Table of content

Basrah Journal of Agricultural Sciences

مجلة البصرة للعلوم الزراعية

ISSN: 18175868
Publisher: Basrah University
Faculty: Agriculture
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

Scientific journal issued by the College of Agriculture, University of Basrah, which publishes the results of original research and articles published papers in both Arabic and English in the fields of Animal Resources, Fisheries and Marine Resources, Food Science, Horticulture and Landscaping, plant protection, Soil and Water Sciences, Field Crops, Agricultural Machinery, Biology.

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Contact info

Phone Number:07801155940
Email: j.agrisci@yahoo.com

Table of content: 2017 volume:30 issue:1

Article
Effect of Bacterial Cell Wall Components on Callus Growth of Phoenix dactylifera L. cv. Barhee Propagated Through In vitro

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Abstract

This study was conducted on shoot tip explants of date palm cv. Barhee to investigate effect of bacterial cell wall components on initial callus growth. Three concentrations of bacterial media ( 0.5 and 1.0 and 2.5) v/v were used for growing callus by tissue culture technique . MS media was served as a control treatment. Results showed that all bacterial media treatments increased callus fresh weight and nitrogen concentration of media significantly as compared to that of MS control media. Bacterial media treatment of 2.5 (v/v) gave the highest values of callus fresh weight and nitrogen concentration (518 mg and 3.3089%) respectively, whereas MS control media had the lowest values (193 mg and 0.01%) respectively. There was a significant increase in callus fresh weight at 60 days incubation over that of 30 days incubation. The combination of bacterial media treatment at 2.5 (v/v) and incubation period of 60 days recorded the highest significant increase in callus fresh weight (631 mg), whereas the combination of MS control media treatment and incubation period of 30 days had the lowest value (166 mg) in this respect.


Article
First record of Javelin grunter Pomadasys kaakan (Cuvier, 1830) (Pisces: Haemulidae) from Shatt Al-Arab River, Southern Iraq

Authors: Atheer H. Ali
Pages: 7-12
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Abstract

Three specimens of Javelin grunter Pomadasys kaakan (Cuvier, 1830) were collected from Shatt Al-Arab River, Abul-Khaseeb city, southern Iraq on 13th September 2014. Meristic and morphometric characters of the species were provided and compared with Pomadasys species so far reported from Iraq. This record represents the first report of P. kaakan from inland waters of Iraq.


Article
Effect of the Manure Levels , Depth and Method of Applying Using Ditch Opener and Manure Laying Machine on Some of Soil Physical Properties

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Abstract

A field experiment was carried out in silty loam soil at Agricultural research station, College of Agriculture during the corn growing season of 2015. The aim of study was to determine the effect of manure (cattle residues) levels (0, 20 and 40 ton ha-1), the depth of manure application (10, 20 and 30 cm), and the method of manure application (mixing with soil and subsoil laying) on soil bulk density and soil water content. The manure was added at certain treatments by using a ditch opener and manure laying machine which was designed and manufactured in the Agriculture Machines and Equipment Department, College of Agriculture, University of Basrah in 2015. The field was plowed perpendicularly, and the treatments were arranged in RCBD with split-split plot design with three replicated using drip irrigation system. Corn (Zea mays L.) seeds were planted on the manure rows. All plots received NPK fertilization with the same levels. At the end of growing season, soil samples (0-30 cm) were collected to examine soil bulk density and soil water content. The results showed that, lower bulk density and higher water content were obtained at level of 40 ton ha-1 compared with the levels of 0 and 20 ton ha-1. The soil bulk density decreased from 1.23 to 1.20 Mg m-3 and the soil water content increased from 26.33 to 30.23 % when the depth of application increased from 10 to 30 cm. Mixing manure with soil resulted in lower value of bulk density and higher value of water content compared with subsoil laying method. Mixing manure with soil down to the depth of 30 cm amount of 40 ton ha-1 improved the soil bulk density which reached lower value of 1.14 Mg m-3 and soil water content increased to 36.19% among all other treatments.


Article
Distribution of red belly tilapia Coptodon zillii (Gervais, 1848) larvae in Shatt Al-Arab River and East Hammar marsh, Iraq

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Abstract

The larvae of Coptodon zillii were surveyed in Shatt Al-Arab River and East Hammar marsh from January 2015 to December 2015. A total of 127 C. zillii larvae were collected from three stations. The highest number of C. zillii larvae was 78 recorded at station 1 in East Hammar marsh (Mansoury), comprised 61.41% of the total fish larvae collected, and the lowest number (23) was from station 3 in Shatt Al-Arab River near Abu Al-Khaseeb, comprised 18.11% of the total fish larvae collected. C. zillii larvae were found in the study regions from April to October. The peak of abundance was 22.8 larvae/10m² during July at station 1. The lower abundance of larvae was 0.7 larvae/10m² in June at station 2 at the confluence of the Garmat Ali River with Shatt Al-Arab River. Water temperatures in the three sampling stations were similar and ranged from 12°C in December to 32 °C in July. Salinity in station 1 ranged from 1.2‰ in August to 2‰ in June while in station 2 it ranged from 1.03‰ in October to 2.8‰ in July and in the station 3 ranged from 2.7‰ in April to 6.1‰ in December during the study period. Positive correlation was shown between water temperature and salinity in all stations with the number and abundance of C. zillii larvae. The results indicated that the Shatt Al-Arab River and East Hammar marsh are spawning grounds for this species.


Article
Impact of Black Grape byproducts on Blood Picture in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

Authors: Pola J. Nader --- Nasreen M. Abdulrahman
Pages: 32-37
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Abstract

This experiment was conducted for 70 days on 165 common carp Cyprinus carpio fingerlings which were brought from local fish farms located in Daqooq, Haftaghar, Al-Tameem province. Fishes were distributed among experimental tanks with mean initial weight of 24.09 gm. They were pre-acclimated to laboratory conditions for 21 days prior to the feeding trials. The experiment was conducted by using 15 plastic tanks (100 L) representing five treatments with three replicates. Each tank was stocked with 11 fishes. Treatments included 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 or 10 gm grape by-product/ kg diet. The result showed that red blood cell (RBC) data of the control group was significantly higher than other treatments. Hemoglobin of fishes in groups 2.5 and 10 gm/ kg diet was significantly different from other treatments. Mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) values for 0.0, 5.0 and 10 gm/kg groups were significantly different, so mean corpuscular volume (MCV) values showed significant differences resulted from 0.0, 5.0, 7.5 and 10 gm/ kg diet compared to 2.5 gm/ kg diet group. The white blood cells (WBC) were significantly different in 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 gm/ kg diet. Granulocyte percentages obtained in all treatments were significantly different from control. Lymphocyte percentages were significantly different in all treatments compared to 10 gm/ kg diet group. The Monocytes were significantly different in 2.5, 7.5 and 10 gm/ kg groups.


Article
Effect of Testosterone Enanthate Injection on Some Carcass Traits and Chemical Characteristics of Castrated Karadi Lambs Meat

Authors: Ayad B. Mahmood1 --- Ahmed S.A. Al-Obaidi
Pages: 38-45
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Abstract

This study was conducted to investigate the effect of testosterone enanthate injection on some carcass traits and chemical characteristics of Karadi castrated lambs meat. Twenty seven male Karadi lambs (3-4 months of age) with an average live weight of (28.7±3.8 kg) were reared in sheep farm, research station, Faculty of Agriculture Sciences, University of Sulaimania and allocated randomly by weight to three groups (treatments) by the dosage of testosterone enanthate (6 lambs for each treatment): G1 were not injected (control), G2 were injected by 200 mg and G3 were injected by 400 mg (IM weekly). All groups animals were fed with the same concentrate diet (3% of body weight), barley straw provided ad libitum and water was free, all group lambs were castrated by rubber band two weeks before experiment begins. There were three periods of slaughter: 60 days from the beginning of the experiment, 90 days and 120 days, at the end of each period three lambs from each treatment were randomly chosen and weighted, then humanly slaughtered. Many measurements were taken such as hot and cold carcass weight, carcass length, carcass thorax circumference, rib eye area and fat thickness ,carcass cuts weight, non-carcass adipose tissue weight, edible organs and offal weight, also the chemical composition of Longissimus Dorsi muscle meat. From the results, it could be concluded that there were positive effects of testosterone enanthate injection, which was increasing of living body weight reflecting on hot and cold carcass weight increase with increasing age and period of treating with enanthate, that increase in carcass weight was related with increasing in weight of whole carcass cuts which was clearly noticed on second and third slaughtering period, and also that increase can be correlated with rib eye area which increase during the same periods , that means the gain in weight is a result of body lean gain due to testosterone enanthate injection. In addition, fat tail weight decrease may be explain as body energy turned to producing or synthesis lean instead of fat.


Article
Effect of Different Chromium Picolinate Levels as Feed Additives on Quail Meat Characteristics

Authors: Ahmed S.A. Al-Obaidi
Pages: 46-52
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Abstract

This study investigates the effect of different chromium picolinate levels as food supplementation and sex on Japanese quail meat characteristics. Ninety Japanese quail chicks with one day of age were reared in 340C temperature and continuously feed and water providing at the Faculty of Agriculture , University of Diyala animals’ field, vitamins were provided with water and temperature were monitored continuously. Birds were allocated for three treatments with convergent of weight average when reached the age of 14 days, each treatment contain three replicates and ten birds for each replicate, each replicate birds were rearing in cage with 50×50×50cm for four weeks (until 42 day of age), all treatments birds were provide with free same ration and chromium was added to the treatments ration as follows: control treatment: without chromium, treatment one (T1) adding 250µg (0.25mlg) chromium picolinate/kg ration, treatment two (T2) adding 500µg (0.5mlg) chromium picolinate/kg ration. After the period of the experiment finished, six birds were selected randomly from each treatment (three from each sex) and weighted then slaughtered, many measurements were taken from meat and carcasses, including hot and cold carcass weight, dressing percentage, carcass cuts weight, breast and leg cooking loss, thawing loss and meat chemical composition. Statistical analyses show that no clear effect of supplementation on these measurements and no real benefits from adding it with quail ration in this ratio and this experiment conditions and traits. It might be concluded that the chromium presented normally in ration and water was adequate to normal quail requirement and chromium supplementation may not be essential. Higher chromium ratio should be tested.


Article
Identifying and Treating of Uterine Infection in Cows of Basrah city

Authors: Moaed H. Sayhood
Pages: 53-58
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Abstract

The present study was conducted from December 2015 to February 2017 on a local breeds and Holstein Friesian with 88 cows (age 4-12). Metritis was diagnosed by clinical examinations using gloved hand and rectal uterine palpation as well as by bacteriological examinations using swabs. Antibiotic therapy was applied for the treatment of metritis in cow followed by one injection of luteinizing hormone. Examined cows were randomly divided into five groups. In group A (n=15), administration of oxytetracycline was used for one day. Group B (n = 18), received lugols iodine for one day. Group C (n = 22), received penicillin with streptomaycin for one day. Group D (n=7) received intramuscular administration of gentamycin for one day. Finally, group E (n=26) received safapirin for one day . All treatment followed by one injection of luteinizing hormone. Different type of bacteria was isolated from the cow uterus including Escherichia coli (40%), Proteus vulgaris (13.63%), Corynebacterium pyogenes (6.81%), Staphylococcus pyogenes (20.45%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (5.68%), and Streptococcus spp.(7.95%). E. coli was frequently isolated from the cow uterus (40%). Safapirin and penicillin-streptomaycin were the most effective in treating metritis as they represented 84.61% and 81.81%, respectively. Lugols iodine and oxytetracycline, were also considerably effective in treating metritis as they represented 61.11% and 60.00%, whereas gentamycin intramuscularly accounted about 28.57%.


Article
Determination of Different Species of Animal from their Meats by Using PCR-RFLP Technique of Mitochondria Gene COI

Authors: Asaad Y. Ayied --- Zahra R. Al-Mossawi
Pages: 59-64
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Abstract

This study was conducted at Dr. Taleb A. Jaayad of Molecular Genetics, Department of Animal Production, College of Agriculture, University of Basrah. Samples of fresh and canned meat of cattle, buffalo, sheep, goats, chicken and turkey were collected randomly from different areas of Basrah province, as well as blood samples of camel. The aim was to determine different animal species from their meat (except camel). DNA was extracted from meat tissue (0.2 gm) and blood by using DNA kit (Invetrogen). DNA purity was estimated by using wavelength (260-280), to be 1.8-2.0 ng. PCR was used to amplify mtco1 gene using a general primer and gave a band of 710 bp for all species used in this study. Different species were determined by using Taq restricted enzyme. Cattle, buffalo, chicken and turkey showed one band of 637 bp. Taq enzyme has recognized sheep and goat, while sheep did not show any band to the fragment 710 bp. However, goat showed a band at 650 bp. Furthermore, camel produced two bands of 303 and 403 bp.

Keywords

Animal --- species --- meat --- mt CO1 --- PCR-RFLP.


Article
Molecular identification of Fusarium spp. isolated from tomato plant in Iraq and China

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Abstract

This study was conducted to identify Fusarium spp isolated from tomato plant in Iraq and China. 12 isolates from Iraq and four isolates from China were used in this study. Based on Morphological characteristics (color, growth pattern, Macro and Micro-conidia shape) high differences between Fusarium isolates were found. Sensitivity test to the fungicide carbendazim revealed that one third of isolates(4/12) from Iraq had EC50 values over than 1000µg/ml indicated that many Iraqi isolates have developed resistance to carbendazim. Based on ITS sequences, Fusarium isolates which were isolated from Iraq and China were identified as follow, isolates 1, 3, 5, 6, 7, 10 were identified as Fusarium oxysporum, isolates 8, 11 as F. solani, isolates 12, M1 and M3 as F. moniliforme, isolates 2, M2 and M4 as F. proliferatum, F. chlamydosporum and F. kyushuense respectively. Isolates from1-12 were isolated from Iraq while M1-M4 from China.

Keywords

RAPD-PCR --- Fusarium spp. --- tomato plant --- Iraq --- China.


Article
Determination of Energy Requirements, Plowed Soil Volume Rate and Soil Pulverization Ratio of Chisel Plow Under Various Operating Conditions

Authors: Sadiq J. Muhsin
Pages: 73-84
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Abstract

A field experiments were conducted using a chisel plow in silty loam soil at Agricultural Research Station of Garmat Ali in 2017. Three different levels of forward speed (0.56, 0.87 and 1.36 m sec-1) and plowing depth (10, 20 and 30 cm) were used to study their effect on energy utilization efficiency, specific energy, plowed soil volume rate and soil pulverization ratio. The results showed that increasing the forward speed from 0.56 to 1.36 m sec-1, the specific energy, plowed soil volume rate and soil pulverization ratio were increased by 139.43%, 85.10% and 51.72%, respectively, while decreased the energy utilization efficiency by 30.04%. Increasing plowing depth from 10 to 30 cm led to increasing the energy utilization efficiency and the plowed soil volume rate by 34.30% and 87.38%, respectively. In contrast, the soil pulverization ratio and the specific energy decreased by 45.83% and 19.86%, respectively. The interaction between the forward speed and the plowing depth had a significant effect on all parameters in this study.


Article
Diversity of fishes in the lower reaches of Tigris River, north east of Basrah province, Southern Iraq

Authors: Sajad A. Abdullah
Pages: 85-96
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Abstract

The present work is to assess the fish structure and diversity status in the Tigris River, northeast of Basrah province from October 2015 to September 2016 in relation to some ecological factors. Three stations were selected; first station was located at the north of the east Qurna city in Al-Jewber village, the second station was located at a distance of 7 km after the first station in the Abu Aran village and the third station was in Qurna city. Water temperature, dissolved oxygen, salinity and total alkalinity were measured from the study areas. Several fishing methods were adopted to collect fishes, electric fishing and gill nets. Twenty- seven fish species were collected belonging to 25 genera and 12 families. A total of 9400 individual fishes were collected. Fishes were classified into three categories, common, seasonal and occasional species which were formed 98.04, 1.08 and 0. 88%, respectively of the total number of species. The value of the Shannon and Weaver diversity index (H), Evenness (E) and Margalef richness (D) were calculated according to months and stations. The mean value and standard deviations of Shannon and Weaver in the three stations were 1.53 ± 0.499, 1.841± 0.259 and 2.432± 0.767 respectively. The average value and standard deviations of Evenness (E) in these stations were 0.695 ± 0.087, 0.741± 0.101 and 0.725± 0.101 in the same order. Mean values and standard deviations of Margalef richness (D) in these stations were 2.010 ± 0.898, 2.299 ± 0.851 and 2.893 ± 0.667, respectively. The dominance (D3) value of the main three abundant species was 59.24%.

Table of content: volume:30 issue:1