Table of content

The Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Science

مجلة العلوم الزراعية العراقية

ISSN: ISSN:00750530 / EISSN:24100862
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Agriculture
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi Journal of Agricultural science (TIJAS) was established in 1966 in the college of Agriculture – University of Baghdad. It was published with two issues each volume. In 2000, TIJAS started with six issues each volume till now . In this year the volume number of TIJAS is (47). TIJAS covers papers in plant & animal sciences, besides, Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Extension, Agricultural Mechanization and basic sciences, such as Chemistry and Physics Related to light, heat, water and winds. Each volume includes around 75 articles, about 20-25 article/ issue depending on a reliable accepted paper for publication.

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tijasub@yahoo.com
tel :
009647804541817
009647512748875
address:
college of Agric. / Univ. of Baghdad
Al Jadreah, Baghdad, Iraq

Table of content: 2016 volume:47 issue:2

Article
EFFECT OF POTASH FERTILIZATION AND FOLIAR APPLICATION OF IRON AND ZINC ON GROWTH TRAITS OF TWO GENOTYPES OF MUNG BEAN
تأثير التسميد البوتاسي والتغذية الورقية بالحديد والزنك في صفات النمو الخضري لتركيبين وراثيين من الماش

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A field experiment was conducted in Ehssayvillage-Amria-Fallujah district in Al-Anbar governorate during the spring season of 2012 and 2013 in order to study the effect of potassium fertilizer and foliar nutrition of iron and zinc in growth traits of two mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) genotypes. Factorial arrangement was used in RCBD with three replicates.The experiment included three levels of potassium (0, 60 and 120) kg K.ha-1, four treatments of foliar application of zinc and iron (0, Fe150, Zn100 and Fe150 + Zn100) mg.L-1 and two mung bean genotype (Local and indian VC6089A10) .The local genotype gave the highest rate of number of leaves per plant(38.26 and27.73) leaf.plant-1, leaf area(18.62 and18.57) dm2.plant-1 and biological yield( 2.62 and 2.21) t.ha-1 for the two seasons respectively , while the indian genotype gave the highest rate of plant height (50.34 and 52.20) cm and also gave the lowest number of days from planting to maturity of pods for both seasons respectively. The level 60 kg K.ha-1 record the highest rate of plant height, number of leaves per plant , leaf area(16.57and16.05) dm2.plant-1 and biological yield(2.89and (2.17t.ha-1 for the two seasons respectively, while level 120 kg K.ha-1 gave the highest rate of the number of branches per plants(6.7and 4.86) branches.plant-1 and also gave the lowest number of days from planting to maturity of pods for both seasons respectively . So the concentration (Fe150 + Zn100) mg.L-1 from the foliar nutrition of iron and zinc gave highest rate of plant height(48.38)cm, number of branches per plants (6.47) branches.plant-1 and leaf area(14.91) dm2.plant-1 for the first seasons only . The interaction between local genotype with 60 kg K.ha-1gave the heighest rate of number of leaves per plant and leaf area(22.57 and 21.34) dm2.plant-1 for two seasons respectively .So the interaction between local genotype and concentration (Fe150+Zn100) mg.l-1 gave the highest rate of leaf area for the first seasons only. The interaction between the level 60 kg K.ha-1 of potassium and the concentration Fe150 mg.l-1 from the foliar nutrition of iron showed significant superiority in leaf area (18.97 and 19.30) dm2.plant-1 for both seasons respectively.So the triple interaction between local genotype with level 60 kg K.ha-1 of potassium and concentration (Fe 150+ Zn 100)mg.l-1 from foliar nutrition of iron and zinc (V1K1F3) was significant effect in number of leaves per plant and leaf area for both seasons.


Article
EFFECT OF POTASH FERTILIZATION AND FOLIAR APPLICATION OF IRON AND ZINC ON YIELD AND QUALITY OF TWO GENOTYPES OF MUNG BEAN
تأثير التسميد البوتاسي والتغذية الورقية بالحديد والزنك في حاصل ونوعية تركيبين وراثيين من الماش

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A filed experiment was conducted at Ehssay village-Amria-Fallujah district in Al-Anbar governorate during the spring season of 2012 and 2013 in order to study the effect of potassium fertilizer and foliar nutrition of iron and zinc on yield and its quality of two mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) genotypes. Factorial arrangement was used in RCBD with three replicates. The experiment included three levels of potassium (0, 60 and 120) kg K.ha-1, four treatments of foliar application of zinc and iron (0, Fe 150, Zn 100 and Fe 150 + Zn 100) mg.L-1 and two mung bean genotype (Local and Indian VC6089A10). The local genotype gave the highest rate of the number of pods (32.13 and 36.28) pod.plant -1and seed yield (573.0 and 601.8) kg.ha-1, while the indian genotype was superior in weight of 100 seed (6.66 and 7.29) gm for both seasons respectively. The level 60 kg K.ha-1 of potassium gave the highest average of seed yield (635.4 and 663.6) kg.ha-1, while the level 120 kg.ha-1 gave heighest average of number of seeds per pod (7.6 and 7.5 seed.pod-1) and protein percentage (26.18 and 25.82)% for the two seasons respectively. The concentration of Fe 150 mg Fe.L-1 and Fe + Zn (Fe 150 + Zn100 mg.L-1) recorded highest values for most of yield traits for both seasons. The foliar application of Fe gave seed yield (583.0 and 576.8) kg.ha-1, while foliar application of Fe+Ze gave highest average of seed per pod (7.6 and 7.2) seed.pod-1 and percentage of protein (27.17 and 27.11)% for both seasons respectively. A significant interaction between genotypes and potassium levels, the local genotype with 60 kg K.ha-1gave the heighest average of the number of pods (39.22 and 41.61) pod.plant-1 and seeds yield (703.6 and 756.9) kg.ha-1 for both seasons respectively, so the interaction between local genotype and concentration (Fe150 + Zn100) mg.L-1 gave the highest average of number of pods, number of seeds per pod and protein percentage for the first seasons only. The interaction between the level 60 kg K.ha-1 of potassium and the concentration Fe150 mg.L-1 from the foliar nutrition of iron showed significant superiority in seed yield (754.9 and 759.5) kg.ha-1 for both seasons respectively. The triple interaction was significant in most of traits under study, the local genotype that fertilized with 60 kg K.ha-1 and sprayed with Fe 150 + Zn 100 mg.L-1 gave highest average of seed yield (886.7 kg.ha-1) in the second season only.


Article
EFFECT OF SOME NEW HERBICIDES ON THE COMPETITION ABILITY TO SEVEN MAIZE CULTIVARS ( Zea mays L. ) ON THE WEED ACCOMPANYING
تأثير بعض مبيدات الادغال الحديثة في القدرة التنافسية لسبعة اصناف من الذرة الصفراء ( Zea mays L.) في الادغال المرافقة لها

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A field trials was conducted at Abu-Ghraib Research Station / Agricultural Research Office (33°19ʹ27ʺ.1 North, 44°14ʹ13ʺ.1 East) during spring & fall seasons of 2014, to study the response of maize cultivars (Al-Maha, Baghdad 3, Buhuth 106, Fajer1, Talar, Sara and 5018( to weeds control under different herbicides (2000 cm3.h-1 Guradian , 60 gm.h-1 Arrow, 2000 cm3.h-1 Proponit, 600 cm3.h-1 Crew , Weedy and Weed Free). The experiment was accomplished using randomized complete block design (RCBD) according to split plot arrangement with three replicates. The study involved six different weed treatments as main treatments, whereas, sub plots comprised of seven maize cultivars. The results revealed a clear effect of different weeds control treatments most of the studied traits. The treatment (2000 cm3.h-1 Guradian) gave less mean of weed density reached 9.19 & 14.05 plant.m­² during both seasons in comparison with weedy treatment gave the highest mean of weed density reached 20.81 & 28.81 plant.m­² for both seasons respectively. So, the Guradian treatment achieved the highest percentage of weed control which were 55.70 & 50.72 % for both seasons respectively in comparison with weedy treatment. And therefore decreased weed dry matter weight where the Guradian treatment gave lowest weed dry matter weight 116.37 & 153.35 gm.m-2 for both seasons respectively. Whereas, the highest weed dry matter weight was in weedy treatment 391.56 & 858.59 gm.m-2 during the both seasons, and then elevating inhibition percentage 70.35 & 81.34% for both seasons respectively as compared with weedy treatment. Fajer1in the spring season record the lowest average density reached 8.94 plant.m-2, While Baghdad 3 gave the highest average for this Character reached 11.78 plant.m-2, and In the fall season, Buhuth 106 record lowest average to this Character reached 13.72 plant.m-2 while Sarah gave the highest average for this Character reached 16.22 plant.m-2. Most of maize cultivars showed a response to the different treatments of weed control. Where, The Guradian treatment with Al-Maha gave less mean of weed density reached 7.33 plant.m­² in comparison with weedy treatment with Baghdad3 gave the highest mean of weed density reached 25.33 plant.m­²during the spring season. While, in the fall season; The Guradian treatment with Buhuth 106 gave less mean of weed density reached 12.00 plant.m­² in comparison with weedy treatment with Sara gave the highest mean of weed density reached 34.33 plant.m­²during the spring season. finally, We can conclude that all Herbicides have reduced the weed density and decreased weed dry matter weight in varying proportions depending on the nature of the chemical composition of the herbicide treatment compared with weedy treatment and also the maize cultivars showed ability to compete with the weed and thus Difference at ratios of reducing the weed density and weed dry matter weights.


Article
ROLE OF PROLINE ACID IN IMPROVING SUNFLOWER YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS UNDER DEFICIT CONDITIONS WATER
دور حامض البرولين في تحسين حاصل زهرة الشمس ومكوناته تحت ظروف الشد المائي

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A field study was conducted during the spring and autumn seasons of 2014 at the experimental farm of Field Crop Department, College of Agriculture (Abo-Ghraib) - University of Baghdad, to study the effect of Irrigation deficiency quantities and concentrations of Proline acid on yield , its components, water consumptive and water use efficiency of sunflower (Helianthus annus L. ) for Luleo hybrid. Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) in arrangement of a split-plot with three replications were used. Irrigation treatments, control (depletion 50% of available water) and 60% , 50% 40% of control treatment, were assigned as a main plots. while proline acid concentrations of 0, 30, 60 and 90 mg.L-1 were assigned as a subplots. The results showed that there is no significant differences between the control treatment and 60% of the control for the period from planting to 50% flowering, number of leaves, relative water content, nitrogen concentration in leaves, fertilization percentage, number of seeds in the head,100 seed weight and seeds yield reaching 3.90, 2.46 t.ha-1 and 3.78 , 2.41 t.ha-1 for spring and autumn seasons respectively. which indicates the possibility of saving 40% of the water consumption which is estimated 1920.00, 2960.00 m3. ha-1. Season-1 for two seasons respectively without any yield reduction. While the percentage of decline in seeds yield for treatments 50% and 40% from the control treatment for spring season were 14.61% , 19.74% respectively and 21.95 % , 33.33% for autumn season comparing with control. Irrigation treatment 40%, 60% of the control treatments gave the best water use efficiency for both seasons respectively. a concentrations of Proline acid affect significantly most of studied traits. Increasing of Proline to 60mg.L-1 gave the to increase in fertilization percentage was و70.2081.% 100 seed weight7.12 و7.52 gm, seed yield 3.75, 2.21 t.ha-1 and water use efficiency 0.84 و0.29 kg seed.m-3 water comparing with control for two seasons respectively .The interaction between irrigation and Proline acid showed a significantly effect on all characteristics seeds yield components traits in both seasons. We therefore recommend that in case of limited irrigation water by %60 by the need of the full irrigation (50 % depletion of available water) without a significant decrease in product seed yield, in addition to possibility treatment of sunflower plants with Proline acid with 60 mg .L-1 to improvement capacity of water stress.


Article
EFFECT OF SOWING BY DIFFERENT SEEDING RATES ON QUALITATIV TTIATS OF FOUR WHEAT (Triticum aestivum L.) CULTIVAR SEEDS
تأثير الزراعة بمعدلات بذار مختلفة على الصفات النوعية و حيوية بذور أربعة أصناف من حنطة الخبز (Triticum aestivum L.)

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This experiment was carried out at laboratories of Agriculture and Marshes College , University of Thi-Qar and at laboratories of agriculture college , university of Basra during 2013 - 2014 . The aim of this study was to identify the effect of the different seeding rates (80,100,120 and 140 kg.ha-1) on viability and quality characters of four wheat cultivars ( Abu-Ghraib, IPA – 99 , Al-fatih and Al-Iraq ) seeds . Factorial experiments in CRD was used with four replication in two factors . The results showed that there were significant differences between two factors of study and their interaction. The seeds produced from seeding rate 80 kg.ha-1 gave the higher averages of field emergence , standard germination , radical length , seedling dry weight and protein percentage ( 81.18 % , 91.03 % , 7.92 cm , 5.23 gm and 13.71 % ), respectively . The seeds produced from seeding rate 100 kg.ha-1 gave the higher averages of first count test and plumule length ( 74.35 % and 6.45 cm ), respectively . The seeds produced from seeding rate 120 kg.ha-1 gave the higher averages of carbohydrate percentage (61.27) . Al-Iraq seeds gave the higher averages of field emergence , first count test , standard germination , radical length , plumule length , seedling dry weight and carbohydrate percentage ( 86.23% , 72.68 % , 93.22% , 8.51 cm , 6.88 cm , 5.83 gm and 61.65% ) , respectively. Abu-Ghraib seeds gave the higher averages of protein percentage (13.94 ). Al-Iraq seeds produced from seeding rate 80 kg.ha-1 gave the higher averages of field emergence , radical length and seedling dry weight ( 89.14% , 8.87 cm and 6.65 gm ), respectively . Al-Iraq seeds that product from seed rate 100 kg.ha-1 gave the higher averages of first count test , standard germination and plumule length ( 79.00% , 95.98% and 7.83 cm ), respectively . Al-Iraq seeds that product from seed rate 120 kg.ha-1 gave the higher averages of carbohydrate percentage ( 61.92% ). Abu-Ghraib seeds that product from seed rate 100 kg.ha-1 gave the higher average of protein percentage(14.25).


Article
EFFECT OF REGULATION OF SOURCE-SINK RELATIONSHIP ON SPIKE GROWTH RATE AND DRY MATTER ACUMUILATION FOR DIFFERENT WHEAT CULTIVARS
تأثير تنظيم العلاقة بين المصدر Source والمصب Sink على معدل نمو السنبلة وتراكم المادة الجافة لأصناف مختلفة من الحنطة

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نفذت تجربة حقلية في محطة أبحاث أبي غريب التابعة إلى دائرة البحوث الزراعية في وزارة الزراعة خلال الموسمين الشتويين 2012-2013 و 2013-2014 بهدف معرفة تأثير تنظيم العلاقة بين المصدر Source والمصب Sink في معدل نمو السنبلة وتراكم المادة الجافة لخمسة أصناف من حنطة الخبز ((Triticum aestivum L.. استعمل تصميم القطاعات الكاملة المعشاة على وفق ترتيب الألواح المنشقة وبثلاثة مكررات حيث احتلت الأصناف الخمسة (بحوث 22 وإباء 99 وأبو غريب 3 و الفتح والرشيد) الألواح الرئيسة ، بينما احتلت معاملات تنظيم المصدر-المصب الألواح الثانوية وشملت ثماني معاملات هي: Con. (عدم الإزالة –المقارنة) و S1 (إزالة نصل ورقة العلم) و S2 (إزالة نصل الورقة تحت العلمية) و S3 (إزالة الاثنين معاً) و S4 (إزالة سنيبلات الثلث العلوي من سنبلة الساق الرئيس) و S5 (إزالة سنيبلات الثلث الوسطي من سنبلة الساق الرئيس ) و S6 (إزالة سنيبلات الثلث السفلي من سنبلة الساق الرئيس) وS7 (إزالة جميع السنيبلات من جانب واحد).قيست وقدرت الصفات : معدل نمو السنبلة (غم.يوم-1) والتجميع الحراري وانتقال المادة الجافة. بينت نتائج التجربة الآتي:اختلفت اغلب الأصناف في معظم الصفات المدروسة .اختلفت معاملات تنظيم العلاقة بين المصدر-المصب فيما بينها معنوياً في تأثيرها في الصفات المدروسة في كلا الموسمين.أعطى الصنف بحوث 22 أعلى معدل نمو للسنبلة (3.79 و 3.052 غم) وأعلى انتقال للمادة الجافة (2.255 و 2.182 غم) مقارنة بصنفي ابو غريب3 والرشيد اللذين أعطيا أقل معدل لنمو السنبلة بلغ (3.36 و 2.743 و 3.65 و 2.687 غم) واقل انتقال للمادة الجافة بلغ (1.739 و 1.829 و 2.251 و 2.116 غم) على التتابع. أعطت معاملة (S5) اقل معدل نمو السنبلة (غم) حيث بلغ 3.18 و 02.49 في كلا الموسمين على التتابع مقارنة بمعاملة عدم الإزالة (Con.) التي أعطت أعلى القيم لمعدل نمو السنبلة حيث بلغت 53.91 و 93.12 غم.يوم -1 في كلا الموسمين بالتتابع مما انعكس في تقليل انتقال المادة الجافة إلى الحبوب في معاملة تنظيم المصب (S5) التي أعطت أقل القيم لهذه الصفة بلغت (1.50 و 91.74 غم) في كلا الموسمين بالتتابع .


Article
EFFECT OF REGULATION OF SOURCE-SINK RELATIONSHIP ON GRAIN YIELD AND ITS COMPONENT OF DIFFERENT BREAD WHEAT CULTIVARS
+تأثير تنظيم العلاقة بين المصدرSource والمصب Sink في حاصل الحبوب ومكوناته لأصناف مختلفة من حنطة الخبز

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A field trial was conducted at Abu-Ghraib Research Station-Agricultural Research Directorate-Ministry of Agriculture during the growing seasons of 2012-2013 and 2013-2014. The objective was to investigate the effect of source-sink Regulation on grain yield and its companents of five bread wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.). Randomized complete block design with the arrangement of split-plots with three replicates was used. Bread wheat cultivars (Bohooth-22, IPA 99, Abu-Ghraib-3,Al-Fath and Al-Rasheed) occupied the main plots while treatments of source-sink relationship regulation occupied the sub-plots. They included eight treatments: Con. control (Con.), S1 (removal of lamina of the flag leaf of main stem), S2 (removal of laminas of the leaf beneath the flag leaf), S3 (removal of both lamina of the leaf and the leaf under flag leaf), S4 (removal of upper third spikelets),S5 (removal of median third spikelets), S6 (removal of lower third spikelets) and S7 (removal all spikelets from one side of spike) . Characteristics of plant height, flag leaf area, spike length, no of spikelet per spike, spike weight, and grain yield and its components were measured and estimated. Results of the present study indicated the followings: Cultivar (Bohooth-22) gave the highest 1000 grain weight (35.70 and 35.31 g) the highest grain yield (5.467 and 5.148 t.ha-1) in both seasons, respectively compared with Abu-Ghraib3 and Al-Rasheed cultivars which gave lowest grain yield (4.918,4.364, 4.239 and 4.352 t.ha-1) in both seasons, respectively and then less 1000 grain weight (30.15, 32.66, 32.61 and 32.77 g), in both seasons, respectively. Treatment (Con.) i.e no modification of source-sink relationship gave the highest grain yield (5.93 and 5.66 t.ha-1) in both seasons, respectively. Treatments of regulation source (S1 and S3)gave grain yield (4.909, 4.698, 4.621and 4.356 t.ha-1), respectively while (S5) treatment gave the lowest grain yield (4.203 t.ha-1) in the first season and (4.061 t.ha-1) in the second season. This indicates that sink regulation treatment was the most influencial in reducing grain yield than the source regulation treatment, especially, treatment (S5) in both seasons where the median third of spikelets had been removed due to the reduction of spike growth rate (3.18 and 2.49 g.day-1) in both seasons compared with the (Con) treatment which gave the highest values of spike growth rate (3.91 and 3.12 g.day-1) in both seasons, respectively which resulted in the reduction of dry matter translocation in the (S5) treatment (1.87 and 1.74 g.day -1) and consequently in the reduction of 1000 grain weight (30.09 and 31.199) compared with (34.99 and 37.12 g) in the (Con.) treatment in both seasons, respectively.


Article
EFFECT OF SHEEP MANURE EXTRACT ON THE GROWTH AND NUTRIENTS CONTENT OF TOMATO SEEDLINGS
تأثير مستخلص مخلفات الأغنام المتحللة في نمو شتلات الطماطة ومحتواها من العناصر الغذائية

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The experiment was conducted under shading (with the aid of Saran) condition on a nursery managed by the Baghdad Mayoralty during the season of 2014-2015 to study the effect of composed sheep manure extract on the growth and leaf nutrients content of tomato seedlings var. Wijdan. The experiment was composed of 6 treatments included the extract of sheep manure by hot (425C)and lmbient(205C) temperature water .The extract was diluted to the half by water and foliar applied to seedlings (multible application) or to the soil . Treatments also included the application of NPK chemical fertilizers as recommended and a control treatment through applying distilled water as foliar .The experiment was designed according to the randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications and means were compared using least significant differences (LSD) test at 5% level of significance. The results showed recommended chemical fertilization gave the most significant increase in terms of number of leaves, plant height, shoot dry weight, root length, and root dry weight, which were, 6.33 leaf.plant-1, 23.83 cm.plant-1, 0.711 g.plant-1, 26.08 cm.plant-1, and 0.192 g.plant-1 respectively .The treatments of hot water extracted sheep manure compost show significant effect compared to control treatment. In addition, chemical treatment significantly increased N, P, and K concentration in leaf tissue. Mg and Ca concentration were higher in hot extract treatment and chemical treatment with no differences between them . treatments of lmbient extract gave a results less than chemical treatment in all indicates and less than treatments of hot extract in some indicates , while the control treatment gave a less results in this study.


Article
INFLUERCE OF FOLIAR APPLICATION OF AGROSOL AND ENRAIZAL ON THE QUALITATIVE CHARACTERS OF THE FRUITS OF CHERRY TOMATO GROWN UNDER OPEN FIELD AND PLASTIC HOUSE CONDITIONS
تأثير رش Agrosol وEnraizal في الصفات النوعيه لثمار الطماطة الكرزية تحت ظروف الزراعة المكشوفة والبيت البلاستيكي

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A Field experiment was conducted on the vegetable field - Department of Horticulture - College of Agriculture - University of Baghdad during spring season 2013 and fall season 2013-2014 to study the effect of different levels of Agrosol and Enraizal on the qualitative characters of the fruits of cherry tomato. Hybrid Jaguar,F1 used during spring season and fall season and the hybrid Summerbrix used during fall season only. Three concentrations of Agrosol (0,3,6 g/l ) and Enraizal (0,2,4ml/l) were used respectively .The experiment was conducted by using (RCBD) with three replicates. The results could be summarized as follows: in first experiment, Treatment AG2EN0 increased the percentage of Lycopene content in fruits, vitamin C, fruit acidity at the rates of 289.47%, 15.16%, 91.42% respectively compard to control treatment.In second experiment, Treatment AG1EN2 and treatment AG2EN1 increased Lycopene content in fruit by 82.56% and 29.04% for both hybrids sequentially. Treatment AG1EN1 gave significant increases in beta carotene content in the fruits by 56.97% in hybrid Summerbrix. Treatment AG1EN1and AG0EN1 significantlly increased vitamin C content in the fruits by 13.58% and 34.09% for both hybrids respectively, while treatments AG1EN2 and AG0EN1 significantly increased fruit acidity by 487.20% and 59.03% for both hybrids respectively . TSS in cherry tomato fruit was increased significantlly at treatment AG2EN1 by 12.21% in hybrid Jaguar,F1. AG0EN2 treatment significantly increased total sugars content in the fruits by 21.47% in hybrid Jaguar,F1 compard to control treatment.


Article
PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF FIELD AND GENETIC FOR SOME SIXTH RADIO GENERATION MUTANTS IN TOMATO
تقییم الأداء الحقلي والوراثي لطوافر الجیل الإشعاعي السادس في الطماطة

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The study was conducted at the fields of the Department of Horticulture and Landscape Gardening, College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad " Abu Ghraib" during the growing seasons 2013-2014 to Evaluate the Vegetative growth , yield traits and genetic parameter of some tomato mutants. Results showed significantly increased of plant height in M6-2 mutant 245cm in Comparison with M6-3 130 cm . M6-4 mutant significantly increasing of floral clusters 13 . Mutant M6-3 showed significantly increasing the average of, fruit weight 125.9g and plant yield 7.17 kg.plant-1 as comparison with M6-2 which showed decreasing of average of fruit weight and plant yield 79.40g and 4.38 kg.plant-1 respectively. Also results showed the highest Genetic variation components in plant height and average of fruit weight. The highest percentage of heritability in the broad sense plant height, floral clusters and average of fruit weight Analysis Hierarchical clustering showed that mutant was distributed in two groups the first group included mutants with M6-3 and M6-4 , while the second group included mutants M6-2 and M6-1.


Article
EFFECT OF BIOFERTILIZERS AND SALICYLIC ACID ON CHEMICAL AND QUALITY SPECIFICATIONS IN PODS OF BEAN UNDER IRRIGATED WITH SALINE WATER
تأثير المخصبات الاحيائية وحامض السالسليك في المؤشرات الكيميائية والنوعية لقرنات الفاصوليا المروية بمياه مالحه

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The experiment aimed to study the interactive effect between biofertilizers and salicylic acid on pods quality specifications and N,P,K,Fe and Mn concentrations in pods of bean plants under river and drainage water irrigation. The experiment Carried out using Spilt-Spilt-Plot Design using irrigation as the main plot , salicylic acid as sub plot , bio-fertilizers as sub-siplt-plot. The triple combination among river water, biofertilizers mixture and 0.5mM salicylic acid recorded highest values in the percentage of carbohydrate (20.10 and 20.83%) dry meter(13.22 and 12.44%) TSS (11.65 and 10.09%) percentage of oils (0.59 and0.56%) protein(20.19 and 19.00%) Nitrogen (3.23 and 3.04%) Phosphorus (0.73 and 0.69%) and concentration of Iron (65.00 and 63.00 mg/kg-1) Manganese (13.50 and 14.17 mg/kg-1). The same treatment achieved the lowest values in pod fiber percentage (7.58 and 5.88 %) and nitrate concentrations (137.2 and 146.6 mg/kg-1) . Treatment of river water, biofertilizers mixture and 1.0 mM salicylic acid achieved the lowest values in sodium (0.17 and 0.15%) and Chloride percentage (1.10 and 1.05%) and highest value in potassium percentage (1.60 and 1.56) for the tow growing season respectively.


Article
EFFECT OF FOLIAR APPLICATION OF POTASSIUM ZINC AND GIBBERELIC ACID ON YIELD AND SOME FRUIT QUALITY OF POMEGRANATE CV. SALIMY
تاثير رش البوتاسيوم والزنك وحامض الجبرليك في الحاصل وبعض الصفات الثمرية لأشجار الرمان صنف سليمي

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The study was carried out during the growing season 2013 in a private orchard in Diyala Governorate on pomegranate trees Punica granatum L. cv. Salimy which were nine old years, all trees that chosen had uniform in size and growth were trained on three trunks and planted at 4×4m to study the effect of three levels of potassium sulfate (0, 1500, 3000 mg.K.L-1) and three levels of Zinc (0, 500, and 1000 mg.Z.L-1) and three levels of Gibberellic acid (GA3) (0, 20 and 40 mg.L-1) on quality and quantity of fruit yield, A factorial experiment with three replicate was carried out according to the (RCBD) using one tree on experimental unit, the experimental results showed: Potassium achieved by concentration 3000 mg.L-1 significant decrease in the fruit cracking by 18.70%, As led to increasing in yield and some of the physical qualities of fruit as fruit yield increased, fruit weight, the proportions 41.22% and 11.48% respectively, as well as with zinc as the sprayed concentration of 1000 mg.L-1 cause a decrease of 13.86% fruits cracked, and achieved a significant increase in fruit yield, fruit weight, As GA3 did not have a significant effect on the qualities above, the results have shown that overlap the study showed a significant influence factors in reducing fruits drop and cracked and improve the physical qualities of the fruit. The results showed that the proportion of total soluble solids (TSS) were not significantly affected by three study factors and increased vitamin -C- , as a result of spraying potassium concentration 3000 mg.L-1 by 20.51% , and 8.75% at 1000 mg.L-1 of zinc, GA3 achieved increase in vitamin -C- by 5.66%, showed the interaction a significant effects in qualities of the above with varying proportions depending on the type of factor and its concentration added .


Article
EFFECT OF FOLIAR APPLICATION OF POTASSIUM ZINC AND GIBBERELIC ACID ON LEAVES AND PEEL CONTENT OF MINERAL ELEMENTS OF POMEGRANATE CV. SALIMY
تأثير رش البوتاسيوم والزنك وحامض الجبرليك في محتوى الاوراق والقشرة من بعض العناصر الغذائية لأشجار الرمان صنف سليمي

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Abstract

The study was carried out during the growing season 2013 in a private orchard in Diyala on pomegranate trees Punica granatum L. cv. Salimy which were nine old years, all trees that chosen had uniform in size and growth were trained on three trunk and planted at 4×4m to study the effect of three levels of potassium sulfate (0, 1500, 3000 mg.K.L-1) and three levels of Zinc (0, 500, and 1000 mg.Z.L-1) and three levels of Gibberellic acid (GA3) (0, 20 and 40 mg.L-1) on leaf and peel content of mineral elements, A factorial experiment with three replicate was carried out according to the (RCBD) using one tree on experimental unit, results Can be summaraized as: Potassium spray led to a significant increase in amount of mineral elements in the leaves, especially concentration 3000 mg.L-1 which achieved an increase in nitrogen, potassium, and zinc, 118.47, 181.00 , and 30.23%, respectively, The same concentration also led to increase elements of calcium and magnesium in the peel of fruit increased by 33.21 and 23.04 respectively, As zinc spray led to in a concentration of 1000 mg.L-1 to an increase of 19.81 and 18.00% of potassium and zinc in the leaves and 7.38% of calcium in the peel, either GA3 to be limited influence a significant to increase zinc in leaves increased by 5.70% and magnesium in the peel by 11.71%, As for Bilateral interactions have mostly affected a significant in qualities of the above except that the greatest influence to appear in the triple overlap to study factors, especially the highest concentrations.


Article
EFFECT OF SALICYLIC AND HUMIC ACID ON VINCRISTINE AND N, P, K CONTENT IN MADAGASCAR PERIWINKLE LEAVES
تأثير منظم النمو السالسيلك والحامض العضوي الهيومك في محتوى اوراق نبات عين البزون من قلويد الفنكرستين والـNPK

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An Experiment carried out in Al-Yarmook Area in Baghdad for the growing season 2014 to study the effects of foliar application of Salicylic acid and Humic acid on Vincristine and NPK content in Catharanthus roseus. A factorial experiment was applied including two factors according to The Complete Randomized Block Design, the first factor included four levels of salicylic acid 0, 25, 50, and 100 mg.L-1 which were represented with S0, S1, S2, and S3 sequentially, the second factor included three levels of Humic acid 0, 0.75, and 1.5 ml.L-1 and were represented with O0, O1, and O2 sequentially to make up 12 factors in total that were distributed randomly upon three replicates and each experimental unit included 8 plants. The results were analyzed using Genestat and the differences were tested according to (LSD) with a level of probability 5% and the results were as follows: Vincristine levels increased in the leaves of Catharanthus roseus as a result of foliar application of Salicylic acid and Humic as well NPK levels in leaves. Vinblastine was not detected in all treatments. The interaction effect between 100 mg.L-1 Salicylic acid and 1.5 ml.L-1Humic acid had an exceeding effect for all the studied parameters. It may be concluded that Salicylic and Humic acid may be used to increase Vincristine alkaloid content in Periwinkle plants at the levels 100 ml.L-1 and 1.5 mg.L-1 subsequently.


Article
ANALYZING THE IMPACT OF PRICE POLICY ON WHEAT PRODUCTION IN IRAQ BY USING POLICY ANALYSIS MATRIX (PAM)
تحليل أثر السياسة السعرية في إنتاج القمح في العراق باستعمال أسلوب مصفوفة تحليل السياسة

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The objectives of this study are to analyses the impact of price policy on wheat production in Iraq through its efficiency in resource allocation using Policy Analysis Matrix (PAM) technique. This study depends basically on primary data collected from a random sample consisted of 115 farms, The sample has been divided into three subclasses, the first one area was less than 50 donum consisted of 64 farms, the second one area was between 50 – 100 donum and consisted of 33 farm, the third one area was more than 100 donum and consisted of 18 farm. The objective of this study is to analyses the impact of price policy on wheat production in Iraq. By estimation of policy analysis matrix elements, revenue transfers, tradable input transfers, factors transfers, were calculated which were revenue (654,584,455,553) and (348, 357, 275, 339) thousand dinars/donum in private and social price to three classes and the sample total consecutively, tradable input (100,107,112,104) and (76,86,87,79) thousand dinars/donum in private and social price to three classes and the sample total consecutively, factors (254,211,177,230) and (260, 214,179,234) thousand dinars/donum in private and social price to three classes and the sample total consecutively, Net transfer was about (197,209,158,193) thousand dinars/donum to three classes and the sample total consecutively. The results of this study showed that the price policy used by government was encouraging producers in short run and also showed that wheat production had large support from government while inputs were not subsidized, the study also showed that private profits were more than social profits. Results also showed that wheat production in Iraq has a comparative advantage and internationally competitive. Finally the study arrived at some conclusions and recommendations according to conclusion.


Article
AN ECONOMIC ANALISYS FOR PRICING POLICY AND POLICY OF FORIGEN TRADE OF AGRICULTURAL SECTOR IN IRAQ DURING 2003-2013
تحليل اقتصادي للسياسة السعرية وسياسة التجارة الخارجية في القطاع الزراعي في العراق للمدة 2003 – 2013 (نظرة تقويمية)

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There is no doubt that Agricultural Policy is the main responsible for the degrading in Agricultural sector in Iraq during the period 2003-2013, and that was very clear from magnitude of indicators because of little sharing of each of agricultural product in GDP because it was (9.38%) in average during the study period and the annual changing of it was negative (-5.82%), and there is increasing in deficit of trade balance in Agriculture during the study period about (4185.73) million US$, and the percentage of agricultural exports from total exports was (0.14%) in average only. The foreign trade policy in Agricultural products also cannot determine map of Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA) of Agricultural products and crops. The study showed that there is continuous deficit in agricultural price policy because the agricultural producer is still receive prices for strategically crops less than world prices and that was showed by Net Nominal Protection Coefficients (NNPC) and although of the improvement than before 2003 but it is not paralleled with importance of Agricultural sector.


Article
AN ECONOMIC ANALASIS ON DEMAND OF IRAQI IMPORTS OF CHICKEN MEAT FOR THE PERIOD (1985-2013)
تحليل أقتصادي للطلب على استيرادات العراق من لحوم الدجاج للمدة (1985 – 2013)

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The foreign trade in agricultural products form an important factor for developing countries, including Iraq, because of their great importance in the conduct of agricultural products to regional and global markets and supply there agricultural products from the outside world, thus the imports of agricultural products and goods represent great importance in countries that suffer from the domestic production unable to bridge the consumers needs, especially in the short run.The study aims to analysis and determine the most important economic factors those affecting the quantity of imports of the chicken meat during the period (1985-2013), where the most important variables those affecting were: the domestic production of chicken meat, the index of domestic price of chicken meat, the index of CIF price of chicken meat and the national income in fixed prices, and these variables were interpreted about (71%) of fluctuations in the imported quantities of the chicken meat, and then constructing model and estimation the demand function of imports of the chicken meat during the study period, and benefit of parameters of this model in the analysis of economic polices alternatives performance to import the chicken meat, and derive all economic indicators of that function within a period of study and the most important are the elasticites of price and income, as well as the ability to use the function to forecast the quantity of imports of the chicken meat in the short run.We have a long-term price elasticity appeared for the import of this article (-1.1611), while the income elasticity of imports appeared (7.5592) and it’s representing the marginal propensity to import and it’s shows that Iraq is price taker, by using Error Correction Model. The study forecasted about the imported quantity of the chicken meat during the period (2015-2025), to using these forecasting in the import policy in the short run.


Article
EFFICIENCY OF MARKETING OF SOME FRUIT’S CROPS IN THE PROVINCE OF BAGHDAD FOR THE AGRICULTURAL SEASON 2015 / 2014
كفاءة تسويق بعض محاصيل الفاكهـــة في محافظــــة بغـــــداد للموسم الزراعي 2014/2015

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The high marketing margins for fruit crops and lower marketing efficiency in the province of Baghdad was the target of the study and appreciation it and estimate the relative importance for its as well as marketing costs and measuring Marketing Efficiency for fruit crops studied in the province of Baghdad during the study period 2014/2015.The search has dealt with the evolution of economic indicators for the marketing efficiency of the fruit crops studied in the province of Baghdad during the period of the study it was found that the relative importance of absolute margin catalog between the producer price and consumer price represents a high proportion of which consumers pay, as an average for the total fruit crops studied around 48.80% , and the relative importance of earnings retailer of marketing margin came in the first prize, amounting to an average of the total fruit studied crops around 53.30%, and the wholesaler profits occupied the second highest marketing margin, amounting on average to fruit crops studied 24.37% , and the marketing operations of wholesalers and retailers combined occupied the third place in marketing margin between the producer price and consumer price which reached an average of crops studied about 8.36% This means that the marketing operations have an impact on the prices paid by the consumer the transportation costs occupied the fourth place in terms of relative importance where the averaging for that fruit studied about 7.98% , while the damaged quantities costs came in the fifth rank in terms of the relative importance that reaching an average for Fruit crops studied around 600.% , and measurement of marketing efficiency and the factors influencing them in the study area where it was found the performance weakness of marketing system for fruit crops studied along the marketing channels which are passing through it where the average of the marketing efficiency, according to the three laws used in extracted are 64.87% by the scale 1 with the limits of 40.66% according to the scale 2 and with the limits of 48.50% by the scale 3 It is generally low.One of the main conclusions reached high level of share brokers asymptotic almost to the share of producers of consumer dinars because of their ability to bargain without providing marketing services equivalent to the marketing services provided by the product which thus weakening stimulate producers to develop their production and some of their marketing activities.So the study recommends activating the role of the two devices in order to catalog and indicative determined to take their role in providing guidance and advice to farmers in the marketing of agricultural crops in order to raise efficiency of marketing fruit crops.


Article
MEASURRING COW FARMS EFFICIENCY BY USING THE QUALITY RESPONSE
قياس كفاءة حقول الابقار باستخدام نماذج الاستجابة النوعية

Authors: E. H. Ali اسكندر حسين علي
Pages: 600-612
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In despite of the expansion of using the dummy variables as a explanatory variables, but their using as a dependent variables is still limited, and the reason of that may be return to may problems when using dummy variables as a dependent variables. the study aimed to using the quality Response Models to Measuring Efficiency of cows farms by random sample including (19) farm from (Abi gherak district). The study estimating the transcendental logarithmic production function by using stochastic frontier Analysis (SFA) to interpret the relation between the return achieved from the cows farms as a dependent variables and each of labor and capital as an independent variables. the function indicates that increasing in labor by (100%) will increase the value of production by (8%), while increase the Capital by (3%), then the study using this function to obtain the technical Efficiency which was in average (75%) , and this indicate deviation in actual production than optimal production by ( 25%) , and the farms can achieve it by using the economic resource in optimum Farm , the Efficiency has inverse relation with the volume of cows , it was (78%) in small projects , while it was (73%) in medium projects, the study estimate the Quality Response Models of logit , Propit and tobit to descover the Effect of independent variables ( numbers of birth, years of experience, numbers of cows age breeder and the educational level ) upon the Probability of Efficiency. the study found that the number of births and educational level were the most important variables , and the most Effecting in Efficiency of the cows Farms, throw MCFR2 and LR statistical the study found that tobit Model was the best. the study recommended to expansion in using the Quality Response Models as an effective approach which give an idea about the effect of the independent variable in the qualitive dual variable.


Article
EFFICIENCY OF USING BAKED SOIL ON REMOVING SOME HEAVY METALS FROM DIFFERENT WATER SOURCES
كفاءة استخدام التربة المفخورة في إزالة بعض العناصر الثقيلة من مصادر مياه مختلفة

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A laboratory experiment was carried out to study the effect of unbaked soil and baked soil burned at 4000C and 9000C as filters to remove some heavy metals (Mn,Cu,Pb,Cd) from three water sources (waste water, Shatt al-Arab and Shatt al-Basra) at four periods (0 , 1/2 , 1, 24 hours. Concentrations of these heavy metals were estimated before and after passing through these filters , and removal efficiency was calculated . The results showed that baked soil at 9000C had the highest removal efficiency compared with that of 4000C and without baking. Filtration at 24 hours was the best among other studied periods. The highest removal efficiencies were 95.20% foe Mn at Shatt al-Arab , 67.83% for Cu at Shatt al-Basra , 66.13% for Pb at Shatt al-Basra and 82.82% for Cd at Shatt al-Arab.


Article
KINETIC OF COPPER ADSORPTION IN CALCAREOUS SOIL
حركيات امتزاز النحاس في تربة كلسية

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Laboratory experiment was carried out to study kinetic of copper adsorption using silt clay loam calcareous Iraqi soil. 5ml of copper nitrate solutions (0,25,100 and500 mg Cu L-1)that were prepared from Cu(NO3)2.3H2O Added to (soil) and (soil+compost) treatments. Compost (0.05gm) was added to (soil+compost) treatment that equal 10g kg-1 soil. The soil samples were incubated at 293±2 K for four incubation periods 24,168,336 and 672 h using Batch equilibrium technique. At each incubation period the soluble copper was determined and kinetic equations were tested. The results showed that the soil had high fixation capacity to copper at all concentrations and treatment. The percentage of copper adsorption was 99.72% at first incubation period followed by gradual increase till the pseudo equilibrium at 336h at all concentration (25,100 and 500 mg Cu L-1 solution). Compost application increased the copper fixation capacity and the copper adsorption curves showed the continuation of adsorption from 24 h. to 336 h. incubation period followed by little release of copper at 672 h. at all concentration and treatments. The power function equation was best described the adsorption of copper and copper adsorption constant (Ka) ranged from 3x10-4 to 5.5x10-3 mg Cu kg-1 h-1, which indicate to the high adsorption capacity of such alkaline soil to adsorb Cu and this will be related to Cu fertilizer management.


Article
EFFECT OF APPLICATION TREAEED WATER AND DRY SLUDGE ON SIIL CONTAMINATION WITH PATHOGENIC BACTREIA
تأثير أضافة مياه الصرف الصحي المعالجة والحمأة المجففة في تلوث التربة ببعض البكتريا المرضية

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Research was conducted to assess the effect of treated waste water and dry sludge application on soil contamination by some pathogenic bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Fecal coliform and Fecal streptococci, which used as an indicator organisms for soil contamination by bathogenic bacteria. Composting sludge (T2) and non composting dry sludge (T1) applied to soil to assess the effect of compost of sludge on the number of pathogenic bacteria and soil contamination . Research consisted to identification and enumeration. The three pathogenic bacteria were examined at the mid and end of cultivation season. Factorial experiment with three replicate, using waste water treatment (W2) as a source of irrigation water, compared with tap water (W1).Composting sludge(T2) and non-composting sludge (T1), added and mixed with soil in three different levels 0, 30 , 60 ton .ha-1 .Pancium milicine was cultivated in pots weighted 10 Kg of silty clay loam soil. Results showed that the number of pathogenic bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Fecal coliform and Fecal streptococci. Were increased significantly with soil irrigated with waste water treatment, giving 5.88, 5.48 and 5.37 log cfu g-1dry soil respectively,compared with tap water 4.45, 4.29 and 2.97 log cfu g-1dry soil respectively. Results showed also significantly increment in the number of pathogenic bacteria with increase rate of dry sludge utilized to soil. The rate 60 ton.ha-1 was the highest number of pathogenic bacteria in soil 6.21, 5.78 and 5.24 log cfu g-1dry soil respectively. Results showed reduced in the number of pathogenic bacteria in composting sludge compared with non-composting sludge, with reduced proportion of 9.78 , 6.67 and 8.50 % respectively.


Article
RHIZOSPHERE MICROORGANISMS AND PHOSPHORUS AVAILABILITY FOR PLANTS
احياء الرايزوسفير وجاهزية الفسفور للنباتات

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Phosphorus (P) is one of the major plant nutrients that directly or indirectly affect all biological processes. It is a key component of energy metabolism, and biosynthesis of nucleic acids and membranes. Phosphorus deficiency is considered to be one of the major limitations for crop production particularly in low-input agriculture systems around the world and nearly 80% of applied mineral P may be retained in the soil. Roots provide an interface for P moving from one living system—the soil—into another living system—the plant. Microbial processes in soil are important for the distribution of P between various inorganic and organic P fractions and subsequently for the potential availability of phosphate for plant absorption. These processes are predominantly manifest within the rhizosphere where readily-available C substrates are most abundant. So this review, focus on the contribution of soil microorganisms on the plant P nutrition through their capacity to increase the availability of soil P and its subsequent uptake by plants.


Article
RHIZOSPHERE MICROORGANISMS AND PHOSPHORUS AVAILABILITY FOR PLANTS
احياء الرايزوسفير وجاهزية الفسفور للنباتات

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Abstract

Phosphorus (P) is one of the major plant nutrients that directly or indirectly affect all biological processes. It is a key component of energy metabolism, and biosynthesis of nucleic acids and membranes. Phosphorus deficiency is considered to be one of the major limitations for crop production particularly in low-input agriculture systems around the world and nearly 80% of applied mineral P may be retained in the soil. Roots provide an interface for P moving from one living system—the soil—into another living system—the plant. Microbial processes in soil are important for the distribution of P between various inorganic and organic P fractions and subsequently for the potential availability of phosphate for plant absorption. These processes are predominantly manifest within the rhizosphere where readily-available C substrates are most abundant. So this review, focus on the contribution of soil microorganisms on the plant P nutrition through their capacity to increase the availability of soil P and its subsequent uptake by plants.

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