated gave 0.105 mg.g-1 total alkaloids.Benzyl adenine at 2 mg.l-1 increased total alkaloids 0.091 mg.g-1, Salicylic acid at 10 mg.l-1 increased total alkaloids0.091 mg.g-1,also Interaction of treatments A2B1 and A1B1 show a significant superiority of total alkaloids 0.101, 0.100 mg.g-1as compared with A0B0 which gave lowest content 0.029 mg.g-1.


Article
RESPONSE OF VEGETATIVE GROWTH FOR THE TREATMENT OF ORGANIC NUTRIENT AND CALCIUM CHLORIDE FOR GERBERA PLANT Gerbera jamesonii
أستجابة النمو الخضري للمعاملة بالمغذي العضوي وكلوريد الكالسيوم لنبات الجربيرا Gerbera jamesonii

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

This study was conducted in the lath house, Horticultural Department, College of Agriculture – University of Baghdad- Jadriya during the spring and autumn seasons 2015 to investigate the influence of humic acid spray and calcium chloride spray on f “Yanara” gerbera cultivar. This study included two factors; humic acid spray (H) and calcium chloride spray (Ca). The first factor four levels were used, 0, (H0), 5 (H5), 7.5 (H7.5) and 10 (H10) ml.L-1 and four levels of calcium chloride, 0 (Ca0), 50 (Ca50), 100 (Ca100) and 150 (Ca150) mg.L-1. Each treatment replicated three times with a factorial experiment using RCBD. Five plants in experimental unit and the number of plants used was 240 trees. The experimental results showed that humic acid at 10 ml.L-1 and calcium chloride at 150 mg.L-1 (Ca150H0) significantly gave the highest leaves number of 11.20 and 11.47 leaves, the highest leaf area of 195.21 and 210.25 cm2, the highest plant dry weight of 16.92 and 17.95gm, the highest leaf nitrogen content of 2.50 and 2.45 %, highest leaf phosphor content of 0.37 and 0.44% and the highest leaf calcium content of 3.17 and 3.45% for both seasons, respectively. The lowest value of these parameters was found in the control (Ca0H0) treatment. It could be concluded of this experiment that the humic acid at level H10 and calcium chloride at level Ca150 improved vegetative characteristics and leaf mineral content gerbera plant cv. Yanara


Article
EFFECT OF TILLERS REMOVAL AND NITROGEN LEVELS ON SOME GROWTH TRAITS OF TWO BREAD WHEAT VARIETIES
تأثير أزالة الفروع ومستويات النايتروجين في بعض صفات النمو لصنفين من حنطة الخبز

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

A field experiment was conducted at the experimental field of field Crop Dept.- Coll. of Agric.Univ. of Baghdad, during the winter season 2012– 2013 to investigate the effect of tillers removing on some growth traits under two nitrogen levels for two wheat varieties This experiment was carried out by using Randomized Complete Block Design with in split– split plot arrangement with three replicats. IPA 99 and Abu– Ghraib 3 were assigned in main plots, nitrogen levels (100,200) kg.ha-1 occupied sub- plot, while tillers reamoving treatment (reamove the main stem, first tiller, second tiller, and third tiller) occupied the sub– sub plots. The results revealed, that IPA 99 and 200 kg.ha-1 were superior in all growth traits. The main stem removing increased significantly number of tillers, dry weight, crop growth rate and realativ growth rate, while first tiller reamoving increased plant hight, flag leaf area, chlorophell content and dry weight of flag leaf area 91.18 cm, 36.81 cm2 59.95 Mgm.cm-3 and 0.456 gm respectively in contrast with the main stem removing which gave 68.88 cm, 27.87 cm2, 47.81 Mgm.cm-3, and 0.266 gm respectively. It could be conclude that relationship between the main stem and tillers was competitive.


Article
AL – NOOR NEW VARIETY OF POPCORN (Zea mays var evarta)
النور– صنف جديد من الذرة الشامية (Zea mays var evarta)

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Breeding program was conducted to develop new variety of popcorn (Noor) adapted to Iraqi environment during 2008 -2012 at Al- Latifya Research Station /Agric. Res. Directorate / Minsof Sci& Technology. The aim of this program was to develop new popcorn variety more adapted to Iraqi environment with best traits and high yield and popping expansion. Introduction and hybridization methods applied during at the first stage among local variety AL-Safa and Syrian variety (Halab) and American variety (AMR-2). The Mass selection at later stage for five cycles respectively for new population that produced from hybridization. In fall season 2012 an experiment was conducted to compare new variety (AL- Noor) with exotic and promise genotypes including its parents by using randomized complete block design(RCBD). The rustle showed significant differences at p˃ 0.05 p for all the studied traits except number of leaves and leaf area index and number of ears row. The new variety AL-Noor revealed lowest days a tassling and silking days (60.19 and 62.94) and highest number of ears per plant(1.63), kernels row (42.93), and number of kernels/ plant and highest popping expansion (987.50)ml. gm-1.


Article
COMBINING ABILITY, HETEROSIS AND GENE ACTION USING (LINE × TESTER) ANALYSIS IN CORN
قابليـة الأئتـلاف وقوة الهجـين والفعل الجـيني باستعمال تحليل السلالة × الكشاف في الذرة الصـفراء

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

A field experiment was conducted at the Field Crops Research Station of State Board of Agricultural Research at Abu Ghraib in spring 2015. Seven inbred lines of maize (IK8, ZP, W13R, H.S, IK58, ABS 5, ZP607) were used in this study, using Line x Tester analysis, to produced twenty F1 crosses. The parents and crosses were grown in fall season of 2015 using RCBD with three replicates to determine heterosis and general, specific combining ability effects and gene action. Significant differences were found among parental lines and their crosses for all the traits. The result were showed that the cross (IK8× IK58) gave the highest hybrid vigor in grain yield (42.46%) and produced highest grain yield 214.7 gm.plant-1. The values of specific combining ability variance for all the traits revealed superior to the variance of general combining ability. The dominance genetic variance more important than additive variance, the narrow sense heritability for ear length very low (2.5%), white was highest (36.42%). The result indicate that some inbred lines could be used in a breeding program to develop new versions of high yield hybrids and most studied traits were under dominance and over dominance gene action.

Keywords

GCA --- SCA --- hybridization. --- GCA --- SCA --- التهجين.


Article
PERFORMANCE OF CASTOR BEAN SELECT UNDER SALINE IRRIGATION WATER*
أداء منتخب من الخروع تحت الري بالماء المالح

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

To determine the influence of selection on castor bean (Ricinus communis cv. Hindi 21) grown on a saline sodic soil, two experiments were conducted in 2011 and 2012. The first experiment was applied on the Farm of College of Agric./Univ. of Baghdad. It involved planting castor bean in three methods in saline-sodic soil. The second experiment was applied by planting the original cultivar and the new select. Three levels of irrigation water salinity were used; 1.5, 6, and 12 dS.m1. However, plants of higher salinity did not grow normal, so they were discarded. The results revealed that the new select outyielded the original when it gave 174.3 g plant seed yield. This select characterized by heavier seed weight (0.24 g/seed), higher number of each of seed/plant (724) and plant fruiting racemes (12.7).When irrigating with 6 dS.m-1 saline water, it gave 188.7 g plant seed yield, 0.26g.seed-1, and 11.7 raceme.plant-1. However, the best genetic/environmental variance ratio were with plant seed number, total dry matter, and crop gowth rate. This indicate the validity of using these traits when selecting for abiotic stress tolerance due to their high heritabilities. It was suggested that re-selection on same selected plants tolerant to salinity would bring more QTLs of abiotic stress to the new select. Selecting on large population under several salinity levels will give better results. Covering selected tolerant plants with muslin cloth bags will tend to increase selfing.


Article
THE REALITY OF SOME SPECIALIZED TASKS OF HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT IN AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SYSTEM IN MIDDLE REGION PROVINCES OF IRAQ
واقع بعض المهام التخصصية لأدارة الموارد البشرية في جهاز الارشاد الزراعي في محافظات المنطقة الوسطى من العراق

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The research aimed to explore the reality of some specialized tasks of human resources management in agricultural extension and to reach the research aim, a questionnaire form was prepared according to specialists' opinions and their agreements. The scale questionnaire of the reality of some specialized tasks of human resources management included 103 items distributed on 7 axis: planning for human resources, occupational description, incentive system, workers training and developinge, valuation of workers performance, services provided to workers, and work relations among the workers,The research was conducted on a random sample of 50% of Iraqi middle provinces (Baghdad, Karblaa, Najaf, Wasit). A random sample about 52% of the agricultural divisions of these provinces of 27 agricultural divisions were chosen, Limitedsearch(166) managers representing units Agricultural Extension device managers, as well as the directors of the departmentsof agricultureand agriculturalpeople andthe management of humanresources , Results showed that all specialized occupations or tasks of human resources management in agricultural extension system were applied, but in different degrees, The researcher recommended the necessity of adopting this research by agricultural extension system to improve the management of human resources.


Article
REALITY OF GOVERNMENT ACTIVITES IN THE FIELD OF FARMER MANAGEMENT FOR AND RECLAIMING LANDS AND MAINTAINING THEIR SUSTAINABILITY IN BABIL PROVINCE
واقع الانشطة الحكومية المقدمة للفلاحين في مجال ادارة الأراضي المستصلحة وتطبيق التوصيات والمحافظة على استدامتها في محافظة بابل

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The research aims at recognizing the reality of government activities in field of farmer management for the reclaimed lands and maintaining their sustainability in Babylon Province, by the following:- (Agricultural extension activities, Agricultural outfits activities, the activity of Bien Al-Nahreen Company for seeds products, Government loan activity, Water resources activity) and determine the level of framers application recommendation from applying the agricultural developments to the reclaimed lands, represented by (Irrigation treatment , fertilization treatment , Soil Conservation) and to maintain problems that farmers face in the operation of reclaimed land and sustainability in Babil province. The sub-district of Abu Gharaq in Babil Province had been chosen to conduct the research due to it has great area of reclaimed lands fully reclamation . The data were collected by survey and personal interview of haphazard class sample, proportionality of rate 12% of research population ,that comprise 1000 farmers with in fact of 120 of them To achieve the research targets a triple standard was prepared for the level description of the type of governments services provided to the farmers in this area, which is comprising of (66)items distributed into (5) aspects: (Agricultural extension activities, Agricultural outfits activities, the activity of Bien Al-Nahreen Company for seeds products, Government loan activity, Water resources activity). The grades of the standard ranges from (66-179) with average amounting at (124.81) grade, with standard deviation amounted at (23.55) grade, research sample were divided into three categories (low, Middle, high), the weights are (1, 2, 3) which were used respectively. A triple scale of the level of the farmers application and sustainability to recent technology was developed in the field of the reclaimed lands, consisting of (35) items, with grades ranging from (77-105)grade. Average of application recent technology is amounted at (48.3)grade, with deviation standard amounted at (8.5)grade. The results of the researcher reveal that the level of farmers' application for the recommended agricultural recent technology in the field of management and sustainability for the reclaimed lands in Babil Province, generally, described as weak, while the level of farmers' application for the recommended agricultural recent technology for each axis of management of reclaimed lands was as follows: Irrigation management described as middle, fertilization management and axis of soil conservation described as few. As for difficulties that face beneficiary peasant of reclaimed lands, the results showed variation of difficulties that researched faced, it related to productivity, extensional problems, and appliances difficulties, the researcher recommends the exigency of edification for the beneficiary farmers of reclaimed lands through prepare extensional and training specialized programs and activities under the supervision of extension staff of the province and the center.


Article
KNOWLEDGE OF THE EXTENSION AGENTS IN THE SOUTH GREEN BELT IN KARBALA GOVERNORATE WITH RECOMMENDATION AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO CONNECT TO SOURCES OF INFORMATION
معرفة المرشدين الزراعيين في مشروع الحزام الاخضر الجنوبي في محافظة كربلاء المقدسة بالتوصيات العلمية وعلاقته بالاتصال بمصادر المعلومات

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The research aims to determine the level of knowledge of agricultural extension workers in the southern green belt project in the holy city of kerbala in terms of scientific recommendations and its relationship with information resources and to determine the level of their knowledge of the following fields: The basic concepts of project objective trees varieties and their economic viability, the stage of cultivation and services provided which includes plantation irrigation and pests control etc., the technical aspects of their project beside the identification of agricultural knowledge of the workers with the relearnt sources of information red event. To achieve the objective of this research based on the scientific research and the produced extension leaflet in regard to soil and desertification in general and green belt in particular. A knowledge scale was adopted which includes 46 paragraphs distributed on five areas two degrees for each paragraphs were determined so that the scale degree ranged between 0-92 degree. The research included 45 agricultural extension members working in this project which represent 100% from the research community. The data collected through a questionnaire forms distributed through October 2014 results showed that 62.22% of the respondents fall within the category of concentric medium as the result showed 0 positive correlation between the level of knowledge of agricultural extension workers and communication sources of informations which were worth 0.28% the researcher recommits the need to arise the efficiency of agricultural extension workers through intensive training by the ministry of agriculture and its institutes in all Iraqi Provinces in general and the governorate of kerbala in particular with the need to develop the department of desertification in the colleges of Agriculture similar to that of Baghdad university to provide specialist in desertification and green belts projects as well as the importance of such projects in solving serious problems of desertification on the environment society and national economy .


Article
EXTRACTION AND LYOPHILIZATION LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS AND USED IT INSTEAD OF EGG YOLK IN SEMEN EXTENDER OF AWASSI RAMS AND THEIR INFLUENCE IN SPERM ABNORMALITIES STORE AT 5 ° C
استخلاص وتجفيد البروتينات الدهنية واطئة الكثافة واستخدامها محل صفار البيض في مخففات Tris وتأثيرها في تشوهات النطف للكباش العواسي عند الحفظ بالتبريد 5°م

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

This study was conducted to explain the possibility of lyophilization of low – density lipoprotein (LDL) that is extracted from the egg yolk to be used instead of the egg yolk in a dilute semen of Awassi sheep and its impact on the rate of deformities of sperm after stored at 5 ° C for five days. The study was conducted from September 2015 to February 2016 and in three stages. The first stage started from July until August 2015 in the laboratory of viruses, that is a related Department to the plant protection office. During this stag the (LDL) was extracted through several sequential steps from fresh egg yolk, and purified and stored in Fastened and steriled vials which are refrigerated until the time of lyophilization. The second stage was conducted in August 2015 in Al-Kindy company. During this study the liquid (LDL) was lyophilized and kept in steriled and tightly- fostened viols and then was stored in under the 0°C . The third stage was conducted in the college of Agriculture/ University of Baghdad. In this stage the semen was collected from four of the Awassi rams of the age (2 – 4) years .The semen samples were collected using artificial vagina and the pooled, to remove the individual differences between the rams. Later on the sample was divided on the experimental treatments evenly 1 ml/ transaction using a dilute Tris with 1:10 dilution ratio. The different concentrations of LDL on the characteristics of semen have also been studied. However; the experiment was conducted from January to February 2016 and during which three concentrations of LDL have been used (3.2 , 4.8 and 6.2%) the transactions T1, T2 , and respectively and the control treatment (20% EY). The improve of the lyophilized LDL has been studied on the different kinds of distortions that effect the sperm at preservation temperature 5°C, for five consecutive days. Results of the experiment to outweigh LDL transactions in the low proportion of the various distortions that happens to sperm in distortions head swollen to the control group in two days, third, fourth and zero, distortions on other days as well as these transactions excelled in deformation of the tail broken on the fourth day, and in other types of malformations observed failure the presence of significant difference between the control group as in the distortions severed head and tail severed tail twisted as well as the lack of distortions in other types as in distortions tail double moderation bulging and widget, we conclude from the foregoing the possibility of using LDL lyophilized in thinners semen because of its ability in maintaining semen and reduce some types of malformations as well as he did not adversely affect the sperm as it was similar to egg yolk in maintaining sperm if not better.


Article
EXTRACTIUON AND LYOPHILIZATION OF THE LOW DENSITY OF LIPOPROTEIN INSTEAD OF EGG YOLK ON SOME SEMEN PARAMETERS OF AWASSI RAMS
استخلاص وتجفيد البروتينات الدهنية واطئة الكثافة واستخدامها محل صفار البيض في مخففات Tris وتأثيرها على بعض صفات النطف للكباش العواسي عند الحفظ بالتبريد على درجة حرارة 5م°

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

This study was conducted to explain the possibility of lyophilization of low– density lipoprotein (LDL) that is extracted from the egg yolk to be used instead of the egg yolk in an extender semen that belong to the Awassi sheep and their effect on the characteristics of the semen after five days of cryopreservation, as well as to get low-density Lipoprotein, steriled and lyophilized (powder) lipoprotein that can be stored for a long time to used when needed. The study was conducted in the from July 2015 to February 2016. The first stage started from July until August 2015 the (LDL) was extracted from fresh egg. The second stage in August 2015. the liquid (LDL) has been lyophilized and turn into powder that is packed in vials, steriled vials and then was stored in 0°C. The third stage was conducted from January to February 2016 in the college of Agriculture/ University of Baghdad. the semen was collected from four of the Awassi rams of the age (2– 4) years and the samples was collected by using artificial vagina. After that the sample was divided on the experimental treatments evenly 1ml/ transaction by using extender Tris. The dilution ratio was 1: 10. The effect of the different concentrations had been studied of the LDL on the characteristic of semen and three concentration of the LDL were used (3.2, 4.8 and 6.2%) for the transactions T1, T2,T3 respectively and the control treatment (20% EY).The effect of the lyophilized LDL was studied on some characteristic of sperm when cryopreserved under the temperature 5°c for five days. The Results of the experiment to varying differences between transactions in sperm characteristics as treatment outperformed T3 (P <0.05) in the individual movement in the 2nd and 3rd days and did not notice a significant difference on the other days, while a significant difference in the percentage of live sperm among the treatments and control were observed viability of keeping LDL of sperm higher was than it is in the control treatment of the plasma membrane as treatment outperformed T2 and T3 (P <0.05) on the treatment of control on the 3rd, 4th and 5th of conservation was also excel themselves transactions in susceptibility saved for acrosome on different days of conservation compared with the control treatment as it overtook treatment T2 in the first two days and did not notice a significant difference on the 3rd and 4th among the treatments and control excelled treatments T2 and T3 (P <0.05) in 5th day of conservation to the control, we conclude from the foregoing that it is possible freeze-drying LDL and save the freeze and use it in time of need can also be used in lyophilized LDL thinners semen because of its positive impact in keeping sperm has been observed that the best concentration of sperm in maintaining the properties is 6.4% LDL compared with egg yolk and other transactions.


Article
EFFECT OF BARLEY CULTIVATED FOR DIFFERENT TIMES AS SUPPLEMETED DIET IN SOME PRODUCTIVE TRAITS OF BROILER CHICKENS
تأثير الشعير المستنبت لمدد مختلفة كإضافة علفية في بعض الصفات الانتاجية لفروج اللحم

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of using barley cultivated in different times on performance and carcass parameters of broilers. A total of 300 day- old chicks of Ross 308 strain was used. Chicks were randomly allocated for four treatments groups with 75 chicks per treatment and 25 chicks for each replicate. The four treatments was follows: T1, control (no barley added), T2, barley cultured for six days, T3 barley cultured for seven days and T4, barley cultured for eight days. Results showed that the significant (P<0.05) improvement in body weight, weigh gain, feed conversion, Feed conversion ratio, carcass yield without giblet, relative weights of heart, liver and gizzard as well as ,relative weight of breast, thigh and drums ticks. Whereas, the relative weights of back, wings, neck and mortality was reduced significantly (p<0.05)due to barley cultivated supplementation compared with control group.


Article
INDUCTION OF SYSTEMIC RESISTANCE AGAINST BARLEY YELLOW DWARF VIRUS USING PSEUDOMONAS FLUORESCENS & AZOTOBACTER CHROOCOCCUM
تحفيز المقاومة الجهازية ضد فايروس تقزم واصفرار الشعير بإستعمال نوعي البكتريا Pseudomonas fluorescens وAzotobacter chroococcum

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Pseudomonas fluorescens and Azotobacter chroococcum and mixture of bacteria are used to induce systemic resistance in barley variety (AL-Bowraq) against barley yellow dwarf virus. The result showed all treatments are effective to reduce the concentration of the virus compared with the control treatment (infested plant only). The most effective treatment was bacteria mixture as it was the highest reading for the value of the absorption at wavelength 405 nm 1.8 Compared with the control treatment, which is the highest reading for the value of the absorption 2.55 nm. This results come matching with the results of field experience as the treatment of bacteria mixture lead significantly to the rest of the treatments in all studies traits (number of spikes per plant, number of grains per spike, 1000 - grain weight and spike length). The highest rate of accumulation of phenols was when the seed treated with a mixture of bacteria compared with the other treatment and reached the highest rate of accumulation of phenols in the fourth day in the treatment of bacteria mixture compared with the control treatment which is reached the highest rate of accumulation of phenols in the tenth day. When measuring the effectiveness of the peroxidase enzyme the treatment of bacteria mixture recorded the highest rate of change in the absorption value compared with the control treatment, and the highest rate of change in the absorption value in the treatment of bacteria mixture was on the fourth day compared with the control treatment which gave the highest rate of change in the absorption value on the eighth day.


Article
THE RELATIONSHIP OF LACTOFERRIN GENE WITH MILK PRODUCTION AND ITS COMPONENT IN HOLSTEIN COW
علاقة جين اللاكتوفرين بإنتاج الحليب ومكوناته لدى أبقار الهولشتاين

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

This resesrch was conducted at the Dairy Cattle Farm pertaining to the Department of Animal Production, College of Agriculture in Abu-Ghraib (20 km West of Baghdad) and Al-Jaderiah, as well as at the Biotechnology Physiology Laboratory at the College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad , Al-Jaderiah, and in collaboration with the Laboratory that specific for molecular genetic analysis during the period from 27/11/2015 to 1/04/2016. The objective of this study was to identify the polymorphism of lactoferrin gene and their relationship with some growth and productive traits for 28 Holstein cows and their borns, along with the study of some immunological indicators. The distribution percentages of lactoferrin gene polymorphism in cow's sample were 17.86 and 82.14 % for AA and AB respectively. The variation between these percentages were highly significant (P≤0.01). The allele frequency for A and B were 0.59 and 0.41 respectively, according to the lactoferrin gene analysis carried out currently. The effect of lactoferrin gene polymorphism on milk yield was highly significant (P≤0.01), being cows with AB yielded 2447.37 ± 209.06 kg, while those with AA yielded 1205.70 ± 120.14 kg. The lactation period has not significantly affected by lactoferrin gene polymorphism. The influence of lactoferrin gene polymorphism was obvious on milk fat (P≤0.01) and ash (P≤0.05) percentages, while other milk components (lactose, protein and solid non-fat) did not. It can be concluded from the study of gene expression for lactoferrin gene, the possibility of adopted them in cattle breeding strategy,. We also recommend to apply the study on a larger sample and for several productive lactions that will give more accurate results from the application of culling and replacement strategies.


Article
AN ALYSIS OF ECONOMIC EFFICINCY AND OPTIMAL ALLOCATION OF ECONOMIC RESOURCES IN ABU GHRAIB DAIRY FACTORY USING LINEAR PROGRAMMING IN 2015
تحليل الكفاءة الاقتصادية والتخصيص الأمثل للموارد الاقتصادية في معمل ألبان أبو غريب باستخدام أسلوب البرمجة الخطية لعام 2015

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The resource allocation and planning is one of most important issues in the field of administration because of its importance role could be played in raising the factory performance and to create the conditions and means for the advancement of its reality so the goal of research is to reach mix of commodity through re-allocation of resources between the various production lines which is achieved with it maximum profit margin and this optimum plant was done through collection of data from dairy Abu Ghraib factory in 2015 and adopted win QSB program to find the optimal production plan it shows the reality of factory production that loses 1,755,486,044 dinars, and when we make the basic shows it is investigating profit increased by 1,046,003,000 dinars shows that there is a surplus in the work item (93%) by you make attempts on the basic plan emerged from three alternative plans the most important of the third alternative plan - b - achieved a profit by 28,090,890,000 dinar total profit for the basic plan exceeds by 27,004,887,000 dinars decreased surplus in the work item to 24%, and when you perform a sensitivity analysis to see changes show that in the case of high variable costs by 10% has been no change in the results of the basic plan, but profit dropped for profit basis the plan by 104.6 million dinars, while in the case of high variable costs by 10% with low prices by 10% has also been some of the activities excluded which caused a loss in the target and reduced the amount of production of the quantity cream in the base plan by 196.817 tons function as some productive activities that did not appear in the basic plan emerged was this plain achieved an increase in gross profit amounted to 438.656 million dinars for the base plan, but in the case of high product prices 10% did not any change on the result of the basic plain occurs because the change at the same rate for all products was the plan achieved an increase in profit exceeds the profit for the basic plan by 104.6 million dinars, it was concluded research that the factory does not follow the scientific metod in management and there are worse in the allocation of resources and a large waste the resources for such research recommend to adopt scientific method, especially linear programming method available in the factory resource planning application for optimum productivity plans that would lead to expand the plant to increase production and profits as well as lead to the optimal allocation of economic resource available.


Article
RESPONSE OF PHYSIOLOGICAL AND HISTOLOGICAL TRAITS TO ENZYME SUPPLEMENTATION AND SOAKING OF DIETS CONTAINING CORN AND WHEAT OF THE LAYNING HENS
استجابة الصفات الفسلجية والنسيجية لإضافة الإنزيمات والتنقيع الى علائق حاوية على الذرة الصفراء والحنطة في الدجاج البياض

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

This study was conducted at Poultry Research Station Animal Resources Research Department–State Board of Agricultural Research/ Ministry of Agriculture in Abu Ghraib, which included two experiment to study the effect of enzyme supplementing and soaking to the diets of the laying hens containing corn and wheat on productive performance.Three hundred Brown-egg hens (ISA Brown) 40 weeks of age were used in this experiment after preliminary period for two weeks. Layer hens distributed randomly to ten treatments with 2 replicates (15 hens per replicate); and fed on diets according to the age periods in ISA guide. Treatments were as follows: T1: Control group (100% corn).T2: 100% corn with soaking. T3: 100% corn with enzymes. T4:100% corn with soaking and enzymes. T5: 33% corn replacement wheat with soaking. T6: 33% corn replacement wheat and with enzymes. T7: 33% corn replacement wheat with soaking and enzymes. T8: 66% corn replacement wheat with soaking. T9: 66% corn replacement wheat with enzymes. T10: 66% corn replacement wheat with soaking and enzymes. The results showed a significant increase (P<0.05) in The levels of serum blood calcium for T10, and serum blood phosphorus in T8,T10 while the inorganic phosphorus in feces for all treatments was lower than the control treatment. There are no significant differences between all treatments Calcium and Phosphorus in tibia bone. were lower than the control treatment in cholesterol levels in blood serum. No differences were noticed for crypts depth between all treatments, while T3, T6, T7, T8 ,T9 ,T10 showed a significant decrease (P <0.05) for the length of villi. So it was concluded that Enzyme supplementation and soaking to the diets of the laying hens significantly increased blood serum characteristics and also minimize the feces P by enhancing phytic acid breaking. it also increased villi length in small intestine which lead to better food digestion and absorption

Table of content: volume: issue: