Table of content

The Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Science

مجلة العلوم الزراعية العراقية

ISSN: ISSN:00750530 / EISSN:24100862
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Agriculture
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi Journal of Agricultural science (TIJAS) was established in 1966 in the college of Agriculture – University of Baghdad. It was published with two issues each volume. In 2000, TIJAS started with six issues each volume till now . In this year the volume number of TIJAS is (47). TIJAS covers papers in plant & animal sciences, besides, Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Extension, Agricultural Mechanization and basic sciences, such as Chemistry and Physics Related to light, heat, water and winds. Each volume includes around 75 articles, about 20-25 article/ issue depending on a reliable accepted paper for publication.

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Contact info

tijasub@yahoo.com
tel :
009647804541817
009647512748875
address:
college of Agric. / Univ. of Baghdad
Al Jadreah, Baghdad, Iraq

Table of content: 2016 volume:47 issue:5

Article
EVALUATION BREAD WHEAT PURE LINES UNDER EFFECT OF DIFFERENT SEEDING RATES FOR GRAIN YIELD AND IT, S COMPONENT
تقييم خطوط نقية من حنطة الخبز تحت تأثير كميات بذار مختلفة لحاصل الحبوب ومكوناته

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This research was carried out at the Swerah Research Station –Office of Agricultural Researches Ministry of Agriculture, during 2014-2015 season. The objective of this research was to evaluation 15 pure lines (Triticum aestivum L.). genotypes ,the seventh generation developed by half dialled method between 6 parents. The experiment was conducted using split plot design with three replicates ,The main plots were four seeding rates (120, 160, 200 and 240 kg.ha-1 ), while the 21 genotypes occupied sub plots .The two pure lines S97 and S148 out yielded other genotypes except A4.10 and Abu-Ghraib in grain yield which, produced 6.35 and 6.09 t.ha-1, respecting .increasing seeding rates caused to increase in number of spikes .plant-1 and flag leaves angle. Significant difference were found among genotypes due to seeding rate.The pure line S148 ,using 200 kg.ha-1 seeding rate produced highest grain yield (7.49 t.ha-1) which did not differed from using A4.10 under 200 and 240 kg.ha-1 seeding rate. It was recommended to certify the pure line S148 using 200 kg.ha-1 seeding rate for cultivation at central of Iraq.


Article
EVALUATION BREAD WHEAT PURE LINES UNDER EFFECT OF DIFFERENT SEEDING RATES
تقييم خطوط نقية من حنطة الخبز لبعض صفات النمو تحت تأثير كميات بذار مختلفة

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Abstract

This research was carried out at the Swerah Research Station –Office of Agricultural Researches during 2014-2015 seasons. The objective of this research was evaluation bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes ,which concluded 15 pure lines in seventh generation, which developed by half dialld method between 6 parents ,The experiment was conducted using split plot arrangement with RCBD design with three replicates ,The main plots content four seeding rates (120, 160, 200 and 240 kg.ha-1 ), while the 21 genotypes occupied sub plots .The two pure lines S97 and S148 superoired to all other genotypes except A4.10 and Abu-Ghraib in grain yield which, produced 6.35 and 6.09 t.ha-1 .Increasing seeding rates caused early flowering, increased plant height, biological yield and harvest index. Significant differences were found in all the studied characters due to genotypes and seeding rates interaction. The pure line S148 ,using 200 kg.ha-1 seeding rates produced highest grain yield (7.49 t.ha-1).


Article
GENETIC PARAMETER IN MAIZE USING FULL DIALLEL CROSSES SOME
بعض المعايير الوراثية في الذرة الصفراء باستعمال التحليل التبادلي

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A field experiment was conducted at the field of Field Crop .Dept., College of Agric/Univ.of Baghdad .It was included five Inbreds {ZM34(ZE),ZM60,ZM19,ZM49W3E and CDN5}.That were given number (1,2,3,4,5) .Inbreds were tested for general and specific combining ability by using full dialle. Inbreds were planted in spring 2013 and at anthesis crossing between inbreds all possibilities were carried out In fall season of 2013 ,varietal trail for crosses and parents were conducted using RCBD with four replications to evaluate crosses and parents and estimate some genetic parameters. Statistical analysis revealed highly significant differences for all traits ,plant high, leaves no. leaf area index ,ear length ,no.of row/ear,no.of grain/row,ears weight and grain yield /plant .The genetic analysis show that inbred 3 was superior and gave high grain yield 100.66 gm because it gave high ears weight 170.25 gm, no.of grain /row 32.88grain and ear length 15.40 ,also it had positive GCA .The cross(1×4) was superior and gave high grain yield 124.57gm because it gave high ears weight 168.82,no.of grain /row 34.60 grain ,no.of rows/ear 15.40 and ear length 16.10cm.also it had positive hybrid vigor 163% .The reciprocal cross 4×3 was superior and gave highest yield 155.05 gm because it gave high ear weight 180.18 ,no.of grain /row 40.25 grain ,no.of rows/ear 15.25and ear length 18.95cm.also it had positive hybrid vigor for grain yield 54% and highest SCA 25.56 . The cytoplasmic inheritance was very clear for some crosses. The average degree of dominance more than one ,it referes to non additive gene effect controlled in most traits . It was revealed that some of inbreds were superior in GCA and SCA;Therefor it can be used in hybrid or synthetic production .most of the traits controlled by dominance gene effects so we recommended using hybridization to improve it.


Article
EFFECT OF TIMINOR AND RATES OF POTASSIUM ON BREAD WHEAT QUALITY AND SOME OTHER CHARACTERES
تأثير مواعيد وكمية أضافة البوتاسيوم في نوعية حبوب حنطة الخبز وبعض الصفات الاخرى

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Abstract

A field experiment was conducted at the experimental farm, Dept. of Field Crop, Coll. of Agriculture, Univ. of Baghdad ,during 2011-2012, to study the effect of potassium fertilizer levels and appilication stage on bread wheat grains quality Triticum asetivum L.(Var- Abu-Ghraib-3) and some other characteres . Factorial experiment was conducted in RCBD design with three replication involved two levels of potassium 120,180 kg.ha-1 and control treatment the second factor was three stage of application (tillering ,Booting , flowering). The results shows non significant differ between potassium leveles for all studied traits, except havest index.The potassium level 180 kg.ha-1 produced plants with highest harvest index (38.17%), in comparison to the level 120 kg.ha-1, (36.82%).The application stage at flowering time produced grains with higher protein (12.18%), when compard to the tillering and booting stages (11.32% and 12.17%) respectively. The potassium application stage at tillering was superior in protein yield and harvest index 0.935 mg.ha-1 and 40.37%, respectively. It can be conclude that potassium addition stage was more important than, it,s dosages.


Article
RESPONS OF BREAD WHEAT YIELD AND IT,S COMPONENTS TO BORON AND VITAMIN C FOLIAR APPLIED
استجابة حاصل حنطة الخبز ومكوناته للرش بالبورون وفيتامين C

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Field experiment was conducted during 2010 – 2011 and 2011 – 2012 winter seasons at the Experimental Farm, Department of Field Crops, College of Agriculture University of Baghdad. RCBD design with four replications were used to study the effect of Boron and vitamin C foliar applied on yield and some it,s components of bread wheat Triticum aestivum L. cv. Abu – Ghraib-3. The experiment involved two factors ,the first was boron foliar in five concentrations 0,100, 200, 300, 400 mg L-1 the second was vitamin C foliar applied in five concentrations 0,1,2,3,4, gmL-1 at booting stage. Results of the experiment showed :300 mg B L-1 was superior in grain yield 6.726,6.771 Mg ha-1) for both seasons and some yield components ( spike number for the second season 574.9 spike m-2 , fertility 97.27% 97.34% and number of grain 66.39 , 65,22 grain spik-1 ) for both seasons . Foliar of Vitamin C with 4 gm L-1 was significantly affected grain yield (6.820 , 6.879 Mg ha-1 ) for both seasons respectively . Foliar of Vitamin C with 4 gm L-1 was significantly affected on grain yield and some it,s components (6.820 , 6.878 Mg ha-1 ) as compared to control which gave (4.882 ,4.906 Mg ha-1) for both seasons, respectively .The interaction between two factors was significant in some characters ( number of spike and grain yield ).


Article
GROWTH AND YIELD OF PEANUT AS AFFECT BY PLANTING METHOD AND PLANT POPULATION
نمو وحاصل فستق الحقل بتأثير طريقة الزراعة والكثافة النباتية

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A field experiment was conducted at the experimental field, Dept. of Field Crop , Coll. of Agric. Univ. of Baghdad during the yeans of 2010 and 2011 to study growth and yield of peanut as affected by planting methods and plant population. A factorial arrangement in RCBD design with four replications were used , with two factors, the first one: three planting methods (planting on East, West and Twin rows) and the second factor: four spacing between plants (15, 25, 35 and 45) cm. The results showed that the planting method on east produced highest dry weight (117.51, 100.64) g.plant-1, growth rate (625.10, 532.40) mg.plant-1.day-1 , seed yield per plant (25.16, 32.25)g.plant-1, protein percent (26.01, 26.20)% for both seasons respectively. Moreover planting method on twin row gave highest pod yield (4180, 3842) kg. ha-1, oil percentage (46.00, 46.20)% for both seasons respectively. The highest plant density 15 cm between plants gave highest pods yield (3960 3031 kg.ha-1, seed yield (2328.7, 1761.0) kg. ha-1, oil percentage (46.50, 46.28)% for both seasons, respectively. The lowest plant density 45 cm between plants gave highest dry weight (124.07, 114.07) g.plant-1, growth rate (659.90, 603.50) mg. plant-1.day-1, seed yield per plant (36.05, 31.07)g. plant-1, protein percentage (26.40, 26.20)% for both seasons, respectively. The planting method on twin row with the high plant density 15 cm gave highest seed yield (2894.1, 2542.0) kg.ha-1, while the planting method on west and the low plant density 45 cm gave the lowest seeds yield (1051.3, 912.0) kg.ha-1 for both seasons, respectively.


Article
RESPONSE OF SOME GENOTYPES OF SOYBEAN TO ASCORBIC ACID SPRAYING
استجابة بعض التركيب الوراثية من فول الصويا لرش حامض الأسكوربيك

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A field experiment was conducted at the Experimental Farm, Department of Field Crops, College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad /Abu-Ghraib during the growing season of 2009 and 2010 to investigated the effect of spraying of ascorbic acid at three concentrations (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5) gm L-1 on some growth characters and yield of three genotypes of soybean (Sori, Lee and Snaea -2-), using RCBD with in split plot arrangement with three replications. The genotypes were in main plots while the concentrations of ascorbic acid were in sub plots. The results showed that the superiority of Sori genotype in branches No. (7.11 and 7.90) branch.plant-1, pods No. (153.44 and 187.43) pod.plant-1, pods weight (133.17 and 173.54) gm and 100 seed weight about 11.01 and 12.78 gm so gave highest plant yield about 91.11 and 95.19 gm.plant-1 for both season respectively. Spraying of ascorbic acid caused significant increase in most studied characters and the concentration 1.5 gm L-1 was superior in branches No. (6.49 and 6.84 branch.plant-1, pods No. (112.95 and 129.56) pod.plant-1, pods weight (101.42 and 118.58) gm and seeds per pod (2.64 and 2.70) seed.pod-1 so gave highest seed yield per plant about 76.82 and 83.90 gm.plant-1 for both season respectively. The best combination was Sori X 1.5 gm L-1 gave highest seed yield per plant about 101.51 and 108.88 gm.plant-1 for both season respectively. The conclusion from this study was: The different genotypes of soybean were different in their response to ascorbic acid spraying and the level 1.5 gm L-1 was the best for all the studied genotypes.


Article
OF EFFECT OF SOME SOIL TILLAGE SYSTEMS ON TILLAGE APPEARANCE AND SOME TECHNICAL INDICATORS MACHINARY UNITS
تأثير بعض نظم تهيئة التربة في مظهر الحراثة وبعض المؤشرات الفنية للوحدة المكنية

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The experiment was conducted on a farm of the College of Agriculture - University of Baghdad for the year 2015 in silt-clay loam soil in order to evaluate the effect of tillage equipment on tillage appearance and some the technical indicators. The tractor" ITM– 285"with tillage systems implements tow factors included, three primary tillage implements included: Moldboard plow, Chisel plow and sweep plow and three pulverization implement included :disc harrow, spring spike tooth harrow and rotary harrow studying the effect of these factors on: Number of clods > 10cm , number of clods < 5cm, disturbed soil volume ,and total porosity in this reseach . Treatment were Laid out using split –plot with randomized complete block design in three replicates. The results showed that sweep plow superior in obtained less number of clods > 10cm/m2 which was 12.7 clod/m2, less number of clods > 5cm/ m2 which was 21.28 clod/m2 and highest soil porosity which was 57.11% compared with chisel plow and moldboard plow , chisel plow showed the superior in getting higher disturbed soil volume which was 663.3m3/ hr compared with other plows. Rotary harrow obtained less number of clods > 5cm/m2 which was 25.06 clod / m2, less soil porosity which was 54.78% compared with disc harrow and spring spike tooth harrow. Spring Spike tooth Harrow obtained highest disturbed soil volume which was 1021.4 m3/ hr. The interference between sweep plow with rotary harrow got less number of clods > 5cm/m2 which was 16.83 clod/m2, mean while chisel plow with spring spike tooth harrow got highest disturbed soil volume which was1027.8 m3/ hr, while sweep plow with spring spike tooth harrow was superior to obtain highest soil porosity which was 58.67 %.


Article
EXTENSION AGRICULTURAL INNOVATION FOR BEE KEEPERS TO DEVELOP AND INCREASE PRODUCTIVITY IN THE CENTRAL REGION OF IRAQ
الابتكار الزراعي الارشادي لمربي النحل لتطوير وزيادة الانتاجية في المنطقة الوسطى من العراق

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The research aimed to identify the level of bee keepers innovation to develop and increase productivity in the central region of Iraq , In order to achieve the goals of research a questionnaire consisted of two parts, designed the first part included a bilateral scale to measure the level of beekeepers innovations, consists of ( 46 ) paragraphs Distributed on five fields (bee keeping , the area to take advantage of the bees in environment, the detection of diseases and pests ,the treating diseases and pest control , the field of honey products and peripherals manufacturing ), The second part included a barometer quadrilateral to measure the reasons consists of ( 34 ) paragraphs Distributed on four pivots (environmental causes , extension, economic , social). The research community a random sample ( 38%)of the which is (Baghdad, Babil, Najaf) a random sample (15%) of the total number of beekeepers totaling (1098) breeders in the provinces covered by the research, to be the size of the sample (165) educator for the bees . The results showed that bee keepers suffer from weak innovation levels, as the highest rate is (66.7%) of the beekeepers within the level of innovation (0-15) and an average of (11.12) degree and a standard deviation (7.53) degrees . The results showed that the causes that lead bee keepers to innovation is (social causes) came first in the level of importance as it reached the level of significance (2.38) degrees while last (extension causes) and the level of significance (1.93) degrees Researcher recommends the necessity of providing the requirements and production equipment for beekeeping encouraging high international standard prices in order to promote the level of innovation to beekeepers in central region of Iraq and should be concerted efforts by government agencies and of devices guidance, research and beekeepers. .


Article
EVALUATION OF PERFORMANCE FOR CARAWAY (Carum carvi L.) CULTIVARS OVER IRAQI ENVIRONMENTS
تقييم أداء اصناف من الكراويا Carum carvi L. تحت ظروف العراق

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Assessment of genetic diversity for various traits would contribute in hybridization projects in order to recover aspired recombinants. Therefore, metroglyph analysis and ANOVA were conducted out to estimate genetic diversity among seven caraway genotypes. Field experiment was applied in winter season of 2011/2012 with three replicates. Consequently, data were recorded on plant height, branches no., umbels no. umbels diameter, no. of umbellets and plant yield. Results showed that allotting of index scores for each trait of seven caraway genotypes represented the worth of the genotype in respects to the trait which the performance of genotype is represented by total index score for all traits of that genotype. Thus, Bery and Mosul genotypes ascertained the highest index scores of 16, for each one. Moreover, Metroglyph scatter diagram revealed three groups of caraway genotypes. Therefore, it could be concluded that metroglyph technique simply classified genotypes to groups and had potentiality to interpret genotypes performance regarding the index scores. Thus, it could be recommended to apply crossing or hybridization between individuals from different groups alternatively to individuals from same group. Genotypes of Bery, Mosul, Sury and selectedF1 (Group2), and Balady (Group3) were distinct which possible to apply crossing between one of group2 individuals with another one of group3.


Article
RESPONSE OF CAULIFLOWER PLANTS TO SPRAY WITH NUTRIENTS SOLUTIONS FROM DIFFERENT SOURCES
استجابة نباتات القرنابيط للرش بعناصر مغذية من مصادر مختلفة

Authors: M. A. Hussein مها علي حسين
Pages: 1218-1224
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This study was carried out at experimental field of Horticulture and Landscape Department – College of Agriculture – Baghdad University, during autumn season of 2014. This experiment was aimed to study the effect of foliar spray with algae extract (Algaton-20) at two concentrations (2 and 4ml.L-1) and liquid mineral nutrient (Fosfital calcium) at two concentrations (3 and 6ml.L-1) and the water extract of dry seeds of broad bean at two concentrations (2.5 and 5g.L-1) as different sources of nutrition elements (Mo,B,Ca,K,P,N) beside control treatment in vegetative growth and the nutrition content of curds and production parameters of cauliflower plants cv.Eearly snowball.The study was conducted according to Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. The results are shows a significant differences between spraying nutrients solutions and control treatment in all parameters studied, spraying with Algaton-20 (2 ml.L-1) was recorded higher number of leaves.plant-1 and length of petiole and sulfur content in curds while spraying with(4ml.L-1) estimated higher length of assimilative surface and percentage of dry matter and boron content in curds. Spraying with water extract of dry broad bean seeds with (5g.L-1) led to record biggest leaf area and higher content of curds from nitrogen and molybdenum. While spraying with(2.5g.L-1) led to record higher dry weight of vegetative growth and the content of curds from phosphorus and potassium and weight of curds which estimated 0.662 Kg and total weight of plant which estimated 0.679Kg and total yield which estimated 24.33ton.ha-1 compare to control treatment. which meaning that using nutrients from organic and natural source will improve the nutrition values with medicinal importance of the produce with environment less pollution.


Article
EFFECT OF FOLIAR APPLICATION WITH BRASSINOLIDE AND ALGAE EXTRACT (TECAMINE) IN VEGETATIVE AND YIELD CHARACTERISTICS OF APPLE TREE (CV. ANNA)
تأثير الرش Brassinolide ومستخلص الطحالب Tecamin في صفات النمو والانتاج لاشجار التفاح صنف Anna

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This research was conducted in the Apple orchard belong to Department of Horticulture / Collage of Agriculture / University of Baghdad- Abu Ghraib during 2015, in order to investigate the response of four years old Apple trees (CV.Anna) budded on seeding root stock to foliar application with Brassinolide at four levels (0,2,4and 8)mg.g-1 and Algae extract (Tecamin) at four levels (0,2,4,6) ml.L-1 and their interaction between them in some vegetative and yield characters. Each treatment replicated three times with a factorial experiment using RCBD. The number of trees used was 27 trees. The results showed that treatment B3 was significantly increased in total chlorophyll content in leaves, shoot diameter, shoots length and shoot content of C:N Ratio.The treatment T3 gave a high value of shoot diameter and fruit size. While the interaction between the two factors (Brassinolide and Algae extract) B3T3 gave a high value of chlorophyll content in leaves, fruit weight mean, fruit diameter and fruit size (46.10 mg.g-1, 0.2733cm, 93.88gm, 5.387cm and 96.33cm3) respectively, while the interaction B3T1 gave a high a verge of fruit length was reached (5.587cm (while the treatment B3T2 gave a high content of Carbohydrates/Nitrogen Ratio reached to 10.52%.


Article
DISTINGUISH AMONG SOME SELECTIVE WATERMELONS BY USING ISSR TECH-NOLOGY
التمييز بين بعض منتخبات اصناف الرقي بأستعمال تقانة ISSR

Authors: M. S. Elias مريم سامي الياس
Pages: 1235-1245
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ABSTRACT This experiment conducted Using 12 primers related to ISSR technology in distinguishing among the 21 selective back to the three variety of watermelon they are each of the selective Crimson Sweet which code to W1, W2, W3 and W4 and the variety Sugar Baby which coded to SH1 ,SH2 ,SH3 ,SH4 ,SH5,SH6 and SH7 and the variety Charleston Gray which is coded to G1 ,G2,G3 ,G4 ,G5 ,G6 ,G7 ,G8, G9 and G10 . The results showed that the primers used gave 89 total bands were all of the polymorphism was 100%. Found that the primers 810, 840 and 864 were high ability of the way to give it the highest numbers of bands while the primers 808 and 834 of the ability of the few by giving them fewer bands. 9 primers able to give distinct bands for some selective, which distinguishes them from the rest of the other primers. The results showed that the principles component analysis ( PCA) for the variety Crimson Sweet correlation the selective W1 and W2 while W3 not correlation with W4 or with each other, and correlation SH1 , SH3 and SH6 with each other apart from the SH4 , SH7 , SH2 and SH5 in the variety Sugar Baby as to the selective of Charleston Gray has divided into two groups, the first group included five selective G7 , G5 ,G6, G4 and G8 apart from the second group, which included five selective G1 , G2 , G3 , G9 and G10. . And it found that the high genetic distance between the two varieties Charleston Gray and Sugar Baby. Therefore the primers ISSR showed that the variance between the communities by variance of arrangement of nucleotide. It can be concluded the possibility of the use of biotechnology in breeding programs.


Article
EXTENSION PROGRAMS PLANNING UNDER COMPREHENSIVE QUALITY STANDARDS IN SOME MIDDLE PROVINCES OF IRAQ
تخطيط البرامج الارشادية في ظل معايير الجودة الشاملة في بعض محافظات المنطقة الوسطى من العراق

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The research aimed to determine the overall quality standards through literature and specialists and overall quality experts , and to identifying the applied level by managers in some provinces of the central region . In order to achieve the objectives of the research , the researcher developed five scale ranging from grades ' ( 0-4 ) degree for the purpose of identifying the level of application of total quality standards for program planning by managers in the provinces of the central region , included (73) items distributed on (10) axes and ( 4) field (inputs , processes , outputs , feedback ) . The research was conducted on a random sample of 50% of Iraqi middle provinces ( Baghdad , Karblaa , Najaf , Wasit ) . A random sample about 39% of the agricultural divisions of these provinces of 20 agricultural divisions were chosen . The sample of respondents was 96 , 7 of them ( general manager , two assistants of the general manager and heads of the technical departments) were in department of agricultural extension and training , 15 of them ( the managers of agricultural directorates and the heads of agricultural extension and Heads of departments of planning in those offices) , 60 of them person ( heads of agricultural divisions and the officials of the units of agricultural extension and planning ), 4 of them ( managers of extensional training centers ) 10 of them of extension farms officials in the chosen research provinces . Results have showed that the level of application of total quality standards for planning and agricultural extension programs by managers in some provinces of the central region , by (50% ) The researcher recommende the adoption of the search results by the Ministry of Agriculture/ Planning Department to improve the agricultural extension programs planning process : Also the researcher recommended the need to review budgets and financial measures to ensure the provision of the necessary work indicative items on time , and its importance that the extension organization has independent operational budget on all levels , and to be distributed to the terms and aspects of exchange of field activities.


Article
THE ROLE OF AGRICULTURAL AGENTS MANAGEMENT OF AGRICULTURAL INNOVATIONS KNOWING IN IMPROVING FILED EXTENSION ACTIVITIES IN THE CENTRAL REGION PROVINCES OF IRAQ.
دور إدارة المرشد الزراعي للمعرفة بالمستحدثات الزراعية في تحسين الأنشطة الإرشادية الميدانية في محافظات المنطقة الوسطى من العراق

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This research aims at achieving the following goals:- the first one is to Identify the actual management of the agricultural agent in knowing the agricultural innovations represented by the following (knowledge diagnosis, the acquiring and generating of knowledge, knowledge updating, knowledge planning, knowledge application publishing and sharing of knowledge, organizing and storing knowledge, knowledge observation). The second one is to identify the role of knowledge management of agricultural agent in improving the extension and field activities, the next one is to find out the relation between the aspects of the role of management of agricultural agent in knowing the agricultural innovation with improving the extension activities as well as identifying the barriers that prevent the application of the management of agricultural agent in knowing the agricultural innovation according to the agricultural extension point of view.The population of the study includes the central provinces of Iraq consisting of (8) ones. A sample was taken randomly on rate of (%50) the provinces are (Baghdad, Najaf, Karbala, Babylon) (564)ones. The random graded proportional (%40) sample was taken from the agricultural agent distributed on the previous provinces they one (564) ones (134) for each province. In order to achieve these goals, a questionnaire has been prepared to collect the data from the agricultural agent. The questionnaire consists of (101) items distributed over three aspects (65) items in the field of agricultural agent management in knowing the agricultural innovations distributed over (8) aspects. (23) items for improving the extension activities and (13) items for the obstacles that prevent the application of agricultural innovations knowledge. The researcher has reached to the following results:--The knowledge diagnosis process in knowing the agricultural innovation is regarded one of the most important demand to achieve the extension activities and it also takes number because of its importance by the agreement of the researchers. The probable mean amount is (3,14) and the percentage weight is (78,7) while knowledge organizing takes last position according to the researchers by probable mean amount (3,27) and percentage weight (%87,75). -There is a correlation and statistical relation between the management of the agricultural agent in knowing the agricultural innovations and improving the extension activities. The researcher has recommended the following:The importance of raising the level of knowledge management application in instructional organizations by giving the agricultural agent more authorizations which ensure the application of their knowledge in the instructional field.The researcher has also recommended to establish an administrates units to organize the effort of knowledge management in the instructional organizations and it should be independent and have a connection with senior management it could be joined to the management of developing administration department as well as it should be qualified by experts and the agricultural agent should be qualified in technical field through enroll them in training courses according to their needs and the requirements of the instructional work.


Article
THE VALUE CHAIN OF FISH FOR FLOATING CAGES AND POND TECHNIQUES IN BAGHDAD PROVINCE
سلسلة القيمة للأسماك بتقنية الاحواض الترابية والاقفاص العائمة لمحافظة بغداد

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The fish sector is considered an important component of the economies of many countries in the world including Arab countries . This work is considered as the first attempt to study value chain for fish in Iraq. The objective of this study is to identify the main problems and constraints facing different channels or links the value chain of fish, and to analyse revenue, production costs, and to calculate some quantitative indicators like value added . The results showed that average value added of the different links are amount: 22.13dinars/kg, 1007.7 dinar/kg, 242.9 dinar/kg and 1023.5 dinars/kg from each links hatcheries, producers, wholesalers and retailers , the results also showed that the share of different links from value chain for average value additionrs as follows : 0.96% for hatcheries link , 43.8% for producer link , 10.6% for wholesalers link and 44.6% for retailers link. While cages producers added 68.5% from average value added it is amount 2796. 9 dinar/ kg on level techniques of floating cages . The study also identifis the main challenges and problems facing each link in chain value and forward the suitable solution and recommendation for government Authorities and private sector in order to increase the efficiency of fish in Iraq .


Article
THE VALUE CHAIN OF FISH TECHNIQUES OF FLOATING CAGES AND PONDS IN DEUANYA PROVINCE
سلسلة القيمة للأسماك بتقنية الاحواض الترابية والاقفاص العائمة لمحافظة الديوانية

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The fish sector is considered an important component of the economies of many countries in the world including Arab countries. It is also considered an important component of food security. This work is considered as the first attempt to study value chain for fish in Iraq. The objective of this study is to identify the main problems and constrains facing different links in the value chain of fish, and to analyse revenue, production costs, and to calculate some quantitative indicators like value added. The results showed that average value added of the different links is amount to: 22.2dinars/kg , 2012.7 dinar/kg, 109.3 dinar/kg, 872.3 dinars/kg from each links hatcheries, producers, wholesalers and retailers. The results also showed that the share of different links from value chain for average total value additionrs as follows: 0.73% for hatcheries link, 66.7% for producer link , 3.6% for wholesalers link, and 28.9% for retailers link. While cages producers added 65.5% from average value added it is amount to 2912. 7 dinar/ kg; on the level techniques cages floating. The study also identifis the main challenges and problems facing each link in chain value and forward the suitable solution and recommendation for government authorities and private sector in order to increase the efficiency of fish in Iraq.


Article
EFFECT OF DAY OLD CHICKS WEIGHT ON PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF TWO BROILER STRAINS AND THEIR CROSSING
تأثير الوزن بعمر يوم واحد في الأداء الأنتاجي لسلالتين وتضريبهما لفروج اللحم

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Abstract

This experment was conducted at the Poultry Farm،Animal production Dept./College of Agriculture. University of Baghdad from 1-4-2014 to 12-5-2014. to investigate the potential effect of day old chicks weight produced from two broiler strains and their crossing Ross 308 , Arbor Acres and Ross 308 x Arbor Acres on productive performance . A total of 360 day all chicks were distributed randomly to 6 groups with 4 replicate pens )15 birds / pens). The experimental groups were: T1= Ar-medium; T2= Ar - Large ; T3= R-medium; T4= R -Large; T5= R - Arb-medium; T6= R - Ar-Large. Results showed that body weight, weekly average gain, feed conversion ratio, dressing percentage and relative breast weight in female were significantly (p<0.05) better in group T3 and T5 compared to heavy chicks . While there was no significant differences between sex or strain for breast relative weight and other cuts. It could be concluded from this study that chicks with medium weight gave better or equal live weight compared to heaver strain .however crossing between hybrids improved productive performance of broilers .


Article
USING DIFFERENT PERCENT FROM CONCENTRATE AND ROUGHAGE IN FATTNING HOLSTEIN FRISIAN CALVE
استخدام نسب مختلفة من العلف المركز والخشن في تسمين عجول الهولشتاين فريزيان

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Abstract

The experiment was carried out at the Animal Farm / Department of Animal Resources/ College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad, to study the effect of using different percentage of concentrate to roughage in fattening calves .Two equal groups of Holstein Frisian calves, with age about eight months and at average weight of 228.8±21.2&227.8±9.12 kg /hd respectively. The calves placed in two neighboring barn. The animals fed by 3% live weight in the first two weeks then the ratio was raised to 4% of the live weight to the end the experiment. The animal’s weights and some body measurements were recorded at the beginning of the experiment, then after two weeks until the end of experiment (body wt., Chest circumference, withers height, abdominal circumference, body length). The average daily gain in the first group was 0.957 kg/hd while the average daily gain was 0.970kg/hd in the second group. In the end of experiment the weight of calves in the first group were 1428 kg / Group, while the weight in the second group was 1430 kg / group.. The amount of roughage consumption in the first and second group 1594.4 and 1070.6 kg, While the amount of concentrate consumer in the first group 1064kg and the second group was 1549.8kg. It can be concluded from this study that the use of alfalfa hay to feed concentrate diet at the level of 60 : 40 from daily feeding in the fattening Holstein Frisian calves at the age of eight months is the best because it reduces the costs and to achieve the desired purpose.


Article
KINETICS OF PHOSPHORUS RELEASE FROM ADDED ROCK PHOSPHATE WITH SOME ORGANIC FERTILIZERS ON CALCAREOUS SOIL.
حركيات تحرر الفسفور من الصخر الفوسفاتي المضاف مع بعض الاسمدة العضوية في تربة كلسية.

Authors: K.M.Naser كاظم مكي ناصر
Pages: 1305-1312
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Abstract

Laboratory experiment was conducted using silty clay loam soil collected from Agriculture fields in Abu Ghraib to study the release of phosphorus from rock phosphate (10.22 P%) on a soil treated with three types of organic fertilizers namely; peat moss , sheep manure , poultry manure and control treatment (soil only). Ten grams of air dried soil mixed with 100 mg of ground rock phosphate and organic fertilizers added at 2.5% level (w:w) were incubated at a laboratory temperature (298 K ) after adding water up to two-thirds of the field capacity for 40, 90, 120, 150 and 180 days. Citric acide soluble available phosphorous was estimated after each incubation periods and kinetic equations used to test its release from treated samples. The additions of chicken manure was the highest in the amount of dissolved phosphorus values followed by sheep manure, peat moss, rock phosphate and control treatment, reaching levels of citric acide extractable phosphorus to 4.2 , 3.8, 3.3, 3.1 and 2.5 mg P kg-1 soil, respectively. The results also showed superiority of first order equation in the description of phosphorus release from rock phosphate with release rate coefficient of 3.801 , 3.865 , 4.328 and 4.366 mg P kg -1 soil h-1 for the treatments: soil and rock phosphate only , peat moss, sheep waste and chicken manure, respectively.


Article
SOIL PORE SIZE DISTRIBUTION AT DIFFERENT CARBONATE MINERALS CONTENT
التوزيع الحجمي لمسامات تربة ذات محتوى مختلف من معادن الكاربونات

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Abstract

Pore space, especially pore size distribution is one of the important properties affecting soil infiltration, hydraulic conductivity, and water retention. To examine the effect of carbonate minerals on pore size distribution, soil material with loam texture was used to prepare nine soil materials containing wide range of carbonate minerals (3.2 - 352 g kg-1). The soil-water retention curve (θ(ψ)) was estimated. Computer program (RETC code) was used to determine the best-fit for experimental data of water potential versus volumetric water content which have nonlinear relationship to determine the parameter of van Genuchten equation [α, n and m with m=1-(1/n)]. The capillary rise equation (young-laplace equation) was used to estimate the effective pore diameter (D). The results show that pore space was affected by carbonate minerals contents. Air pores (> 30 μm) increased 1.4 fold with increasing carbonate minerals at the same time capillary pores filled with water (< 30 μm) decreased by 1.3 folds. The relative of water volume to total soil volume ranged between 0.27 and 0.21 cm3cm-3 for carbonate minerals content 3.2 and 352 g kg-1 respectively. At 10 kPa the amount of water lost increased with increasing carbonate minerals content, where soil sample with 352 g.kg-1 carbonate minerals lost water more than soil sample with 3.2 g.kg-1 carbonate minerals by 42%. The percentage of pores (< 30 μm) ranged from 67% to 79% and the pores (> 30 μm) ranged from 33% to 21%. It can be concluded that high carbonate minerals content in the soil led to change in pore size distribution, where air-filled pores increased and capillary pores filled with water (water holding capacity) decreased at different degree from sample to another.


Article
DETECTION RESISTANCE GENES OF ROOT KNOT NEMATODE MI IN SOME OF PURE LINES OF TOMATO INDETERMINATE GROWTH
التحري عن جينات المقاومة Mi لنيماتودا تعقد الجذور في عدد من السلالات النقية للطماطة غير محدودة النمو

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This study was included investigation of the resistance genes Mi which is responsible for the appearance of resistance feature in tomato against root knots Nematode Meloidogyne spp in 46 pure lines of tomato indeterminate growth, ten of tomato pure lines showed resistance to root knots nematode infection after 60 days of the inoculation by 5000 egg/ kg of soil . While 31 pure lines of tomato showed sensitivity for these nematode infection, which root knot numbers had exceeded 100 knots. Then the genes has diagnosed by using the technology of molecular analysis the DNA of the purelines of sensitive and resistance tomato was isolated by the CTAB method then apply the indicators of Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) DNA on the total DNA isolated from sensitive and resistant pure lines and using five primers connected with different locations of the resistance lines, two of them were designed by reasrcher and NCBI-Primer-Blast program (HSM1and HSM2) proved effective in the investigation of resistance genes Mi by production DNA bands, and three other primers (REX and C2S4 and Mi1-2) also proved their international effectiveness in the detection of resistance genes by production DNA bands for each pairs of them.


Article
تحديد قدرة المركبات النقية المستخلصة من نبات الحنطة السوداء في تثبيط تكون الجذور الحرة وبيروكسدة الدهون
ANTIOXIDANT AND LIPID PEROXIDANTION INHIBITORY OF COMPOUNDS IN COMMON BUCKWHEAT

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Common Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) is recognized as a healthy food in many countries because it is nutrient-rich crop. The objectives of this study was to investigate the succesful farming for buckwheat plants in the Iraqi environmental conditions, extraction and estimation of the most important nutritional and medicinal compounds from seeds plant and it᾽s effectiveness in the inhibition of lipids peroxidation which considered to be the causative agent of the free radicals formation in vivo.The hexane and methanolic extraction gave many compounds from buckwheat seeds. NMR were used to determine many of the natural compounds for buckwheat plants seeds after many steps of the purification processes, using many solutions and mobile phases including: Linoleic acid, Triglyceride, Stearic acid, Ferulic acid, Flavonoid glycoside and Flavon glycoside. Compounds Linolieic acid, Ferulic acid, Flavonoid glycoside and Flavon glycoside showed activity values of 0.285, 0.362, 0.356 and 0.442 respectively at 250 µg/mL concentration in the MTT assay and inhibited LPO by 58, 73, 93 and 76% respectively at 250 µg/mL concentration. It is clear that buckwheat have strong antioxidant and lipid Peroxidation inhibitory. nd


Article
EFFECT OF GRAIN MOISTURE OF CORN AT HARVESTING ON SOME AGRONOMIC TRAITS
تأثير رطوبة حبوب الذرة الصفراء عند الحصاد في بعض الصفات الحقلية

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This research was conducted during spring and fall seasons, 2015 , at the fields of Field Crop Department – College of Agriculture –University of Baghdad . The objective was to study the effect of grain moisture at harvesting on some agronomic traits of the corn next generation , by using synthetic variety 5018 . In spring season 2015 , seeds of this variety was planted ,when moisture of the ear grains was (37-42%) , ten ears were harvested. Ear harvesting dates were performed manually when the grains had 37-42% , 34-36% , 30-33% , 25- 28% and 19-22% moisture content. In fall season 2015 , varietal trail was carried out to the five treatment materials , using Randomized Complete Bock Design , with four replicates. The results revealed , that non significant differences between treatments (19-22)% and (25-28)% , in all the studied traits . The plants grown from the seeds of (25-28)%, were produced highest vegetative mass (116.30 g.plant-1) , total dray matter (269 g. plant-1) and total dray matter ( 1.80 kg.m-2 ) . Highest grain yield ( 1.07 kg.m-2 ) and harvesting index ( 0.63) were produced from plants grown from seeds harvested with (19-22)% moisture content . It can be concluded that the best moisture contents of the grains for seed production was (19-28)%.


Article
GRAIN YIELD ADN YIELD COMPONENTS OF CORN AS INFLUENCED BY HARVESTING MOISTURE
ثأثر حاصل الحبوب و مكونات الحاصل للذرة الصفراء برطوبة الحصاد

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This research was conducted during spring and fall seasons, 2015 , at the fields of Field Crop Department – College of Agriculture –University of Baghdad. The objective was to study grain yield and yield components of corn in next generation as influenced by harvesting moisture in the first generation . In spring season 2015 , seeds of the variety 2018 was planted using 75 cm between rows and 25 cm within the rows. When moisture of the ear grains reach the first treatment (37-42%), ten ears were harvested. Ear harvesting dates were performed manually when the grains had 37-42%, 34-36% , 30-33% , 25- 28% and 19-22% moisture content. Then, the grains were naturally dried to 15.5 %. In fall season 2015 , varietal trail was carried out with the five treatment materials , using Randomized Complete Bock Design , with four replicates . The results revealed significant differences among treatments for all the studied traits . The highest number of grains (614 grains ear-1) and (4224 grains m-2), were produced from plants grown from seeds with (25-28)%, which significantly differs from other treatments . The highest grain weight ( 266 mg), grain yield (159.46 g.plant-1) and ( 10.70 t.ha-1) , were produced from the plants at the moisture content (19-22)% . It could be conclude , that the suitable corn grain moisture harvest for production seeds for next generation are (19-22)% .


Article
SEED YIELD AND ITS COMPONENTS OF ALFALFA AS INFLUENCED BY SULFUR AND LAST CUTTING DATE

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A field study was conducted at the experimental farm, Coll. of Agric., Abu-Ghraib, Baghdad, Iraq during the period from mid of march 2013 to end of August 2014 to investigate the effect of different levels of sulfur (0, 1, 2 and 3 ton. ha-1) and three dates of last cutting (1, 10th and 20th,May 2014)_ on seed yield and it’s components of alfalfa local cultivar, Layout of the experiment was R.C.B.D. arranged in split –plots with three replications. Sulfur levels were used as main plot and the time when last cutting occurs was sub-plot. Results, showed that addition of sulfur at level more than 1 ton.ha-1 (2, 3 ton ha-1) resulted in a significant increasment in the No. of seeds per pod, No. of pods per raceme, No. of racemes per stem, No. of stems per m-2 and seed yield kg.ha-1. While, No. of ovules per floret, % of ovules abortion and 1000 seed weight were not significantly influenced by sulfur levels. Highest seed yield (579.4 Kg ha-1) was obtained when sulfur added at level 2 ton ha-1. Plants, when last cutting occurred on 10th of May produced highest No. of pods per raceme, No. of stems per m-2 and seed yield (530.8 Kg h-1). There were no significant effect of last cutting date on, No. of ovules per floret, No. of seed per pod, % of abortion and 1000 seed weight. There were high positive correlation between seed yield and each of No. of seeds per pods, No. of pods per raceme and No. racemes per stem (+0.880, +0.918 and +0.920) respectively. This result suggests that yield components may be good selection criteria for breeding seed yield of alfalfa cultivars. High seed yield can be obtained from stands received 2 ton ha-1 and last cutting occurred on 10th May.


Article
EFFECT OF GRINDED OLIVE LEAVE SSUPLIMENTATION IN MILK PRODUCTION AND ITS COMPONENTS AND SOME BLOOD TRAITS IN NATIVE DOES.
تاثير إضافة ورق الزيتون المطحون إلى العليقة في إنتاج الحليب ومكوناته وبعض صفات الدم لدى إناث الماعز المحلي

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The present study was carried out at the Animal Farm College of Veterinary Medicine University of Baghdad during the period from 20/4/2015 to1/6/2015. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of olive leaves (grinded) supplementation to diet on milk yield, composition and some blood biochemical parameters.Ten local lactating goats and its mean initial live body weight41.38± 0.46 kg, and 2-3.5 years old were allocated according to their body weight and milk yield into two groups (5does/group). The first one (G1) was control, the second (G2) fed on diet with 2% olive leaves powder (of diet weight). The animals in both groups were fed the experimental diets 2 % DM of live body weight plus alfalfa hay (1 kg / head/day). Results showed the olive leaves powder supplementation had no significant effect on the average body weight in the end of experiment, while the milk production was significantly (P<0.05)increased in (G2) being 13.68 kg/Doe compared with 10.76 kg/Doe(G1), milk compositions (lactose. protein and fat percentage) and milk energy value did not significantly different between (G1) and (G2).Moreover blood biochemical parameters did not different in both groups. It can be concluded that olive leaves powder exerted have beneficial effects on the performance of lactating goats and no effect on blood biochemical parameters.

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