Table of content

The Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Science

مجلة العلوم الزراعية العراقية

ISSN: ISSN:00750530 / EISSN:24100862
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Agriculture
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi Journal of Agricultural science (TIJAS) was established in 1966 in the college of Agriculture – University of Baghdad. It was published with two issues each volume. In 2000, TIJAS started with six issues each volume till now . In this year the volume number of TIJAS is (47). TIJAS covers papers in plant & animal sciences, besides, Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Extension, Agricultural Mechanization and basic sciences, such as Chemistry and Physics Related to light, heat, water and winds. Each volume includes around 75 articles, about 20-25 article/ issue depending on a reliable accepted paper for publication.

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tijasub@yahoo.com
tel :
009647804541817
009647512748875
address:
college of Agric. / Univ. of Baghdad
Al Jadreah, Baghdad, Iraq

Table of content: 2016 volume:47 issue:4

Article
FLOWERING SYNDROME – HYBRID PERFORMANCE RELATIONSHIP IN MAIZE 1- Field traits and growth rates
علاقة متلازمة التزهير بأداء الهجين في الذرة الصفراء 1- الصفات الحقلية ومعدلات النمو

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In order to identify the role of selection for early and late silking on the inbred lines from Maize (Zea Mays L.) regarding the grain yield of the consequent hybrids. Filed experiment for four seasons (spring and full 2014 and 2015) was conducted in the experimental field of Field Crop Dept., Coll. of Agric., Univ. of Baghdad. Four inbred lines (Zm19, Zm32, Zm51 and Zm61) and two testers (Zm21 late and Zm60 early silking) were used. In the first two seasons, the seeds of the four inbred lines were planted, first 10 plants that flowered early and 10 plants that flowered late were selected and the seeds of the selected plants were multiplied. The seeds of the early and late selected inbred lines were planted in the third season and crossed with testers. Crosses from the early and late flowering were produced and their seeds were cultivated in the last season. Comparison in some field and growth traits were conducted among the crosses. The experiments laid out in completely randomized block design (RCBD) at three replicates. Selection for early and late flowering parents has induced significant differences in days to flowering for all crosses and ranged between 62 days for early parents and 66 days for late parents. Also, significant differences were shown in several traits, the most prominent were crop’s and seed’s growth rate (CGR and SGR ), that correlated with seed filling duration (SFD), which contributed to increase the deposition of the dry matter into the grain for a longer period, which gave a high grain yield (GY). CGR of outstanding crosses ranged from 3.18 to 6.21 g.m-2.day, SGR ranged between 2.3 to 7.3 g. m-2.day, and the SFD between 35-38 days. In parallel, the testers (Zm21 late and Zm60 early silking) have significantly differed in their effect on the traits of some derived crosses, where the results showed significant superiority of the crosses Zm32Zm60 resulted from crossing the tester Zm60 with early silking parents selected from inbred line Zm32 on the crosses Zm32Zm21 resulted from crossing the tester Zm21 with the same parents of Zm32 in the traits of Total Dry Matter (TDM) (1.85 kg.m-2), CGR (18.28 g.m-2.day), Harvest Index (HI) (0.56), and SGR (3.3 g.m-2.day). It can be conclude that selection for early and late silking inbred lines, as well as the effect of the early and late silking tester have a great importance in deriving hybrids of a high yield and distinct in several traits, which are all significantly contributing in increasing the GY.


Article
FLOWERING SYNDROME – HYBRID PERFORMANCE RELATIONSHIP IN MAIZE 2- Yield and yield components
علاقة متلازمة التزهير بأداء الهجين في الذرة الصفراء 2- الحاصل و مكوناته

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Field experiment during four seasons (spring and fall 2014 and 2015) was carried out on maize at the experimental field of Field Crop Dept., Agric. Coll., Univ. of Baghdad to study the role of selection for early and late flowering (silking) of inbred lines on the grain yield of the consequent hybrids. Four inbred lines (Zm19, Zm32, Zm51 and Zm61) and two testers (Zm21 late and Zm60 early silking) were used. In the first two seasons, the seeds of the four inbred lines were planted, first 10 plants that flowered early and 10 plants that flowered late were selected, the seeds of the selected plants were multiplied. The seeds of the early and late selected inbred lines were planted in the third season and then crossed with testers. Crosses from the early and late silking (ELS) were produced and their seeds were cultivated in the last season. Comparison in some growth traits, yield and its components were conducted among the crosses. The experiments were laid out in randomized complete block (RCBD) with three replicates. The selection for parents of early and late silking has significantly influenced the Grain Yield (GY), the cross Zm19xZm60 (produced from crossing parents of early silking selected from inbred lines - PESSIL) has surpassed in the GY on its counterpart (produced from parents of late silking selected from inbred lines) (10.516 and 8.188 ton.ha-1 sequentially). The testers (Zm21 late silking and Zm60 early silking - ES) have significantly differed in their effect on the traits of some hybrids (produced from crossing) especially the GY when crossed with ES parents. The cross (Zm19 x Zm60) which produced from crossing the tester Zm60 with the ES parents selected from the inbred line Zm19 has surpassed the cross Zm19 x Zm21, which produced from crossing the tester Zm21, with PESSIL Zm19 in GY (10.516 and 6.642 mt ha-1 ton.ha-1, sequentially). Selection has also shown significant differences in several traits, the most prominent are the Seed’s Growth Rate (SGR). It can be conclude that selection for ES and LS inbred lines and testers’ effect have a great importance in deriving hybrids of a high yield and several traits.


Article
ESTIMATION OF SOME GENETIC PARAMETERS OF GROWTH AND YIELD CHARACTERS OF SUNFLOWER UNDER THREE PLANT DENSITIES
تقدير بعض المعالم الوراثية لصفات النمو والحاصل لزهرة الشمس تحت ثلاث كثافات نباتية

Authors: W.A. Hassan وجيهة عبد حسن
Pages: 921-932
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To know the genetic variations for some sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) traits under the influence of three plant population (40000, 50000 and 60000 plants.ha-1) for tow varieties (oil and non-oil) of sunflower. The experiments were conducted during spring and fall seasons of 2013, using factorial experiment within RCBD. The plant spaces between the furrows 90 cm and within furrows 27.8, 22.2 and 18.5 cm, which variable due to plant population. The field was fertilized using compound fertilizer (18% N: 18% P2O5) and urea (46%N)at 350 kg. ha-1. The results revealed that there are genotypic and phenotypic homogeneity in both varieties, according to the lowest Sy ̅, CV, GCV and PCV for most of studied traits. The broad sense heritability values (83-98%) and the 60000 plant population in fall season for most of traits that cause to increase genetic gain (16-42%). It was concluded that number of seeds.head-1 and seeds weight can be used as selection index to improve both varieties.


Article
ESTIMATION OF VARIANCES , GENOTYPIC AND PHENOTYPIC CORRELATIONS FOR SOME TRAITS OF MAIZE UNDER HIGHEST UNDUR NITROGEN ABUNDANCE
تقدير التباينات والارتباطات الوراثية والمظهرية لعدد من صفات الذرة الصفراء تحت وفرة النتروجين

Authors: S. J. bunder سرى جاسم بندر
Pages: 933-938
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The objective of this study was estimation of variances, broad sense heritability genotypic and phenotypic correlation for some traits of maize under nitrogen abundance . the experiment was conducted at the farm of the Dept. of Field Crop Sci., College of Agric., Univ. of Baghdad during the Spring and fall seasons of 2012 under level 400 Kg N. ha rate-1 . Diallel cross was performed among four maize inbred lines (Zm7, Zm607, Oh40, Zr8) to produce six single crosses in spring season . The seeds of parents and crosses were sown in fall season using R.C.B.D. with three replicates. The results showed significant difference among genotypes and the values of the genotypic variance were more than environment variance in all studied characters. The values of phenotypic coefficients of variation larger than the genotypic and the higher rate of genotypic coefficient of variation for 300 grain weight 16.74, no. of grain per row 15.05 and leaves area 12.18. furthermore high estimates of broad sense heritability were observed for all characters and the highest value 81.45 for 300 weight grain and 75.31 for leaves area .The grain yield gave high significant negative genotypic and phenotypic with silking date and positive with plant height , leaves area , no. of grain per row , 300 grain weight. It was concluded that a breeder can use leaves area , no. of grain per row and grain weight as selection index in selection program of maize under high nitrogen


Article
RESPONSE OF EGGPLANT PLANTS TO BIOSTIMULATORES AND SHADING
إستجابة نباتات الباذنجان للمحفزات الحيوية والتظليل

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A field experiment was carried out in the vegetable field of Horticulture Department and Landscape Gardening, College of Agriculture, Abu-Ghraib In the spring season 2014 to study the Response of Eggplant Plants to Biostimulators and Shading, to study of Two factors, the first factor represent two treatments, first is shading with plastic nets (50% light) and the second without shading, each of these treatments contained three replicates and distributed randomly Treatments were(Without adding, Endospor Dry Mix, Biohealth, Amino Alexin, interacion between Endospor Dry Mix and Biohealth interaction between Endospor Dry Mix and Amino Alexin interaction between Biohealth and Amino Alexin triple interaction between Endospor Dry Mix and Biohealth and Amino Alexin and symbolized by (Control, A, B, O, AB, AO, BO and ABO). The experiment carried out within (Nested Design), the Results and analyzed compared with the averages according to less significant difference test ( LSD) at the probability level of 5%.The results can be summarized by. The treatment A gave a significantly higher values in the leaf area are (1299 dm2.plant-1) and the length of the secondary root is (35.08 mm) the roots surface area is (1300 cm2) and total yield is (92.10 ton.ha-1) while the treatment BO give a significantly higher values in the number of fruitful branches are (12.83 fruitful branch.plant-1) and the diameter of the main root is (4.93 mm). And the treatment AO give a significantly higher values in the concentration of total chlorophyll pigment in the leaves (543.5 mg.100g-1 fresh weight). And the treatment ABO give a significantly higher values in the fruit weight is (177.3 g) and the concentration of Fe in the leaves (255.2 mg.kg-1 dry matter) and Zn (83.50 mg.kg-1 dry matter) and Mg (0.186 mg.kg-1 dry matter). The shading treatment a significantly higher values in the concentration of Fe in the leaves (237.0 mg.kg-1 dry matter) and Zn (71.67 mg.kg-1 dry matter). The number of fruit branches are (10.83 fruitful branch.plant-1) and the leaf area are (1353 dm2.plant-1), and the concentration of chlorophyll pigment in the leaves is (493.6 mg.100g-1 fresh weight) and the diameter of the main root way (4.29 mm) and the length of secondary root is (31.58cm) and the surface area of the roots is (1190 cm) and the weight of the fruit is (169.6 g) and the total yield is (76.05 ton.ha-1).The interaction between treatment A and shading significantly in the number of fruitful branches is (15 fruitful branch.plant-1) and the length of secondary root (39.33 cm) and the total yield is (98.03 ton.ha-1). And the superiority of interaction between the treatment AO and the shading significantly in the leaf area in were (1645 dm2.plant-1) and the concentration of chlorophyll pigment in the leaves way (575.0 mg.100 g-1 fresh weight). While the interaction between the treatment BO and shading in the surface area of the roots way (1336 cm2). And the interaction between the treatment ABO and shading give a significantly value in the fruit weight is (184.6 g) and the concentration of Fe in the leaves (261.0 mg.kg-1 dry matter), and Zn (86.00 mg.kg-1 dry matter) And the interaction between the treatment BO and without shading gave a significantly value in diameter main root way (5.37 mm).


Article
EFFECT OF DIPPING IN GIBBERLLIC ACID AND SPRAYING NUTRIENT SOLUTION AGRO LEAF ON SOME VEGETATIVE GROWTH AND YIELD OF JERUSALUM ARTICHOKE.
تأثير التغطيس بالجبرلين والرش بالسماد المغذي Agro leaf في بعض صفات النمو الخضري والحاصل لنبات الالمازة

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This study was conducted in experimental fields, Department of Horticulture, University of Bagdad, in Abu-Graib during season 2011-2012 for jerusalum artichoke. This study was included the effect of dipping tubers in three concentrations of GA3(2.5,5,10g/l) (G1,G2,G3),as well as to control treatment (G0), and spraying nutrient solution Agro leaf A1 (8g/l), as well as to control treatment (A0). This study was made by using Factorial experiment (4*2) within the design RCBD with three replicates. Results could be summarized as follows: G3A0 increased field emergence (12.00 day), G2A0 increased percentage of germination (99.33%) and G2A1 increased number of branches (4.60 stem.plant-1) but the treatment G1A1gave highest rate for number of leaves, leaf area, guide of leaf area, dry weight of the vegetative parts and dry weight of 100gm tubers as(4495.10 leaf.plant-1, 2246.20 dsm2, 99.84, 922.40g, 24.00g.) respectively. The treatments gave significant differences quantity yield, so treatment G3A0 gave highest weight of the tubers as(45.55g.) but the treatment G3A1 gave highest number of the tubers as(68.00 tuber.plant-1 ) and highest yield of plant as (2890g/plant).


Article
EVALUATION OF DESIGN PRINCIPLES FOR BABYLON PARK
تقويم الخصائص التصميمية لجانب من متنزه بابل السياحي

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Attention Recently directed to the importance of urban parks and gardens, being one of the basic and essential components to develop quality of urban life. The evaluation of design characteristics of the historical landscape parks from different aspects, one of the most important goals aspires landscape designer to be studied within the master plan of the city. The search adopted field survey methodology and observation, description within limits of current study. Babylon park using the camera and recording videos, in order to embody the components and elements of the overall site, using aerial maps of park site to sketching the sites accurately ,taking into consideration relationship of study area to neighboring areas. Evaluation process of Babylon Tourist Park included four main stages the obtain information,analysis characteristic features, determine the importance and integrity of the site), were also distributed evaluation form on a sample of experience in the planning,design and plants persons responsible for the management and maintenance of the park. After Data were processed using Microsoft office excel 2010. To find duplicates and percentages for evaluators answers. The results for the evaluation for the artificial components (the main gate,the main buildings,the roads and the lanes) were appropriate for the site ,mean while the car park was unsuitable in terms of design aesthetic and functionality regarding the natural components. The effectiveness of the observation of nature got the highest evaluation, followed by recreational travel and the and finally holding concerts and confirmed the importance of evaluating the results of the park and all the interlocutor where you got the utmost preference as a public garden combines with view of natural and historical properties. Vegetation has been characterized by large trees with great differences in the kind and tissue of the tree , while the shrubs was a great contrast to the average in terms of forms and spun.It turns out that Babylon tourist park is one of the most important natural parks - historical, which is located in the city of Hilla, center, and increasingly important compared with the gardens of other city because it is one of the elements of the powerful attractions of the city culturally and historically as a result of his involvement in important historical events as well as it relates to environmental and natural monuments.


Article
INFLUENCE OF WHEY FOLIAR SPRAYING AND GROWING POINT PINCHING ON GROWTH AND YIELD PARAMETERES OF OKRA
تاثير الرش الورقي بالشرش وقرط القمة النامية في بعض صفات النمو الخضري والحاصل في الباميا

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ABSTRACT: An experiment was carried out in the fields that belong to agiriculture college /Baghdad university (AL-Jadyria) according to randomized compeleted blocks design(R.C.B.D.) with three replications during the spring season of 2015 to Study impact of growing point pinching and foliar spraying of whey on some traits of vegetative growth and yield of okra(Abelmoschus esculentus L.Moench) AL-Batra local cultivar.The experiment was included six treatments which was pinching or no pinching of growthing point and foliar spraying of whey with three concentration (0%,50%and75%).The results showed that pinching was siginificant in all traits of vegetative growth except plant High where the highest values of branches number , diameter of stem and leafes numbers which were(1.911 branch/plant , 3.45 cm/plant ,84.0 leaf/plant) respectively while there was not significant differences in foliar spraying of whey in all traits except plant high which was(163.6 cm/plant)with 75%. The interaction between pinching and foliar spraying of whey with(75%)was significant to plant high and branches number which were (167.0 cm/plant and 2.133 branch/plant) respectively and the interaction between pinching and comparison treatment of whey(0%) was significant to diameter of stem and leafes number which were (3.67 cm/plant and 88.80 leaf/plant) respectively. The results point out that pinching treatments were not significant in all traits of yield while whey fliar spraying with(50%) was significant to fruit weight average and yield per plant which were (2.76 gm/plant and 0.2103 kg/plant) respectively. The interaction between pinching and comparison treatment of whey(0%) was significant to fruits number per plant which was(82.7 fruit/plant) and interaction between pinching and foliar spraying of whey with(50%) was significant to fruit weight average and yield per plant which were(2.92 gm/fruit and 0.228 kg/plant) respectively.


Article
EFFECT OF EXTRACTION OF SHEEP MANURE WITH WARM WATER ON THE GROWTH AND NUTRIENTS CONTENT OF TOMATO PLANTS UNDER CULTIVATION OF PLASTIC HOUSES
تأثير الاستخلاص بالماء الفاتر لمخلفات الأغنام المتحللة في نمو نباتات الطماطة ومحتواها من العناصر الغذائية تحت ظروف البيوت البلاستيكية

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An experiment was conducted under greenhouse condition at a farm located in AlImary district east of Baghdad to study the effect of sheep manure water extract on the growth of tomato plants var. Wijdan during the season of 2014-2015.The experiment was consisted of 14 treatments which included of sheep manure with hot (42ْC) and lmbient (20ْC) Water temperature applied either by foliar at 25% and 50% concentration or directly to the soil at 50% and 100% concentration splited to 7 applications control treatments either distilled water as foliar and recommended chemical fertilizers (applied to soil). The experiment was designed according to the random complete block statistical design (RCBD) with three replications Results showed that the chemical treatment and the treatment of hot water extracted significantly when compared with the cold counterpart especially the treatment of hot water extract sheep manure sprayed at 50% and soil applied at 100% concentration in plant height, leaf number, leaf area , plant dry weight and total chlorophyll. In addition, the chemical treatment and the treatment of hot water foliar applied at 50% and soil applied at 100% concentration significantly increased concentration of N ,P and K in leaf tissue while hot extract gave the highest Ca and Mg concentration in leaf tissue.


Article
MARKETING MARGIN ACCOUNT BETWEEN THE PRODUCER AND CONSUMER PRICE OF SOME VEGETABLE CROPS IN THE PROVINCE OF BAGHDAD AND THE PRICE OF THE AGRICULTURAL SEASON FOR SUMMER 2014
حساب الهامش التسويقي بين سعر المنتج وسعر المستهلك لبعض محاصيل الخضر في محافظة بغداد للموسم الزراعي الصيفي 2014

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This research aims to, analyze and estimate marketing margins and the relative importance of some vegetable crops in the province of Baghdad and then estimate the product share and wholesaler and retailer of consumer Iraqi dinars spent boil vegetable crops studied Results of the study showed that the margin catalog crops fresh vegetables varies from time to harvest as it was about 316 dinars Tomato and 315 for the option of water and 421.3 dinars eggplant and 448.5 dinars potato and 425.5 dinars onions dry. How much the product share of consumer spending was about %58.3 and tomatoes %59.7 of the option and water %52.3 of the eggplant and %56.2 and potatoes 49.8% of dry onions. The share of the wholesale of consumer spending about 12% and tomatoes %13.5 of the option and water %11.2 of the eggplant and %9.5 and potato %9.2 onion dry. What share of the retailer of consumer spending about % 29.7 and tomatoes 23.3% of the option and water (36.4%) of the eggplant and 34.2% and potatoes 41.0% of dry onions. The relative importance of the terms of marketing margin for vegetable crops school came first prize profit retailer as it drew %42.6, and came in second place transportation as the percentage %18.8. And the third place came the profits of the wholesaler as the percentage %17.7, And it was ranked fourth marketing operations costs as the percentage %10.1 it ranked fifth packing costs amounting to % 9.2 . It came sixth rank as loading costs amounted to %1.3. And that the margin between the search marketing is relatively high despite the decline in its absolute value, to the short distance between the producer and the consumer on the one hand and the lack of marketing tasks on the other hand care. Find recommendations came out of perhaps the most important work to raise marketing efficiency by changing market performance so that leads to lower costs functionality without modifying or reducing benefits or increasing the marketing benefits of marketing services without increasing marketing costs or achieve both.


Article
PREDICTION QUANTITIES OF AVAILABLE OF CAPITA CONSUMPTION OF RED MEAT, CHICKEN AND FISH IN IRAQ FOR PERIOD 2012-2022 THROUGH USING BOX - JENKINS METHODOLOGY.
التنبؤ بالكميات المتاحة لاستهلاك الفرد من اللحوم الحمراء والدجاج والاسماك في العراق للمدة (2012-2022) باستخدام منهجية بوكس وجينكنز Box- Jenkins

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The aim of this paper is to analyze time series using the method of Box and Jenkins (B&J) (diagnosit, estimating, model appropriate test and prediction) to find the best model of predicting available quantities for red meat, chicken and fish consumption in Iraq depending on the annual data of 1990 – 2012. The analysis results showed that the model was the appropriate model for red meat of (0, 1, 1), for chicken of (1, 1, 1) and for fish of (1, 0, 0). Annually predicting available quantities for red meat, chicken and fish consumption was depending on these models for 2012 – 2022. The rates of available quantities growth for red meat, chicken and fish consumption per capita decreased during the studied period and were compatible with predicted quantities which indicated the decreasing but slowly. To keep on the current levels of red meet, chicken and fish consumption. It must be working on increasing the development of these sections of 1.9 , 1.45 , and 1.6%, respectively, to face the predicted negative development rate of -1.9 , -1.4 and -1.6% , respectively.


Article
ECONOMIC ANALYSIS FOR A RISK IN THE CULTIVATION OF WHEAT ON OF HIGH SALINITY SOILS WHICH IN IRAQ, USING THE MODEL (MOTAD) - WASIT GOVORNORATE AN APPLIED MODEL
تحليل اقتصادي للمخاطرة في زراعة محصول القمح في ترب مرتفعة الملوحة في العراق بأستخدام أنموذج ال (MOTAD) – محافظة واسط انموذجا تطبيقيا –

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Agriculture is a biological industry with highly vulnerable to natural factors, so the cultivation of wheat crop is very risky in lands, characterized by high levels of soil salinity, leading to high risk and uncertainty component. For this Al-MOTAD model has been adopted to analysis the risk. The research depends on a random sample composed of 590 farmers, representing eight agricultural sectors from agricultural cultivation Wasit Directorate. The Basic Plan for linear programming been designed , and then built al MOTAD model for risk, after nine plans to al MOTAD model represent different levels of degrees of risk posed by the average total absolute deviations A, with levels of income E, until it reached the degree of risk to a minimum as possible in results of ninth Plan to zero level for degrees of risk with the level of net return of 39028220 dinars, cultivation 260578 donnum, and 145560 donnum, and 122748 donnum, and 83611.7 donnum of wheat in different levels of the soil which does not exceed the salinity 8 ds m-1. And cultivating 10428 donnum of industrial barley , and 137663.3 donnum of Gath, and 2422.8 donnum maize in the land that salinity level higher than 8 ds m-1.


Article
ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF THE IMPACT OF DIFFEREN LEVEL OF SOIL SALINITY ON THE PRODUCTIVITY OF WHEAT CROP IN WASIT PROVINCE
التحليل الاقتصادي لتأثير مستويات مختلفة من ملوحة التربة على انتاجية محصول القمح في محافظة واسط

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The study sample included 590 farmers in Wasit province, has been taking samples of soils that the first two levels of the samples 0-15 cm, and second 15-30 cm, from different agricultural people in the province, was the level of salinity of the soil analysis, in the laboratories of the Faculty of agricultural techniques / Musayyib, SPSS software to analyze the function and use the influence of the level of soil salinity on the productivity of wheat crop, and traversed by testing the function of class I and II, and turned out to be an inverse relationship which determine the level of critical soil salinity b 12.13 Desiminz / m, a level which even then the average revenue dunum with average costs, also identified the level of salinity of the soil, which then become the productivity of the crop is equal to zero when the function 18.163 ds m-1. The study recommended that the Department of Agriculture is committed to non-introduction of land that soil salinity level higher than 12 ds m-1 within the agricultural plan for the province of Wasit, because that is a waste of economic resources. The study also recommended the need to draw a map of the levels of land salinity in general to determine the crop structure that is appropriate different levels of salinity, and recommended the encouragement of farmers who are their lands with high levels of soil salinity on other crops more tolerant to salinity, such as barley, alfalfa and clover, and others.


Article
EFFECT OF USING L-ASPARAGINASE IN REDUCING ACRYLAMIDE PERCENTAGE IN BISICUT
تأثير استخدام انزيم L-Asparaginase في خفض نسبة الاكريلامايد في البسكويت

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This study was aimed to know the efficiency of partially purified L- asparaginase produced from local isolate from Erwinia spp. to reduce the percentage of acrylamide formed in Biscuit. Four types of biscuit from wheat flour were prepared (T1, T2, T3, T4),and T1 as control. High performance liquid chromatography technique was used to estimate acrylamide ratio in biscuit , Effect of enzyme addition on flour chemical and rheological properties was studied, also dough behavior ,gluten percentage, water absorption and amylase enzyme activity was estimated. The results revealed that the addition of experimental asparaginase ( specific activity 20.5 unite mg-1 ) with 1% of flour weight lead to reduce in acrylamide formation in Biscuit to 89 % compared to control sample ( in absence of enzyme ) . Moreover, the addition of Asparagine to flour at 0.1 % of its weight, where L- asparaginase was available caused a negative effect on enzyme efficiency in reducing the acrylamide in biscuit. So the level of acrylamide was reduced to 57.7 %. In the other hand , the percentage of acryl amide in biscuit was increased to 233 % when the asparagine was added to mixture in absence of L- asparaginase .Addition of the enzyme to flour have no effect on the percentage value of gluten but improved the stability of dough .The enzyme addition also led to increase amylases activities. Addition of experimental enzyme had no effect on quality and sensory evaluation of biscuit.


Article
PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SALIVARY AMYLASE INHIBITOR EXTRACTED FROM BARLEY
تنقية وتوصيف مثبطات ألفا- اميليز لعاب الانسان من محصول الشعيرHordeum vulgare

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Amylase inhibitors were purified by many sequential steps included concentration by gradual addition of ammonium sulfate at saturation ratios. ranged from 0 to 90% . The best ratio of saturation was found to be 70% as the specific activity and inhibition activity toward Human alpha-amylase(HAS) were the highest ( 8 U/mg and 6 U/ml respectively as compared to those of the rest ratios, the ratio of saturation with ammonium sulfate 60 % and then 50%, (5.8 ,5.5 )U/ml and( 7.7 ،7 )U/mg respectively for inhibition activity and specific activity and for 40% ,30%20% saturation the inhibition activity and specific activity were(5 ،4.8 ،4 ) u/ml (6.6 ،6 ،5.8) u/mg respectively .The precepitation step was followed by ionic exchange chromatography technique by DEAE-cellulose column( 3×11 )cm and the results showed that there was one peak with inhibition activity toward (HAS). Further purification steps were conducted using gel filtration on Sephacryl S-200 column (1.5 × 60)cm; the purification folds was5.59 times with outcome of 46.5%.The results of alpha-amylase inhibitors characterization showed that the molecular weight was about 23.44 and 22.9 kDa as determined by electrophoresis and gel filteration respectively.


Article
DETERMINATION OF SOME HEAVY METALS RESIDUES IN RAW MILK OF COWS , SHEEP AND GOATS IN Al-QADISIYA GOVERNORATE
تقدير بقايا بعض المعادن الثقيلة في الحليب الخام للأبقار والاغنام والماعز في محافظة القادسية

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This study was carried out in Al-Qadisiya Governorate during the period from December , 2012 to March , 2013. Involving five regions with different geographical locations (Diwania city center , Saniya District , Shafeia District, Daghara District and Al-Hamza District ) to determine the residues of nickel , arsenic and mercury in raw milk of cows , sheep and goats . A total of 150 raw milk samples were collected from 150 animals belong to the three species, involved 50 samples for cows, 50 samples for sheep and 50 samples for goats (10 samples / region) selected randomly. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry was used to determine the concentration of nickel (NI) , arsenic (AS) and mercury (Hg) . The results showed that a significant differences (p0.05) in the concentrations of nickel , arsenic and mercury among milk of cows , sheep and goats . Sheep milk had a higher concentration of nickel 0.563mg / l , arsenic 0.283 mg / l and mercury 0.124 mg / L-1 and lower concentration pattern of these metal in cow's milk ( 0.221 , 0.122 and 0.037 mg / L-1) respectively . The results also revealed a significant differences (p0.05) among studied regions . The higher concentrations of these metal were in Al-Hamza District for nickel 0.494 mg / L-1 ,for arsenic 0.246 mg / L-1 and for mercury 0.119 mg / L-1 . While the lower level of contamination were in Daghara District . The results of the present study showed an increase in concentrations of nickel and mercury in March month . It could be concluded that high concentration of studied heavy metals in Al-Hamza District may be due to getting rid of the residues of industrial activities in Al-Diwania river without treatment, while in the other locations may be due to using sewage water for agricultural irrigation .


Article
EFFECT OF SOME SOIL PROPERTIES ON IRON SORPTION
تأثير بعض خصائص التربة في امتزاز الحديد

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Laboratory experiment was carried out in order to study the adsorption of Fe as FeEDDHA as related to some soil properties in six calcareous soils from the middle of Iraq. Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin equations were used for describing Fe adsorption. The best equation was chosen according to highest value of r, r2 and t and least value of Standard error of estimate. The results showed that Freunglich equation was more efficient for describing Fe sorption compared with other physicochemical equations used, depending on highest values of, r (0.985), r2 (0.970) and t ( 20.01) and lower standard error SE.e (0.186). Maximum adsorption capacity in tested soils were 415.2, 393.7, 353.7, 344.2, 318.4 and 306.0 µg Fe g-1soil while the binding strength were 0.059, 0.046, 0.059, 0.051, 0.059 and 0.064 ml Fe µg-1 for Balad, Al-Khalis, Al-Raaid, Al-Wehda, Al-Mussayib and Al-Rashidaaa. 59.2% of the applied Fe was sorbed on soil while 40.8% remained soluble in soil solution. Freunglich adsorption constants (lnKf and 1/n) significantly correlated with Langmuir maximum adsorption (b) and binding strength (K). Also, the maximum adsorptive capacity (b) of Langmuir models statistically related to soil properties (EC, total and active carbonate and plant available Fe). It can be concluded from this study that Freunglich and Langmuir equations were more suitable for describing Fe adsorption in all tested soils. Tested soils sorbed Fe according to the following arrangement: Balad > Al-Khalis > Al-Raaid > Al-Wehda > Al-Mussayib > Al-Rashidaa.


Article
THE FFECT OF IRRIGATION LEVELS ON SOME VEGETATIVE GROWTH PARAMETERS AND YIELD OF RICE UNDER DRY FARMING SYSTEM
تأثير مستويات الري في بعض صفات النمو الخضري والحاصل للرز تحت نظام الزراعة الجافة

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A field trial was carried out at the Rice Research Station in Mushkhab ( Najaf/ south of Iraq)State Broad for Agricultural Researches, during the Summer of 2013 in Clay Loam soil. The experiment was laid in split plot with two replications, to test the drought tolerance of different local and foreign varieties of rice .Rice varieties used were 6 varieties of aerobic rice from the International Rice Research Institute(IRRI) and local cultivars Anber33 and Jasmine. Two methods of irrigation ,flood irrigation, and 6 irrigation levels at "-10,-33,-50,-100 KPa" were used in this investigation .Studied parameters were: plant height ,spike length, flag leaf area, % of infertility , weight of 1000 grains and grain yield. Results indicated that varieties and irrigation treatments and their interaction had no significant differences on % of infertility and plant height .Varieties had significant effect on grain yield while irrigation treatment effected significantly on weight of 1000 grains. Interaction between varieties and irrigation had no significant effect on % of infertility , weight of 1000 grains and grain yield. Besides, irrigation treatments and varieties and their interaction had no significant effect on deltoid length.


Article
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SOME SOIL PROPERTIES AND WHEAT AND BARLEY PRODUCTIVITY IN ALLUVIAL SOIL AT WASET GOVORNORATE
دراسة العلاقة بين بعض صفات الترب وانتاجية محصولي الحنطة والشعير في ترب رسوبية في محافظة واسط

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This study was conducted to show the relationship between some soil properties and land productivity from wheat and barely crops. The study area located in Al-Muwafaqia – Waset Govornorate / central of Iraq. General soil data were collected from previous soil survey work done in 1992 ,and new soil samples from the same profile location were collected to determine some soil properties . The actual land productivity from Wheat and Barely crops were collected from the same selected sites . The results indicate some variations in land productivity for the selected crops and wheat productivity was higher than barely productions. Wheat productivity was ranged from 2000 to 2350 kg.ha-1 with mean of 2118.75 Kg.ha-1, while barely productivity ranged from 2000 to 2350 kg.ha-1 with mean of 20187.5 kg.ha-1. All soil properties show a positive and significant correlation with crops productivity except soil salinity which shows a negative correlation. Soil salinity considered as the most limiting factor for crops production as well as bad land management practices and the impact of the socioeconomic condition.


Article
FIELD EVALUATION OF ESTRUS SYNCHRONIZATION AND PREGNANCY DETECTION USING ULTRASONOGRAPHY TO THE LOCAL AWASSI EWES FOR SHEEP OWNERS IN KANAAN DISTRICT- DIYALA PROVINCE
التقييم الحقلي لتقانات احداث وتوحيد الشياع وفحص الحمل بجهاز الامواج فوق الصوتية للنعاج العواسي المحلي لدى مربي الاغنام في ناحية كنعان - محافظة ديالى

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The objective of this study was to carry out an on-farm experiment in sheep owner farms in Kanaan district for the period from 7th Feb. 2015 to 27th Mar. 2015 and to identify the unconventional methods in controlling the reproduction in sheep and increase their productivity using 45 local Awassi ewes, randomly selected from three sheep owners (15 ewes / owner). Treatment group (10 ewes/ owner) were treated with a vaginal sponges containing 20 mg fluorogestone acetate (FGA) inserted for 10 days, followed by I.M. injection of 500 IU equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG), while 5 ewes / owner were regarded as control group without any treatment. Estrus was observed for all ewes for 5 days post withdrawal of sponges. Ewes that showed estrus were mated by rams in their flocks, thereafter, pregnancy detection was conducted at days 35-37 post- mating using transabdominal ultrasonography. A questionnaire involved 20 sheep owners and a demonstrative field day was conducted for owners contributed in the experiment, and others from the region of study to explain the importance and results of the experiment. The results showed the appearance of estrus in all ewes 100% within three days after the withdrawal of sponges. Pregnancy rate of 85.71% at days 35-37 of mating. The questionnaire showed there is an urgent need of knowledge for owners to find out the importance of controlling the reproductive cycle in sheep using vaginal sponges. Also, there were a correlation between the need of knowledge for sheep owners with (educational level for most of them, herd sizes, income from breeding, training courses and other activities in the fields of breeding and reproduction of sheep). In conclusion, the technology of estrus synchronization has an important role to improve reproductive performance of sheep and pregnancy could be detected through transabdominal ultrasonography at 35-37 days with high accuracy as well as there is great desire for the most owner to conduct estrus synchronization technique and to take care their birth of herds simultaneously.


Article
EFFECT OF PARTIAL REPLACEMENT OF SOME PLANT SOURCES IN QUALITY AND SENSORY CHARACTERISTICS OF PROCESSED OF GOOSE MEAT BURGER
تأثير الاستبدال الجزئي لبعض المصادر النباتية في الصفات النوعية والحسية لاقراص البيركر المصنع من لحم الوز المسن

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The aim of this experiment was to study the effect of replacing of some plant sources oat , wheat germ, rice and mushroom with percent 10% for each instead of goose meat on chemical composition , physical , microbial and sensory characteristics of process burger . The results showed significant increase (p<0.01)in moisture percent for replacing treatments and significant(P<0.05)in percent protein for replacing with wheat germ (T3) , while there was decreased in percent of fat and ash for replacing with mushroom(T5) compared with control(T1) in process burger . Significant increase (p<0.05) in value of pH and water holding capacity for T5 with significant decrease (p<0.05) in cooking loss percent , drip loss and shrinkage percentage for T4 , T5 compared with control (T1) . The result of microbial tests showed significant reduced (p<0.01)in arobic total bacterial count and coliform bacteria for T5 compared with other treatments . The Sensory evaluation data of flavour , juiciness , tenderness and overall were significant increase (P<0.05) when replacing some plant sources in this product. In conclusion the results revealed the possibility of replacing 10% of oat , germ wheat , rice and mushroom to goose meat burger which improved some chemical composition , physical , sensory evaluation of processed product without showing undesirable changes in quality of processed product .


Article
DETECT THE FUNGI THAT ASSOCIATED WITH ZINNIA SEEDS AND IT, S EFFECT TO PLANT GROWTH STAGE
التحري عن الفطريات الداكنة المرافقة لبذور الزينيا وتأثيرها في المجموع الخضري للنبات

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This study was carried out to detect the Dematiceous hyphomycetes fungi that associated with Zinnia seeds and to test their pathogenicity and effect on seed germination and foliage. Results of isolation and identification showed the existence of 8 species of these fungi associated with Zinnia seeds. Alternaria alternata was presented in 81.8% of seed samples with highly rate of frequency 77% in sample No.1. The preliminary test of the pathogenicity by cabbage seeds which included three separated experiments, showed that the 34 tested isolates caused a significant reduction in the rate of cabbage seeds germination except B18 isolate (Phoma eupyrena). Isolates B39 and H7 (Alternaria alternata ) were highly Pathogenic which the percentage of germination in their treatments were 0% compared to 98% in the control. Also test the results of effect of pathogenic isolates on Zinnia seeds germination by using blotter method which included two experiments, Showed that all isolates caused a significant reduction in Zinnia seeds germination in comparing with control treatments except H6 isolate. two isolates B39 and H7(A. alternate ) gave a highly significant reduction which the percentage of germination in their treatments was 18% and 20% respectively compared with control treatment. Under green house conditions, isolated H7 and B39 (A. alternate) , A13 (D. state of cochliobolus spicifer) and B8 (P. exigua ) were pathogenic for Zinnia plants with 100% disease incidence and 65-80% disease severity in comparing with control which the disease incidence and severity in their treatment was 2.5%. All these isolates significantly decreased the plant growth parameters.


Article
EVALUATION OF THE CELLULYTIC FUNGI ISOLATED FROM AGRICULTURAL WASTES PRODUCING OF BIOETHANOL
تقييم الفطريات المحللة للسيليلوز المعزولة من المخلفات الزراعية، النباتية والحيوانية المنتجة للإيثانول

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The number of fungal isolated in this research were 48 fungal isolates that isolated from plant, agricultural and animal waste from three different regions outside Baghdad, and three different regions in Baghdad, screening 24 cellulolytic isolates fungi, which were obtained 8 isolated fungi Aspergillus parasiticus, Trichoderma harzanium, Trichoderma viride, Chladosporium ssp, Alternaria ssp, mycelia asterilia (1), Metarhizium spp and mycelia asterilia (2). Capable of producing bio-alcohol with simultaneous saccharification and fermentation without using the yeasts in fermentation methods isolates which recorded the following; 13.547, 10.511, 8.298, 7.951, 6.668, 6.597, 2.455 and 1.256 ppm. respectively. The best optimal conditions for growth were 30ºC and pH 7.


Article
THE EFFECT OF SOME FRESH WATER ALGEA EXTRACTS IN THE INHIBITION OF THE GROWTH OF SOME MICROORGANISIM THAT CAUSE FOOD SPOILAGE
تاثير مستخلصات بعض طحالب المياه العذبة في تثبيط نمو بعض الاحياء المجهرية المسببة لتلف الاغذية

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This study was carried out to isolate, identified and study two types of Iraqi fresh water algae Scenedesmus sp. and Oscellatoria sp also determine some of their active compounds that play an important role as antioxidants and antimicrobial againsts some bacteria. Three types of bacteria Salmonella sp, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus sp that cause spoilage for food were tested. Antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extracts for both algae were examined toward tested bacteria. Four treatments were prepared which were [S.Ex(T1) ,O.Ex(T2), S.Ex: Of*(T3), 1:1 O.Ex: Of*(T4) 1:1],and (C) as control treatment with the antibiotic only (Oflaxacin). Disk diffusion method was used to test the antibacterial activity. Some active compounds indicate and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique used to determine some of them . Both algae contain some active ingredients that consider to be the reason for their ability as antimicrobials. The results of this study showed that the highest inhibition zones were in the treatments T3 and T4 compared to control treatment that means the synergistic activity for both antibiotic and the algae extract as alternative sources gave a better result for health and food protection.


Article
SOME PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF ESSENTIAL OIL OF BARAKASEED NIGELLA SATIVA L. IMPACTED BY BAT GUANO Otonycteris hemprichii Camd AND SEAWEED EXTRACT
بعض الصفات الفيزيائية للزيت الاساسي لحبة البركة Nigella sativa L. بتاثير درق خفاش Otonycteris hemprichii Camd ومستخلص الاعشاب البحرية

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Some fertilizers practices could be used to improve Baraka seed Nigella sativa L. as a medicinal crop like organic farmyard manure which efficiently applied to enhance growth and yield. Thus, a field experiment was conducted out at Research Station in Tikrit-Iraq during 2012/2013 season to estimate the impact of bat guano (0, 75, 125 and 175 kg.ha-1), seaweed extract as kelpak (0, 1, 2 and 3ml.l-1) on some physical and chemical essential oil components. Two factors were arranged in factorial experiment in randomized complete block design with three replicates. Thus, results revealed that application of bat guano at 125 kg.ha-1 was superior in enhancement of essential oil and its some physical and chemical properties as essential oil% of 1.53%, specific gravity of 0.95 g.cm-3, refractive index of 1.82, essential oil density of 0.93, dithymohydroquinone of 37.44µg.µl-1 and thymol of 25.73 µg.µl-1. Moreover, kelpak (3ml.l-1) significantly improved physical and chemical properties of essential oil which were essential oil% of 1.52%, specific gravity of 0.93 g.cm-3, refractive index of 1.72, and essential oil density of 0.94 and thymol of 25.92 µg.µl-1. Whereas, the main component dithymohydroquinone effected by application of 2 ml.l-1kelpak of 37.04 µg.µl-1. It could be recommended to use bat guano as alternative to chemical fertilizer fortified with foliar application of seaweed extract as kelpak so as to improve physical and chemical properties of essential oil.

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