Table of content

The Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Science

مجلة العلوم الزراعية العراقية

ISSN: ISSN:00750530 / EISSN:24100862
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Agriculture
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi Journal of Agricultural science (TIJAS) was established in 1966 in the college of Agriculture – University of Baghdad. It was published with two issues each volume. In 2000, TIJAS started with six issues each volume till now . In this year the volume number of TIJAS is (47). TIJAS covers papers in plant & animal sciences, besides, Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Extension, Agricultural Mechanization and basic sciences, such as Chemistry and Physics Related to light, heat, water and winds. Each volume includes around 75 articles, about 20-25 article/ issue depending on a reliable accepted paper for publication.

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tijasub@yahoo.com
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009647804541817
009647512748875
address:
college of Agric. / Univ. of Baghdad
Al Jadreah, Baghdad, Iraq

Table of content: 2016 volume:47 issue:6

Article
SINGLE HYBRIDS OF OKRA FOR PROTECTED CULTIVATION BY FULL DIALLEL CROSSES AND ESTIMATION OF SOME GENETIC PARAMETERS
هجن فردية من الباميا للزراعة المحمية بالتضريب التبادلي الكامل وتقدير بعض المعالم الوراثية

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Field experiment was conducted during 2015 spring season on Okra(Abelmoschus esculentus L.Moench) grown under protected cultivation in the Research and Studies Department - Horticulture Office at Abu Ghraib, to study combining ability and some genetic parameters. Six pure lines ( S1 , S2, , S3 , S4 , S5 , S6 ) were crosses using full diallel crosses. The crosses , parents and hybrid H-597 compared , using RCBD, with tow replicates . Results showed that the promise hybrid in the yield per plant and pods number and the number of flowers was S1 × S3, followed by hybrids S3 × S6 and S5 × S3. The gene action for number of flowers and number of pods in diallel and reciprocal hybrids and the early flowering and yield per plant in diallel hybrid was non additive .pod weight in the diallel and reciprocal early flowering and yield per plants in the reciprocal hybrid from additive one . The broad sense heritability was high for all the studied traits, while the narrow sense heritability were highest for the early flowering, pods number, weight of pods and yield per plant in reciprocal and low in diallel hybrids . The pure lines S1, S3 , S5 had highest general combining ability, while the crosses S1 × S3 , S3 × S6 and S5 × S3 gave the highest specific combining ability, producing the highest plant yield with 553.25, 536.90 and 536.80 g.plant-1, respectively.


Article
THE ROLE OF ELECTRIC SHOCK IN IMPROVEMENT OF SOME OKRA TRAITS AND TESTED UNDER PROTECTED CULTIVATION CONDITIONS
دور الصعق الكهربائي في تحسين بعض الصفات في الباميا واختبارها تحت ظروف الزراعة المحمية

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This experiment Carried out at the Dept. of Research and Studies– office of Horticulture- Ministry of Agriculture at Abu Ghraib, for two seasons in 2014 and 2015. The objective of the experiment to stady the effect of electric shocks on some okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench) traits study. Six pure lines (S1 , S2, , S3 , S4 , S5 , S6) were attached with four levels of electric shock (0, 9, 12 and 15 amp for 5 minutes) The 24 treatments were planted according to the RCBD with tow replicates to produce plants of the first generation on which the selection is to get the seeds of the second generation. A factorial experiment within RCBD with three replicates, were used in the plastic house. The results revealed that the electric current for the second season improved most of the traits vegetative and flowering growth okra plants, The treatment S3A15 was superion in traits, leaves number and flowers number and pods number and yield per plant, which were(117.10 leave and 122.60 Flower and 98.17 Pod and 519.87 g), while S4A15 treatment gave the highest plant height, days number of the appearance for first flower and days number for the first fruit setting, which were (175.13 cm and 87.66 days and 89 days). S1A15 treatment has given the highest value of fruit set percentage, which were 84.60, while S6A15 gave the highest pod weight 6.50 g, also S5A15 produced highest value of seeds number in pods (70 seed). S1A12 gave the highest leaves number before the first flower was 2.90 leave, Results revealed that the seed treatment with electric shock improved some field traits in okra.


Article
EFFECT OF POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL AND SALICYLIC ACID ON SOME VEGETATIVE GROWTH TRAITS OF DATE PALM TISSUE CULTURE DERIVED PLANTS
تأثير الكلايكول متعدد الأثيلين وحامض السالسيليك في بعض صفات النمو الخضري لشتلات النخيل النسيجية

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This research was conducted in the greenhouse of Al-Rabee Research Station of the Department of Horticulture, Ministry of Agriculture for the 2011-2012 season in order to examine the effect of foliar application of various combinations of polyethylene glycol and salicylic acid levels on some vegetative growth traits of date palm tissue cultured derived plants.The concentrations of polyethylene (zero, 20 and 40 mg.L-1) and salicylic acid (zero, 50 and 100mg.L-1). The experiment carried out using randomized complete design and factorial in three replications. The results showed that increasing the concentration of polyethylene led to increased paperwork content of chlorophyll B and the total and received an increase the nitrogen percentage in the papers. The impact of the concentration of acid, salicylic has said the results of a significant increase in chlorophyll, A, B and macro as well as an increase in the percentage of dry matter and an increase in the percentage of nitrogen in securities The impact of interaction between the polyethylene acid, salicylic, the results showed that there was a significant increase in most the traits in study.


Article
INFLUENCE OF CYTOKININS AND SUCROSE CONCENTRATIONS ON BULBLET CHARACTERS OF IN VITRO HIPPEASTRUM HYBRIDUM
تأثير تراكيز السايتوكاينينات والسكروز في مواصفات البصيلات لنبات الـ Hippeastrum hybridum المتكونة خارج الجسم الحي

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The First Part of this study was conducted at the Plant Tissue Culture Lab at the College of Science, University of Nahrain from October 2014 to February,2015. and completed at the Plant Tissue Culture Lab at the College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad From February 2015 to September 2015. Examine the possibility of using the tissue culture technique in the propagation of Hippeastrum hybridum.plantlets were resulted from leaves induced plant lets moved to new MS media supplemented with BA and Kin at 2.0, 1.0, 0.5, 0.0 mg.liter-1 individually or in combination and with or without NAA at 0.5, 0.3, 0.1, 0.0 mg.liter-1 to enhance shoot proliferation. Transferred shoot from the best proliferation- enhance to stage bulbs formation, MS media supplemented with BA at 6.0, 3.0, 1.5, 0.0 0 mg.liter-1 in addition to sucrose at 90, 60, 300 g.liter-1 with the present of NAA at 0.1 mg.liter-1 to increase bulbs formation, weight, and diameter .Result showed that the best shoot proliferation media was MS supplemented with 1.0 mg.liter-1 BA and 0.3 mg.liter-1 NAA which resulted in 8.30 shoots.plant-1. As for bulbs formation, the results exhibited that MS media supplemented with 6.0 mg.liter-1 BA and 90 g.liter-1 sucrose with the existence of 0.10 mg.liter-1 NAA gave the highest bulbs formation percentage, diameter, and both fresh and dry weight which were 3 bulbs.explant-1, 0.98 cm, and 1.04 and 0.25 g, respectively.


Article
STUDY THE EFFECT OF CYTOKININS AND AUXINS IN THE COMPOSITION AND PRODUCTION OF IN VITRO PLANTLETS HIPPEASTRUM HYBRIDUM
دراسة تأثير السايتوكاينينات والاوكسينات في تكوين وانتاج نبيتات الـ Hippeastrum hybridum خارج الجسم الحي

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The First Part of this study was conducted in the Plant Tissue Culture Lab at the College of Science, University of Nahrain from October 2014 to February,2015. The experiment was then completed in the Plant Tissue Culture Lab at the College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad From February 2015 to September 2015. Examine the possibility of using the tissue culture technique in the propagation of Hippeastrum hybridum. Explants (Bulbs, Leaves) had been sterilized using four different NaOCL concentrations: % 4.0, 2.0, 1.0, 0.0. After sterilization, explants were cultured on MS media supplemented with BA at four concentrations (2.0, 1.0, 0.5, 0.0 mg.liter-1) and NAA at four concentrations (0.5, 0.3, 0.1, 0. 0 mg.liter-1) to obtain plantlets. Afterwards, plantlets were moved to new MS media supplemented with BA (2.0, 1.0, 0.5, 0.0 mg.liter-1) and with or without four concentrations of NAA (0.5, 0.3, 0.1, 0.0 mg.liter-1) to enhance shoot proliferation. The resulted shoots from the best proliferation-enhance media were divided into two parts the first part was transferred to root-promoting media which also included two experiments where the first experiment was by transferring the shoots to MS media (half and full strength) supplemented with NAA at four concentrations (0.5, 0.3, 0.1, and 0.0 mg.liter-1). The second experiment included the best resulted shoots from the first experiment in addition to (0 and 2 mg.liter-1) actived charcoal to increase root percentage, root count, and root length.The resulted plants were acclimatized using peatmoss/soli mixture at the ratio of 1:1, 2:1, and 1:2 to obtain high surviving ratio. Results showed that the best explant(Bulbs, Leaves) was soaking in 3% NaOCl for 10 min. the results also showed that the leaves gave best response 90% when using MS media supplemented with 1.0 mg.liter-1 BA and 0.3 mg.liter-1 NAA when compared with the bulbs that showed low response profile. Furthermore, the best shoot proliferation media was MS supplemented with 1.0 mg.liter-1 BA and 0.3 mg.liter-1 NAA which resulted in 8.30 shoots.plant-1. The best rooting percentage was obtained when culturing the shoots in half strength MS media supplemented with 0.5 mg.liter-1 NAA with the existence of activated charcoal. The surviving percentage reached 95% when using the previously mentionedpeatmoss-soil/mixtures.


Article
EFFECT OF BIOFERTILIZER PRODUCED FROM LOCALISOLATES OF PSEUDOMONAS PUTIDA AND PSEUDOMONAS FLUORESCENS BACTERIA ON SOME SOIL CHARACTERISTICS AND YIELD OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L( A- YIELD COMPONENTS
تأثيــــر السمــــاد الحــــــيوي المنتــــج من عـــــــزلات مَحَليــــــــــة مِن بكتــــــــــــــريا Pseudomonas putida وPseudomonas flourescens في بعض صفات التربة وحاصل الحنطة (.Triticum aestivum L) أ- بعض مكونات الحاصل

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Field experiment was conducted using randomized complete block design with three replicates to evaluate the effect of biofertilizer of Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas fluorescens seperatally or together with peatmoss or bentonite as carriers in interaction with four mineral fertilizer levels zero, 25%, 50%, and 75% of the recommended level on the growth and yield of wheat (Alrasheed varity). Tow control treatments were used, the first included no addition of biofertilizer and mineral fertilizer and the second included the addition of the recommended level (100%) of mineral fertilizer. The highest value of grain yield was achieved with the treatment of mixed bacterial isolates with an increment mineral fertilizer which to 5.75 Mgha-1 which increased 41.7% compared to first control treatment and 0.9% over the second control treatment. The highest biological yield was achieved mixed bacterial culture with bentonite and 75% of the recommended level of mineral fertilizer giving 16.20 Mgha-1 with an increment of 18.8% compared to first control treatment and 11.2% over the second control treatment. The weight of 1000 grain was 47.43g which increased by 21% over the first control treatment and7.4% over the second control treatment with the treatment that include the addition of Pseudomonas fluorescens with bentonite and 50% of the recommended level of mineral fertilizer.


Article
EFFECT OF BIOFERTILLIZER PRODUCED FROM LOCAL ISOLATES OF Pseudomonas putida AND Pseudomonas fluorescens ON SOME SOIL CHARACTERISTICS AND YIELD OF WHEAT (Triticum aestivum L) B -CONCENTRATIONS OF SOME NUTRIENTS IN SOIL
تأثير السماد الحيوي المنتج من عُزلات مَحَلية مِن بكتريا Pseudomonas putida و Pseudomonas flourescens في بعض صفات التربة ومحصول الحنطة (. Triticum aestivum L ) ب- تركيز بعض المغذيات في التربة

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Field experiment was conducted by using randomized complete block design with three replicates to evaluate the effect of biofertilizer of Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas fluorescens alone or together with peatmoss or bentonite as carriers interacted with four mineral fertilizer levels (zero , 25% , 50% , and 75%) of the recommended level on the growth and yield of wheat (Alrasheed varity) , tow control treatments were used ,the first with out of biofertilizer and mineral fertilizer and the second included the addition of the recommended level (100%) of mineral fertilizer Significant ,effect of the addition of biofertilizer supplemented with mineral fertilizer for concentrations N,P,K,Fe and Zn , the N was 59.63mg.N.Kg-1 soil in B2C1M2 which increased by 322.9% over the first control treatment, 49.33 63mg.P.Kg-1 soil in B1C2M3 which increased by 252.3% over the first control treatment , 295mg.K.Kg-1 soil in B3C2M3 which increased by 118.5% over the first control treatment, 10.07mg.Fe.Kg-1 soil in B2C1M0 which increased by 108.4% over the first control treatment, 1.6163mg.Zn.Kg-1 soil in B1C2M2 which increased by 108.4% over the first control treatment .


Article
EFFECT OF THE RESIUDAL OF SULFUR IN SOIL AND APPLICATION OF N,P,K FERTILIZERS ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF BREAD WHEAT
تأثير المتبقي من الكبريت في التربة وأضافة الاسمدة النايتروجينية والفوسفاتية والبوتاسية في نمو وحاصل حنطة الخبز

Authors: N. H. Zeboon نجاة حسين زبون
Pages: 1423-1432
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A field experiment was conducted at the fields of field Crops Dept.- Coll. of Agric.Univ. of Baghdad during winter season 2012 – 2013 . The objective of this experiment was to know the effect of the residual on of sulfur in soil and NPK fertilizers on some growth, yield components and grain yield of bread wheat Triticum aestivum L. , variety Abu – Ghraib 3. This experiment carried out , using factorial experiment within Randomized Complete Block Design with three replicats . The first variable, influence of sulfur residual from last season (0 ,2 ,4 ,6) Mg. ha-1 . The second variable, was the same quantity from NPK , which added last season and half of this quantity of the last season from NPK . The results revealed , that the residual sulfur effected significantly on some growth and yield component. The sulfer level 2 Mg ha-1 produced highest grain yield (8.494 Mg. ha-1) and biological yield (31.11 Mg. ha-1) .Using half quantity of NPK effected on some yield components but didn,t effect on grain yield and biological yield . It can be concluded that wheat plants could be useable from agriculture sulfur, which added to the wheat field at the last season with level of 2 Mg. ha-1.


Article
EFFECT OF KINTEIN AND SALICYLIC ACID ON CARRYFFLOWER (Carthamus tinctorius L.) TOLERENCG WATER-STRESS
تأثير الكاينتين وحامض السالسيلك في تحمل العصفر(Carthamus tinctoriusL.) للإجهاد الرطوبي

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This experiment was carried out at the plant garden -Science Dep. of Sciences College of Basic Education, Almustansriyah Univ. the objective was to study the effect of Kinetin and Salicylic acid at two growth stages, using split–split plot design with three replicates .Irrigative treatment (every 3,6,9 weeks) .and main plots , plant regulators (control, Kinetin spray and Salicylic acid spray ) as sub plots, while,growth regulator spray stages(tillring initiation, flowers budinitiation sub-sub plots The results were revealed, The Plants which irrigated every 3 and 6 weeks look longer time from 100% flowering to physiological watering(66.67 , 68.22 days)highest number of heads.plants-1 ( 45 .00 ,38.56 heads.Plant-1.Theplants which irrigated every 6 weeks produced highest seed yield( 3159.17 kg .ha-1) harvest index(51.57%) oil percent(37.63).The plants sprayed salicylic acid produc ed highest, plant highest, biological yield ,water use efficiency .The results were revealed possibility of Kinetin spraying during the vegetative growth and Salicylic acid during fertilization stage , helpstoincrease seed yield and oil percent.


Article
GENETIC ANALYSIS OF COMBINING ABILITY AND GENE ACTION FOR DOUBLE CROSS HYBRIDS IN MAIZE USING RAWLINGS AND COCKERHAM METHOD
التحليل الوراثي لقابلية الائتلاف والفعل الجيني للهجن الزوجية في الذرة الصفراء باستخدام طريقة Rawlings و Cockerham

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Six inbred lines (Syn-1, MGW-3, S-165, Syn-22, Zm-9, M-17) of maize (Zea mays L.) were used in this study using half diallel cross and developed 15 F1 single crosses . The single crosses were crossed a ccording to Rawllings and Cookerham method and developed 45 double crosses . Seeds of double crosses were cultivated to study combining ability and gene action of the parent. The results showed highly sinificant differences for mean square of double crosses and for the some traits . The double crosses (Syn-1* ZM-9)(MGW-3 * M-17) , (Syn-1 * ZM-9)(S-165 * Syn-22) , (MGW-3 *M17)(S-165 *Syn-22) , (Syn-1 *S-165)(MGW-3*Syn-22) (Syn-1 *S-165)(ZM-9* M17) and (MGW-3 * Syn-22)(ZM-9 *M-17) revealed highest specific combining ability effects for leaf area , number grains.ear-1and grain yield gms.plant-1 . All characters were under the epistatic gene effect with type of gene action (Dominance * Dominance) except leaf area was under the type of gene action (Additive*Dominance).


Article
EFFECT OF LACTOFERRIN ADDITION TO THE SEMEN OF AWASSI RAMS ON SOME PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SPERMS
تأثير أضافة اللاكتوفيرين في مخففات السائل المنوي للكباش العواسية في بعض الصفات الفيزياوية للنطف

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This experiment was conducted at the Animal Production Department farm to the College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad, located at Jadreya during the period of 21 September 2015 to 24 February 2016 using Four Awasi rams aged 2-4 years and the average weight was 52 kg. Semen collection from rams was done twice weekly by using the artificial vagina to study the effect of using the lactoferrin protein as a replacement by the antibiotic in the semen for controlling the contamination of bacteria in the semen. Four treated groups were used, the control (normal antibiotic Streptomycin 100 mg100ml Penicillin 100.000 IU / 100ml) , second ,third and fourth treatment groups was used a lactoferrin protein with the contamination of 400, 800 and 1200 mg L-1 , respectively . All additions of the antibiotic and lactoferrin were done to the semen after dilution. Semen from all rams was pooled and the final volume was divided by four parts to groups .The semen diluent was kept at the refrigerator 5 C for 5 days, and every day the physical characteristic was done which included. The individual motility, dead and abnormal sperm, concentration of sperm, mass activity, integrity of the plasma membrane (HOST %) The results showed that: the individual motility of sperm was significantly increased) for all treated groups on the second, third, fourth and the fifth day of semen preservation. No significant difference in the percentage of live sperm as a result of adding lactoferrin to the semen. There were no significant increase) in the hyper osmotic sperm test (HOST%) between the control and treatment groups. The abnormality of sperm did not differ between the control and the treated groups.


Article
EFFECT OF LACTOFERRIN ADDTION TO SEMEN OF AWASSI RAMS ON THE BACTERIAL CONTAMINATION
تأثير أضافة اللاكتوفيرين الى مخفف السائل المنوي للكباش العواسية في التلوث الجرثومي

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This study was conducted at the farm of Animal production, College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad, Algaderia to know the effect of lactoferrin protein addition in the semen extender of Awassi during the period from 21 September 2015 to 24 February 2016 on Four Awasi rams aged 2-4 years and the average weight was 52 kg were used in this study . Semen collection from rams was done twice weekly by using the artificial vagina then it's were pooled and divided in to four treated groups, the control (normal antibiotic Streptomycin 100 mg100ml Penicillin 100.000 IU / 100ml) , second ,third and fourth treated groups was used a lactoferrin protein with the contamination of 400 , 800 and 1200 mg L-1, respectively .After dilution the semen samples have been kept at the refrigerator (5 C) for 5 days to measure some physical properties of sperm which included the acrosome integrity and some bacteriological examination (type and number) .Data obtained from this experiment showed that there was no significant difference (p≥0.05) in the acrosome integrity of sperm between the control and treated groups (2,3 and 4) which were decrease the most types of bacteria in the semen samples , where as the type of bacteria in group 2 were sphingomonas and Stenotrophomonas and in groups 3 and 4 were Klebsiella, Proteus, Cupriavidus, while there were six types of bacteria in the control group (Escherichia, Klebsiella, Staphylococcus, Salmonella, Enterobacter , and Staphylococcus epidermidis ) . It was concluded that the use of lactoferrin in the semen causing adecrease in the total number of bacteria in the semen.


Article
EFFECT OF SUPPLEMENTATION WITH DRIED DILL POWDER (ANETHUM GRANVEOLENS L.) IN DIET ON SOME BLOOD CHARACTERISTICS OF BROILED CHICKENS
تأثير اضافة مسحوق الشبنت المجفف (L. Anethum graveolens ) الى العليقة في بعض صفات مصل الدم لفروج اللحم

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This study was conducted to investigate the effect of supplementation different levels of dried dill powder with diet on some physiological characteristics of broiler chickens. 336 chicks, day-old 46 gm weight /chick. Birds were randomly distributed into four treatment groups with three replicates per treatment (28 bird/replicate).Treatments were as follow:T1: control group (without any addition) T2, T3 and T4 adding dried dill powder at levels 0.4 ,0.6, 0.8% respectively. Experiment lasted five weeks, which at the end measurements of protein, glucose, albumin, uric acid, cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) in blood serum were done. The results showed a significant (p<0.05) increase in protein and HDL levels in blood serum of dill treatments compared to control group. While ,albumin and triglycerides levels were not affected by supplementing the dried dill powder, whereas a significant decrease (p<0.05) in levels of serum glucose, uric acid, cholesterol, LDL and VLDL in T2, T3 and T4. It can be concluded from this study that supplementation of dried dill powder to broiler diets led to an improvement of lipoprotein blood serum characteristics.


Article
MEASURING THE TECHNICAL EFFICIENCY AND THE RATE OF CHANGE IN THE TFP FOR FARMS RAIN-FED WHEAT IN THE REGION IN LIGHT OF DIFFERING SIZE AREA
قياس الكفاءة الفنية ومعدل التغير في الانتاجية الكلية لمزارع القمح في المنطقة الديمية في ظل تباين فئات المساحة لمحافظة السليمانية انموذجا تطبيقيا

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This study deals with the subject of measuring the impact of variation of wheat planted area categories in the region rain-fed on the technical efficiency and the rate of change in( TFPch),The basic preliminary data was obtained from field resources by relying on a stratified random sample of wheat farmers in Sulaimaniyah region including 225 farms production during 2013-2014 season , It has been measurement of technical and Scale efficiency in light of change and stability of the total revenue according to the production function variables using (Area ,the amount of seeds ,compound fertilizer, urea fertilizer , pesticides , machinery work , manual work ) it turns out that the average technical efficiency for the first, second ,third ,forth ,and fifth class of the cultivated areas reached around( 82% , 76% ,70%, 53%,and 72 %) respectively recording a total average of 72% for the farms included in the studied sample . The numbers of farms achieving the optimum technical efficiency were (25, 3, 11, 21 and 15) for the five categories respectively.As far as the change in the total factor productivity (TFPch)in the farms subject to the study (using the Malmquist index of productivity) the result has indicated that the change in total production stood at an average of 1.39 , and the farms in which a positive change in the total factor productivity (TFPch) was 92 farms representing 41% of the total number of the farms included in the study , a negative (TFPch) was recorded in 83 farms representing 37% of the total number of the farms included in the study .


Article
EFFECT OF VARIATION IN THE MEASUREMENT OF SPACE CATEGORIES OF WHEAT FARMS IN SULAYMANIYAH WHEAT ON THE LEVEL OF ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY AND ESTIMATE THE SIZE OF THE EFFICIENCY ACHIEVED OPTIMAL RESOURCES.
قياس اثر تباين فئات المساحة المحصودة لمزارع القمح في محافظة السليمانية على مستوى الكفاءة الاقتصادية وتقدير حجم الموارد المحققة للكفاءة المثلى

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The wheat crop of the most important strategic food grain crops as it's source of food for more than (35%) of the world's population, particularly in third world countries from which Iraq.. This study deals with the subject of measuring the economic efficiency of rain-fed farms wheat in the region in order to identify the most important factors affecting the level of efficiency, in addition to estimating the size of the resources generated economic efficiency overall. It was obtained preliminary data from field sources by relying on a stratified random sample of wheat farmers included (225) farm productive season (2013-2014) in the province of Sulaymaniyah. It has been measuring the Total economical efficiency in accordance to the cost function parameters . It was found that the average of the price efficiency for each of the five categories was 74%, 60%, 58%, 63%, and 68% respectively giving a general average of 64%. In addition to that the measured economical efficiency of the five categories of the wheat cultivated farms 60%, 42%, 35%, 30%, and 47% respectively with an average of 44%. The size of the resources achieving the economical efficiency has been calculated and when subjected to comparison, it appears that there is a surplus in all the resources used.


Article
ESTIMATING FUNCTION SUPPLY FOR RED MEAT IN IRAQ FOR THE PERIOD 1995-2013
تقدير دالة عرض اللحوم الحمراء في العراق للمدة (2013-1995)

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Red meat production is an essential and important in the amount of livestock production part and contribute to livestock about 22% of the value of agricultural production, except fish in Iraq over the medium term from 2013 to 2009,The red meat and meat products of are consider good foods with a high nutritional value because they contain vitamins, proteins, fats and minerals .So it requires such a study to estimate the function supply red meat to a statement most influential variables in the supply quantity of red meat during the period 1995-2013 It is clear from the results that the rise in red meat prices by 1% leads to increase the quantity supplied of red meat increased by 0.403%, while the increase of chicken meat prices by 1% leads to a decline in the quantity supplied of red meat increased by 0.327%, while increasing the number of animals by 1 % leads to increase the quantity supplied of red meat increased by 23.267%, while the increase of imported red meat quantity of 1% lead to a decline in the quantity supplied of red meat increased by 0.007 and through the price elasticity of supply became clear that the display of red meat is flexible and elastic modulus less than the one . Through flexibility Cross turned out to be chicken meat is the alternative to red meat. Finally, the study included a number of conclusions and recommendations of the most important: by measuring the consumption growth rate of 10% and the rate of production growth of 7% and it can be concluded that production covers a large part of consumption. The study recommended that there is a gap between the production and import recommenddirect loans to invest in the livestock sector.


Article
STUDYING THE FACTORS EFFECTING THE PRODUCTION OF OKRA PROTEIN CONCENTRATE AND ISOLATE AND THEIR THERMAL PROPERTIES
دراسة العوامل المؤثرة في انتاج مركز ومعزول بروتين الباميا ودراسة خواصه الحرارية

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The current study was included the use of okra seeds (Abelmoschus esculentus) for preparation of Defatted Okra Powder (DOP), Okra Protein Concentrate (OPC) and Okra Protein Isolate (OPI). Three methods were used to identify the best one for protein concentrate preparation . The concentrate with 72.1% protein was prepared by removal of seed peel, ground, defatting and treated with ethanol. The optimum conditions for protein isolate preparation were 1:40 (water: DOP), extraction time of 75 minutes, extraction pH 9.0 and the precipitation pH was 4.0. This study also investigated the chemical composition to products that were 50.8,72.1,91.2% protein ,0.88,0.86,0.32 % fat ,8.45,9.94,2.67% ash and 35.23,12.37,3.26% carbohydrates For each of DOP ,OPC and OPI respectively. The amount of energy required for protein denaturation were 1.193, 0.5325, 0.236 J / g for DOP, OPC and OPI respectively.


Article
EVALUATION THE PERFORMANCE OF DEVELOPED MOLDBOARD PLOW AND It's EFFECT ON SOME PERFORMANCE INDICATORS OF THE MECHINERY UNIT
تقييم أداء المحراث المطرحي المطور وأثره في بعض مؤشرات الاداء للوحدة الميكنية

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A field experiment was conducted in Alshakha area in Alexandria region in 2013, which lies 50 km south of Baghdad province, in order to evaluate the performance of the modified moldboard plow and its effect on some technical indicators of machinery unit percentage of slip, pulling power practice productivity and the size of disturbed soil. complete randomized block design and split plot design was used tillage depth included 15, 20 and 25 cm, levels with machinery speed included 2.6 and 3.6 km / h which represented sub plot ,were shaded in this study. The result were shoved that the lowest percentage of slippage and less pulling power and less a matter of the size of the soil and the highest productivity process when tillage depth of 15 cm, was obtained to less percentage slip and less pulling power when tug speed of 2.6 km / h. The overlap between the plowing depth of 15 cm and tug speed 2.6 km / h to obtain the lowest percentage of slippage and less strength and less drag size of the soil raised.


Article
EFFECT OF BACTERIAL BIOFERTILIZER AND COMPOST ON THE GROWTH OF TOMATO PLANT
تأثير السماد الحيوي البكتيري والكمبوست في نمو نبات الطماطة

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A pot experiment was conducted at Baghdad site for organic fertilizer preparation Plant Protection Directorate during summer of 2014-2015, using sandy Loam texture soil to study the effect of bacterial bio-fertilizer ( Azotobacter chroococcum and Pseudomonas fluorescens ) and Compost on growth and nutrients content of tomato plants "Super queen". Eight treatments were used included (Control , Azotobacter , pseudomonas, Azotobacter+ psuedomonas , Compost , Azotobacter + Compost , Compost+ psuedomonas , Azotobacter + psuedomonas + Compost). Complete Randomized Design ( CRD ) with 5 replicates was used. Results showed that application of di bacterial bio-fertilizer (AP) increased significantly dry mater weight and N , P , K nutrients content for shoots with an increment of 36.4%,74.4%,76.0% and 64.9% respectively compared to control. Results showed that application of di bacterial bio-fertilizer (AP) and compost increased significantly dry matter weight and N , P , K nutrients content for shoot with increment percentage of 95.3% 239.3% , 219.2% and 266.8% respectively compared to control.


Article
THE INPUT AGRICULTURAL INITIATION IN IMPROVEMENT RURAL WOMAN REALITY IN PROVINCES BABYLON AND HOLY KARBALA
مساهمة المبادرة الزراعية في تحسين واقع المرأة الريفية في محافظتي بابل وكربلاء المقدسة

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The aim of this research is to identify agricultural loans reality of rural woman in the field Agricultural Initiation in Babylon, Holy Karbala for the period 2010- 2014 and level Benefit from it; and to determine problems of rural woman Borrowers. Data were collected from 100 rural woman Borrowers was about 14.3 from 700 rural woman during 25- 2-2015 unite l0- 4-2015 through questionnaire and interview. The four dimensional standard has been used to measure the degree of Benefit from it of rural woman from Agricultural Initiation, That included 22articlesd distributed on5 axes. The results showed that Averages of agricultural loans in 2010- 2014 is 4.85 M.ID /year. The results also showed weighted arithmetic mean for problems of rural woman (1.36-4) degree on weight percentile (34-100)%. and Satisfaction level of Benefit from agricultural loans is A small group The research recommends Activating the Monitoring and evaluation System of Program Agricultural Initiation.


Article
EFFECT OF ZINC ELEMENT AND DEXAMETHASONE ON SOME HEMATOLOGICAL BIOCHEMICAL TESTS IN RABBITS MALE
تاثير عنصر الزنك والديكساميثازون في بعض الفحوصات الدمية والكيموحيوية في ذكورالارانب

Authors: D. S. Dheyab دينا سعدون ذياب
Pages: 1541-1548
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Abstract

This study was conducted to investigate the effect of zinc in dose 15mg/kg.bw daily taken by the mouth and dexamethasone 4mgIkg.Bw by injection for 30days on some hematological biochemical tests and some histological changes of liver spleen in male rabbits. Thirty rabbits were used that divided into 3 randomized groups (each group contain 10 male rabbits ). Control group was taken normal food and water, Zinc group that gave zinc at dose of 15mg/kg.BW/daily/oral on 1, 2, 3, 4 weeks. Dexamethasone with zinc group : Employ dexamethasone 4mg/Kg.Bw . I.M dialy for 1 and 2 weeks for experiment and at 3, 4th weeks they gave zn 15mg/lKg.Bw day/orally. Blood samples were taken from the heart directly in 2 and 4weeks to examine packed cell volume (pcv), white blood cells (WBCs), Red blood cells (RBCs) with differential Leuckcyte count.separation blood collection to plasma and examine glucose mg/dl , cholesterol mg/dl. In histological tests, rabbits were killed and separate their organs tissue from the body to examine liver and spleen. The results revealed a decrease in level of RBCs, pcv after treatment with zinc 15, mg/Kg.Bw orally (zinc group) and increase in WBCs with differential leuckocyte count specially neutrophil cell, while biochemical tests show increase in glucose and cholesterol levels after treatment with dexamethasone 4mglkgBw. I/M seen increase in counts of RBCs , PCV, WBCs and differential lenkocyte count and decrease in glucose with cholesterol parameters, histological changes show change in liver after treatment by dexamethasone 4mglKg.Bw ,spleen tissue seen necrosis and pigmentation with hemorrhage after take dexamethasone 4mglkg in (dexamethasone + zinc group). Results also showed that zinc enhanced the immune system in at normal dose for limited time because of its effect on other mineral such as copper and causes anemia , while the dexamethasone is a drug used for antianflammatory but for a short time.


Article
EFFECT OF GREEN TEA EXTRACT ON INJURED LIVER INDUCED BY ACETAAMINOPHEN IN RABBITS ADULT MALE
تأثير مستخلص ألشاي الأخضر على ألتلف الكبدي ألمستحدث بالأست امينوفين في ذكور الأرانب البالغة

Authors: S. K.Mashi سوسن كاظم ماشي
Pages: 1549-1555
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Green tea is consider as a natural sources of antioxidants used to treat pathological changes occurring as a result of using of many drugs particularly in the liver tissue. Forty adult male rabbits were randomly divided into four groups (10 rabbits /group) and were treated daily for 30 days as follows: first group (c): is the control group , second group (T1) : rabbits in this group were allowed to ad libitum supply of drinking water containing 2.5 gm /kg b.w of green tea extract , Third group (T2): rabbits in this group received 500 mg/kg b.w. of acetaminophen orally, fourth group (T3) : rabbits in this group were allowed to ad libitum supply of drinking water containing 2.5 gm /kg b.w. of green tea extract and received 500mg/kg b.w. of Acetaminophen orally. blood samples were collected for measuring the liver enzymes, cholesterol and triglyceride in blood serum at 15 and 30 days of experience. The results of this study revealed that oral intubation of acetaminophen for 30 days caused hepatic dysfunction manifested by a significant elevation(P<0.05) in the serum AST,ALT ALP cholesterol and triglyceride while the animals received GTE with acetaminophen (T3) for 30 days showed a considerable decrease(P<0.05) in serum AST, ALT,ALP, cholesterol and triglyceride levels. The histological section showed pathological changes in the liver tissue in (T2) group while giving green tea with acetaminophen was effective in modified these changes into semi normal.


Article
EFFECT OF POTASSIUM AND ASCORBIC ACID ON GROWTH, YIELD AND QUALITY OF OLIVE CV. KHADRAWI
تاثير البوتاسيوم وحامض الاسكوربك على نمو وحاصل ونوعية الزيتون صنف خضراوي

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This study was carried out in a private olive orchard located near kasara village, Duhok governorate, Kurdistan region, Iraq, during growing season 2014 in order to study the effect of spraying olive tree 8 years old with three concentration of potassium fertilizer as potassium sulfate (0, 5 and 10 g.l-1) and three concentration of ascorbic acid (0, 200 and 400 mg.l-1). The spraying of both potassium and ascorbic acid carried out twice per season, first two week after growth began, second month later. Results indicate that spraying potassium at 10g.l-1 significantly increased leaf area, leaf dry weight, chlorophyll content, fruit weight, fruit flesh weight and fruits quality include fruit length, fruit width and TSS %. Ascorbic acid at 400mg.l-1 significantly increased all vegetative growth, physical and chemical fruits properties except seed weight and TSS %. Maximum values (38.77cm2, 0.184g, 60.32g, 8.533g, 1.903g, 3.40mm, 3.03mm and 16.25%) of leaf area, leaf dry weight, fruit weight, fruit flesh weight, fruit length, fruit width and TSS respectively were resulted from the interaction of 10 g.l-1 potassium + 400mg.l-1 Ascorbic acid compared to minimum values with untreated trees .


Article
RESPONSE OF COTTON TO NITROGEN FERTILIZER AND SPACING BETWEEN HOLES

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This experiment was conducted at the farm of field crop department, College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad during two summer seasons (2010 and 2011) in order to know the response of cotton var. Lashata to nitrogen levels and spacing between holes. A randomized complete block design under arrangement of split plot with four replications was used. The plant spacing; 10, 20 and 30 cm between holes and 75 cm between rows considered as main plots, while three nitrogen levels (150, 200 and 250 Kg N.ha-1) are considered as sub plots. The results showed that using 10 cm between hills were significantly superior in boll weight (3.69 and 4.26) gm.boll-1, seed cotton yield (3.03 and 3.6) t.ha-1 and lint yield (1.13 and 1.30) t.ha-1 in both seasons 2010 and 2011 respectively. While, 30 cm spacing significantly superior in number of open bolls (12.10 and 13.6) bolls.plant-1 and ginning percentage (39.05 and 37.44)% in both seasons respectively. The nitrogen fertilizer 250 kg N ha-1 was significantly superior in dehiscence bolls number, seed cotton yield, lint yield and ginning percentage in both seasons 2010 and 2011 respectively. It can be concluded that 'using 10 cm spacing between holes with 250 kg N ha-1 to achieve highest seed cotton yield.

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