جدول المحتويات

مجلة العلوم الزراعية العراقية

ISSN: ISSN:00750530 / EISSN:24100862
الجامعة: جامعة بغداد
الكلية: الزراعة
اللغة: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

حول المجلة

تأسست مجلة العلوم الزراعية العراقية في كلية الزراعة جامعة بغداد عام 1966. كانت المجلة تصدر بعددين في العام فقط. بدأت المجلة عام 2000 باصدار ستة اعداد في السنة لكل مجلد, وهي الان في عام 2016 بالمجلد (47). تشمل ابحاث المجلة كافة العلوم الزراعية المرتبطة بالعلوم النباتية والحيوانية فضلاً عن المكننة الزراعية والاقتصاد الزراعي والارشاد الزراعي والعلوم الداعمة للعلوم الزراعية مثل الكيمياء والفيزياء لاسيما المرتبطة بالضوء والالحرارة والرياح وغيرها. يتضمن المجلد الواحد حالياً اكثر من 75 بحثأ حيث يتضمن العدد الواحد بين 20-25 بحثاً بحسب عدد الابحاث المقبولة في كل عدد

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معلومات الاتصال

tijasub@yahoo.com
tel :
009647804541817
009647512748875
address:
college of Agric. / Univ. of Baghdad
Al Jadreah, Baghdad, Iraq

جدول المحتويات السنة: 2016 المجلد: 47 العدد: 7 - special issue

Article
EFFECT OF SACCAROMYCES CEREVISIAE SUPPLEMENTATION ON RUMEN CHARACTERISTICS IN AWASSI LAMBS FED DIETS WITH DIFFERENT ROUGHAGE TO CONCENTRATE RATIOS
تأثير إضافة خميرة الخبز SACCAROMYCES CEREVISIAE على صفات الكرش في علائق الحملان العواسي مع مستويات مختلفة من العلف المركز الى الخشن

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الخلاصة

Thirty two Awassi male lambs with initial body weight(27±1.78 kg), and four to five months old, were allocated into four equal groups in factorial experiment to study the effect of two roughage to concentrate rations (R:C, 60:40 and 40:60) supplemented with two levels of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (0 and 5 g S. cerevisiae / head / day) on rumen fermentations rate[Total volatile fatty acids(TVFA) ,pH and ammonia concentration (NH3-N)] . The diets were offered in quantity to achieve 150 g daily gain .Results shown no differences in daily dry matter intake(DMI) and daily gain across treatments. As well as no significant effect for R: C ratio on TVFA and pH whereas, propionic, butyric acids and NH3-N increased significantly (P<0.05) with high concentrate diets, but the molar proportion of acetic significantly (P<0.05) decreased with high levels of concentrate diets. S cerevisiae supplementation showed significantly (P<0.05) increased in TVFA, propionic and butyric acid, whereas, significantly (P<0.05) decreased acetic acid and NH3-N. Significant(P<0.05) interaction were shown between high level of concentrate and S cerevisiae supplementation in TVFA, propionic, butyric acid ,acetic acid and NH3-N whereas, no significant effect on pH .In conclusion ,S cerevisiae supplementation to high concentrate diet significantly (P<0.05) increased TVFA, propionic and butyric acid, whereas, significantly (P<0.05) decreased acetic acid and NH3-N .


Article
COMPARATIVE EFFICACY OF DIFFERENT SUPPLEMENTS WITH DRINKING WATER USED TO ALLEVIATE BODY TEMPERATURE OF HEAT-STRESSED BROILER CHICKENS
الفعالية المقارنة لمختلف الاضافات الى ماء الشرب المستخدمة في تلطيف درجة حرارة جسم فروج اللحم المجهد حرارياً

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الخلاصة

A total of 425 one day old, unsexed, Hubbard classic broiler chicks strain were reared on floor for 6 weeks (WK) to evaluate the efficacy of different supplements to reduce body temperature (Tb) of heat-stressed broiler chickens. Birds were given water and diet ad libitum. At 21 day of age, 375 birds were almost equal weights chosen, randomly divided into 5 groups, 3 replicates of 25 birds each. Treatment groups were; without supplementation (T1,control), supplementation 400 (T2) and 550 (T3) mg betaine / liter drinking water (DK), mixture of KCl, NaHCO3,vitamin C and salicylic acid by 450, 450, 50 and 50 mg / liter DK respectively (T4) and 150 mg vitamin C / liter DK (T5). Temperature and relative humidity were recorded in 600, 1400, 1800 and 2400 hours daily. Birds were received 24 hours light a day, also all routine management and medications were applied. Results revealed that in most treatment groups, Tb was significantly (P < 0.01) increased in hot period of the day (1400h and 1800h) in comparison with moderate period (600h and 2400h) and the difference was higher in control treatment1 group (T1) at 4, 5, 6 WK of age and their average. A significant (P < 0.05) decrease was found in Tb of T5 in comparison with T1 during all times of the day, whereas occurred only during hot period (1400h and 1800h) in T2, T3 and T4 at 4, 5, 6 WK of age and their average. The average of Tb of all treatment groups for 4, 5, and 6 WK of age illustrated a significant decrease in moderate (P < 0.05) and hot periods of the day (P < 0.01) in comparison with T1, in addition to temperature difference was greater in hot period than moderate period. It can be concluded that all supplements used in this trial, expressed their efficacy in reducing Tb of heat-stressed birds, in particular during hot period of the day, however vitamin C was the most potent.


Article
DETERMINATION CONCENTRATIONS OF SERUM CERULOPLASMIN, COPPER, ENZYMES ACTIVITY AND LIVER COPPER CONCENTRATION OF DIFFERENT AGES OF KARADI SHEEP AT IN SULAIMANI PROVINCE
تقدير السيروبلازمين ومستوى النحاس وفعالية الانزيمات في مصل الدم وتركيز الثاني في كبد الاغنام الكرادية بالاعمار المختلفة في محافظة السليمانية

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الخلاصة

The objectives of this study was to measure the Concentrations of serum ceruloplasmin, Copper, enzymes activity and liver copper in Karadi sheep at different ages. The study was carried out on eighty Karadi sheep(47 male and 33 female) were used and taken from the slaughterhouse, the province of Sulaimani during period November 2009 to June 2010. Blood samples (10 ml) were collected from each animal before slaughtering and the serum were separated. Results indicated that the overall mean serum ceruloplasmin , serum copper and liver copper concentration l were 112.55 ± 13.047 mg/dl, 110.66 ± 4.56 ugdl and 129.43 ± 4.52 ugdl, respectively. Serum ALT and AST activity were 30.18 ± 2.018 UL and 144.40 ± 6.50 UL, respectively. The correlation coefficients between age and each of serum ceruloplasmin, serum copper and hepatic copper were not significant. Data revealed highly (P ≤ 0.01) positive correlations between age of Karadi sheep and the activity of AST (0.246) and ALT (0.267) enzymes, was found. Data also indicate (P ≤ 0.01) negative correlation between the concentrations of ceruloplasmin in serum and the liver copper concentrations (- 0.294). Other wise the correlations coefficient between other parameters were not significant (P < 0.05).


Article
GENOTYPIC STABILITY FOR SOME BREAD WHEAT PURE LINES
الثبات الوراثي لبعض الخطوط النقية من حنطة الخبز

المؤلفون: F. Y. Baktash فاضل يونس بكتاش
الصفحات: 25-34
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الخلاصة

The objective of this research to evaluate a genotypic stability for new developed wheat pure lines (Triticum aestivum L.). A crossing program among six wheat genotypes; Alfateh, A.3031, M2, IPA99, A4.10 and Abu-Ghraib3, were crossed during 2001-2002, using half diallel method and developed 15 crosses. A single plant selection was used during six seasons. The parents and some selected crosses (S12 , S52 , S76 , S83 , S94 , S97 , S102 , S118 , S123 , S130 , S148 , S152 , S155 , S175 , S177), were evaluated during five years (2009-2014), using randomized complete block design .The results were analyzed using analysis of variance and some statistic parameters SD, SE and CV, joint regression method also, adopted to evaluate the stability of genotypes through five environments , for grain yield and it's components. A significant differences were found among genotypes , environments and GxE interaction in all the traits . The highest grain yield 5981 kg.ha-1 produced from the genotype S123. The statistical analysis revealed that S155 had highest grain yield stability. While joint regression method showed that, S130 had higher stability and S155, S152, and S118 were a promising stable and high productive genotypes and the genotype S123 was more adapted to favorable environment.


Article
AMMI ANALYSIS OF ADAPTABILITY AND YIELD STABILITY OF PROMISING LINES OF BREAD WHEAT (Triticum aestavum L.)
تحليل الفعل الاضافي الرئيس والتداخل المضاعف للتكيف واستقرارية حاصل الحبوب لخطوط واعدة من حنطة الخبز (Triticum aestivum L.)

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الخلاصة

Additive main effects and multiplicative interactions (AMMI) model analysis was performed to assess and to quantify the magnitude of genotype by environment interaction and yield stability of bread wheat genotypes. Fifteen promising lines generated from a crossing program among six bread wheat (Triticum aestavum L.) pure lines were used in a randomized complete block design with four replications for five consecutive years (2009-2014). AMMI analysis of variance showed that the environment effect was a predominant source of variation (67.6% of the treatment SS) followed by GE interaction (21.1 %) and genotype effect (8.6%). First two interaction principal component axes (IPCA) cumulatively explained 92.75% of total interaction effects. A graphical interpretation of the AMMI analysis and GSI index incorporating the AMMI stability value (ASV) and the yield capacity of the different genotypes in a single non-parametric index were useful for discriminating genotypes with superior and stable grain yield. Based on AMMI biplot, G10 had general adaptability, and Based on ASV and Genotype stability index (GSI) genotypes G10,G15, and G2 revealed the highest stability. It seems that various measures of stability from AMMI model indicate similar aspects of yield stability and GEI nature.


Article
DETECTION 0F NON ALLELICI INTERACTIONS VIA GENERATIONS MEAN ANALYSIS IN MAIZE
الكشف عن التداخلات غير الاليلية من خلال تحليل متوسط الأجيال في الذرة الصفراء.

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الخلاصة

This experiment was conducted at the field of Field Crop Dept. College of Agric / Univ.of Baghdad,to evaluate the genetic gene effects to some traits of maize. Six generations P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1 and BC2 for four crosses produced from crossing of genetically different six inbred lines. The six parameters were evaluated in randomized complete block design with four replications. The analysis of variance showed significant differences among generations. Means of F1′s were higher than the highest parent for all the traits of all crosses, indicated over dominance gene action. Hybrid vigor and heterosis were positive for most of traits for crosses. Result of scaling test for four criteria A , B, C, and D indicated significant effects of non-allelic interaction controlling genetic variation among six generations for seven traits. The mean effects were highly significant for all traits in all crosses indicated that all traits were quantitatively inherited, also indicated that lines had genetic diversity. Dominance effects were higher than mean and additive effects for all traits and all crosses, indicated the importance role of dominance component of gene action in inheritance traits. There were different type of epistasis interaction effects observed for various traits and crosses. Their values were varied for different trait and crosses. The dominance × dominance interactions were higher than other epistasis interaction effects.We can conclude that the traits in all crosses shown the complex behavior, hence the selection should be delayed after several generations of segregation until reached homoztgosity.


Article
SEED YIEID AND OIL CONTENT OF SAFFLOWER AS AFFECTED BY GENOTYPES AND SOWING DATES
حاصل البذور ومحتوى الزيت للعصفر بتأثير التراكيب الوراثية ومواعيد الزراعة

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الخلاصة

The experiment was conducted at two locations; Grdarasha and Sumail of Erbil and Duhok governorates respectively, in Kurdistan region, during spring season 2013 and winter season 2013-2014 to study the effect of sowing dates on seed yield and oil content of safflower genotypes. A split-plot arrangement in a randomized complete block design was used with three replicates; sowing dates were assigned to main plots and genotypes to sub-plots. The results revealed that the first sowing date of spring (April 11th ) and winter (Noveber 13 th) seasons produced the highest seed yield 1277.6 and 1583.7 kg ha-1 in spring season and 2676.5 and 1904.2 kg ha-1 in winter season at Grdarasha and Sumail locations respectively. In winter season; Rabee 500 genotype at Grdarasha location and Aurduny genotype at Sumail location surpassed other genotypes in seed yield (2246.7 and 1636.2 kg ha-1). In spring season; seeds of early date (April 11th) and Aurduny genotype were characterized by recording the highest oil percentage (30.28 and 29.58%) at Grdarasha location and (31.81 and 31.77%) at Sumail location respectively. In contrast, in winter season the fourth sowing date and G2018 genotypes seeds were characterized by the highest oil percentage (28.62 and 29.13%) at Grdarasha location and (29.11 and 28.14%) at Sumail location.


Article
A RAPID METHODS FOR PCR BASED ON DETECTION OF SALMONELA SPP. AND STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS IN SPIKED AND NATURALLY CONTAMINATED FOOD
طرائق سريعة بالاعتماد على تفاعلات التضاعف المتسلسلة للدنا للكشف عن ال Salmonella spp والــStaphylococcus aureus الملوثة للغذاء

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الخلاصة

A rapid method for detection of food-borne pathogens, gene specific PCR, was used to detect two kinds of bacteria ( Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus) from food. Cultures of artificially inoculated foods were spiked ,with reference bacteria at known concentrations and DNA was isolated from each food sample before and after enrichment, using phenol -chloroform based method, Positive results were obtained using gene specific PCR (targeting the invA gene in Salmonella spp. and Sa 442 gene in Staphylococcus aureus ) just after enrichment step, that produced specific amplicons of the expected sizes which was 284bp in Salmonella spp. and 108 bp in Staphylococcus aureus. The detection limit of the assay was 103 CFU/ ml for the two kinds of bacteria. No results were obtained using the same primers with five other types of bacterial strains which improve it s specifity. The same technique was used for detection of the two kinds of bacteria in some naturally contaminated foods. To achieve this, 13 food samples were collected from Sulaymani market during April-October, 2012 including meats (meat of beef, sheep, goats, fresh chicken, and frozen chicken) and vegetables (celery, tomato, cucumber, pepper, lettuce, broccoli, carrot, and leek) DNA isolated from the samples after two enrichment steps ,the results of PCR, indicate the detection of Salmonella spp., in three out of 13 food samples tested, whereas the detection of Staphylococcus aureus achieved in four out of 10 food samples tested. This study indicate that PCR is a good way for the rapid detection of Salmonella spp and Staphylococcus aureus in food.


Article
EFFECT OF KINETIN ON IN VITRO MICROTUBER INITIATION OF POTATO AND CRYOPRESERVATION
تأثير الكياينتين على تكوين الدرينات الدقيقة للبطاطا وحفظها خارج الجسم الحي

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الخلاصة

The experiments were carried out in plant tissue culture labs. Date Palm Research Unit, College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad, Iraq from Jun 2012 to July 2013. Experiments included adding Kinetin at 0, 3, 5 and 7 mg/L to MS medum with 80g/L sucrose for three potato cultivars Emma, Santé, and Arnova. The study experiments were designed as factorial experiments using Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with l0 replicates for three potato cultivars for each concentration. After 8 weeks it’s clear that the best concentration was 7mg/L for all traits under study (average of microtubers number/plant, average weight of the microtubers/plant (g), average diameter of the microtubers (mm), percentage of dry matter of microtubers, percentage of starch in microtubers, and percentage of protein in microtubers) but the cultivars were different, Emma was superiority in average weight of the microtubers/plant (0.566g) and average diameter of the microtubers (19.91mm) but Santé was superiority in percentage of dry matter of microtubers (19.25%) and percentage of starch in microtubers (13.15%), while Arnova was superiority in average of microtubers number/plant (4.20 microtuber/plant) and percentage of protein in microtubers (1.97%). Microtubers were harvested and preserved at 4°C for three periods 2, 4, and 6 months (after placed in glass Jars covered with cotton). All preservation periods gave 100% of success without any blighter. Experience can be concluded that increasing the concentration of kinetin (7 mg/L) led to increase the number and size of the microtubers and possible preserved for 6 months without any damage.


Article
THE ROLE OF SPRAYING NITROGEN ON GROWTH AND NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF FRUITS IN DIFFERENT TOMATO GENOTYPES
دور الرش بالنتروجين في النمو والقيمة الغذائية لثمار تراكيب وراثية مختلفة من الطماطة

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الخلاصة

An experiment was conducted at the field of the Department of Horticulture and Landscape Gardening, College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad during the spring season of 2012 to evaluate Nitrogen (Urea) foliar application at four concentrations 0 , 1.5 , 3 , and 4.5 g/L-1 and six tomato genotypes ,OLKA , JINAN, SUN, GS12, BAHGAT (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) and wild type (Lycopersicon pimpinillifolium). The experiment was carried out according to the split–plot experimental design with three replications in order to determine the best concentration of urea along with the best genotype(s) respond to the treatments. Results showed Spraying with 4.5 g. L-1 (Urea) gave significant response in terms of number of main branches (4.98 branch. Plant -1), leaf area (229.11 decm2.Plant-1), total chlorophyll (261.86 mg. 100g-1 fresh weight), early flowering (27.83 day), acidity, T.S.S. and nitrogen in fruits (0.23, 4.01 and 2.26%, respectively). The Interaction of the same concentration with GS12 gave the best average of total chlorophyll and T.S.S. of (306.22 mg. 100g-1 fresh weight and 4.70% respectively) in addition to early flowering and fruit set of (25.33 and 31.67 day respectively).


Article
ROLE OF ORGANIC AND MINERAL FERTILIZATION AND SOIL MULCHING ON QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF BROCCOLI
دور التسميد العضوي والمعدني وتغطية التربة في الصفات النوعية لنبات البروكلي

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الخلاصة

To study the effect of organic and mineral fertilization and soil mulching on quality characteristic of broccoli a field experiment was conducted during the season 2013- 2014 at the vegetable field of Hort. Dept., Agric. Coll., Abu-Ghraib, Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) within split plot arrangement was used main plots include type of soil mulching (without mulch M0, black M1, blue M2, red plastic mulch M3) and sub-plot represented by 5 fertilizer treatments: Recommended chemical fertilizers (RCF) T1, Spent Mushroom Compost (SMC) 5% v/v + 75% RCF (T2), SMC 10% v/v + 50% RCF (T3), SMC 15% v/v + 25% RCF (T4) and 20% v/v (SMC) T5. Results showed superiority of black plastic mulch M1 in TSS%, Vitamin C content, high Folic acid, carbohydrate and protein in curd (8.83%),89.62) mg.100g-1), (54.80 mcg.100g-1), ( 7.06%) and (26.77 %), while low nitrate content of curd (0.76 mg.g-1), respectively compared with control treatment M0. Treatment T4 resulted in highest percentage of TSS (%8.83), Vitamin C (93.35 mg.100g-1), carbohydrate (7.03%) and protein (27.41%) in cured, while highest Folic acid 54.78) mc.100g-1) was found in T3, and lowest nitrate content of curds was in T5 (6.67 mg.g-1) as compared to T1.


Article
EFFECT OF FOLIAR APPLICATION OF GIBBERELLIC ACID AND SEAWEED EXTRACT SPRAY ON GROWTH AND LEAF MINERAL CONTENT ON PEACH TREES
تأثير رش حامض الجبرليك و مستخلص الطحالب في النمو و المحتوى المعدني لأوراق اشجار الخوخ

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الخلاصة

This study was conducted at the peach orchard, Horticultural Department, College of Agriculture – University of Baghdad during 2013 / 2014 growing seasons to investigate the influence of gibberellic acid spray and seaweed extract spray on 3 year's old trees of “Peento” peach cultivar. This study included two factors; gibberellic acid spray (GA) and seaweed extract spray (Sea Force) (SF). The first factor three levels were used, 0, (GA0), 50 (GA50) and 100 (GA100) mg.L-1 and three levels of seaweed extract, 0 (SF0), 2 (SF2) and 4 (SF4) ml.L-1. Each treatment replicated three times with a factorial experiment using RCBD. The number of trees used was 27 trees. The experimental results showed that gibberellic acid at 100 mg.L-1 and seaweed extract at 4 ml.L-1 (GA100SF4) significantly gave the highest total leaves area of 2316 and 3115 cm2, the highest leaf chlorophyll content of 36.33 and 37.18 mg.g-1, leaf carbohydrates content 12.14 and 12.65 %, the highest leaf nitrogen content of 1.82 and 1.94 %, and the highest leaf zinc content of 22.39 and 25.21 ppm for both seasons, respectively. The lowest value of these parameters was found in the control (GA0SF0) treatment. It could be concluded of this experiment that the gibberellic acid at level GA100 and seaweed extract at level SF4 improved vegetative characteristics and leaf mineral content in peach trees cv. Peento and we recommended conducting these treatments annually and study the effect of gibberellic acid and seaweed extract on other concentrations on other fruit trees.


Article
EFFECT OF CO2 ENRICHMENT AND FOLIAR SPRAY AGROLEAF AND KELPAK ON LRAVES CONTENT OF N, P, K, PROTEIN AND CARBOHYDRATE OF SMOOTH PEACH TRANSPLANTS
تأثير الإغناء بـــ CO2 و الرش الورقي بالــ Agroleaf و Kelpak في محتوى الأوراق من العناصر N و P و K والبروتين والكاربوهيدرات لشتلات الخوخ الأملس

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الخلاصة

An experiment was conducted at the Lath house of Horticulture Department , College of Agriculture , University of Bagdad, during the growing seasons 2010 , 2011, to study the effect of CO2 enrichment and Foliar spray of Agroleaf and Kelpak on peach transplants (nectarina) leaves contents of nutrients N, P, K, Protein and carbohydrates. 180 one year old transplants were selected planted in polyethylene bags containing 15 kg soil and exposed to four concentrations of CO2 (atmospheric,600, 900, 1200). Agroleaf and Kelpak were sprayed at (2.5, 5 g.L-1) and (2, 4 ml. L-1) respectively in addition to control. The experiment was designed according to the Nested-factorial experiments. Treatment C3 gave low contents of N (1.93, 1.86%), P (0.27, 0.28%), K (1.84, 1.78%) and Protein (12.04, 11.60%) in the leaves for two seasons respectively, while the treatment of C0 increased the contents. Enrichment of CO2 led to increase the percentage of carbohydrate in the leaves. Treatment T2 significantly increased the contents of N (2.85, 2.98%), P (0.40, 0.40%), K (2.36, 2.32%), Protein (17.82, 18.65%) and carbohydrates (15.76, 16.08) in the leaves for both seasons.


Article
PURIFICATION OF PHYTASE PRODUCED FROM A LOCAL FUNGAL ISOLATE AND ITS APPLICATIONS IN FOOD SYSTEMS

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الخلاصة

Phytase produced from local isolate of Aspergillus tubingnesis SKA was purified to homogeneity by three steps including 80% ammonium sulphate precipitation, followed by ion exchange chromatography by using DEAE-Cellulose and gel filtration with a Sephacryl S-200, the purified enzyme was obtained with 9.18 fold of purification and a yield of 25.92%. The purified phytase showed an optimal pH and temperature for its activity with about 5.0 and 40 °C respectively. The purified phytase was used to produce high quality (low phytate) soy protein concentrate (SPC) and soy protein isolate (SPI) from defatted soy flour (DSF). Enzymatic treatment increased the protein content and the yield from 52.00% and 40.32% to 55.00% and 46.58% in the untreated and treated SPC respectively, meanwhile for SPI the protein content and the yield increased from 72.00% and 50.00% to 87.00% and 63.91% respectively. On the other hand a significant decrease were seen in phytate content from 0.94% (untreated) to 0.42% (treated) SPC, and for SPI phytate content decreased from 1.10% to 0.39% respectively. Purified phytase enzyme was successfully capable to fractionate soybean globulins (glycinin and β-conglycinin), as phytate content decreased from 1.30% in defatted soymilk (DSM) to 0.33% and 0.37% in soymilk treated with A. tubingensis SKA phytase and wheat phytase respectively, protein content of soy globulins fractions (glycinin and β-conglycinin) was increased to (14.27 and 12.05%), (13.44 and 11.80%) respectively. Comparing to the treatment of buffer and reducing agent, protein content was (12.57 and 10.39%) and no change was observed on phytate content by this method.


Article
ISOLATION, SCREENING AND PRODUCTION OF PHYTATE DEGRADING ENZYME (PHYTASE) FROM LOCAL FUNGI ISOLATE
عزل، غربلة وإنتاج الانزيم المحلل للفايتيت (الفايتيز) من عزلة فطر محلية

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الخلاصة

Twenty-six isolates of fungi were isolated from samples of different sources. The isolates were screened for the production of phytase (phytate degrading enzyme) by propagating the isolates on phytase screening medium (PSM) and monitoring the formation of clear zone around their grown colonies. Only thirteen isolates were able to form a clear zone indicating their abilities to produce the phytase enzyme. By subjecting the isolates to the quantitative screening under both solid-state fermentation (SSF) and submerged fermentation (SmF), it was found that fungal isolate (G1) which was identified as Aspergillus tubingensis and marked as SKA was the most distinguished one among others by giving enzymatic activity in both methods with values reached (49.83 and 26.53 unit/ml) in SSF and SmF respectively. Phytase of fungal isolate A. tubingensis SKA was carried out by utilizing different substrates and supplements under SSF and SmF and the results showed the superiority of SSF on SmF for the production of phytase especially when wheat bran was used with an enzymatic activity value of (50.35 and 45.42 unit/ml) respectively.


Article
CHARACTERIZATION OF L-ASPARAGINASE PURIFIED FROM POLE BEANS
توصيف انزيم الاسباراجينيز المنقى من نبات الفاصوليا

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الخلاصة

The Plant samples of P. vulgaris were collected from a glass-house at Michigan State University (USA) and purified to homoginity by several purification steps. The purified enzyme was found to be a homodimer, with a molecular mass of 79.5 ± 2 KDal as estimated by size exclusion chromatography and SDS-PAGE. The optimum pH for enzyme activity and stability were pH 8.5 and 8 respectively, while the optimum temperature for enzyme activity and stability were 37°C and 30°C respectively. The Km, Vmax and kcat values for the enzyme were 0.294 mM, 1.09 mM/min and 893.8 Sec-1 respectively. This study concluded that beans L-Asparaginase appeared to consist of homodimer subunits with a molecular weight of 40.6 KDal, it is active and stable at basic conditions while it does not endure above 60 C° and loses its activity and stability. It is recommended to studying the amino acid sequence of the L-Asparaginase extracted from beans and alignment with other L-Asparaginases using a protein database for molecular comparison and studying the L-Asparaginase application.

الكلمات الدلالية

L-Asparaginase --- Pole beans --- Homodimer --- characterization --- Phaseolus vulgaris L.


Article
PREPARATION OF MODIFIED CHICKEN BURGER BY PARTIAL REPLACEMENT OF CHICKEN MEAT WITH POWDERED OF OYSTER MUSHROOM AND STUDY IT IS PHYSICAL AND SENSORY PROPERTIES
تحضير برغر دجاج محور بالاستبدال الجزئي للحم الدجاج بمسحوق الفطر King oyster mushroom ودراسة صفاته الفيزيائية والحسية

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الخلاصة

This study examined the effect of partial replacement for chicken meat with mushroom powder (MP) in chicken burger production, chicken meat was partially replaced by MP in ratios of 0,10, and 15%. physical properties, and sensory evaluation were done at zero time and after 3 and 7 days of storage at 6 ± 1°C. The results showed that 15% of beef meat could be replaced with MP and still providing good quality of burger. also burger formulated with 15% MP significantly p≤ 0.05 recorded the lowest reduction in weight loss during cooking , diameter and thickness 6.42, 5.95 and 12.52% as compared with control 32.48 , 18.04 , 37.82 %. The adding of MP has significantly increased the water holding capacity of manufactured burgers it was 30.13, 52 .25 and 58.03% for control , 10% and 15% substitute respectively .In the sensory evaluation, burger incorporated with 10 and 15 % MP had the highest scores for all sensory attributes. the juiciness and tenderness of these burgers was improved, So that values of these parameters were increased with increasing of replacement percentage of meat comparing with control treatment. the present study suggested that incorporation of MP up to 15 % to replace chicken meat improved flavor, juiciness , tenderness and acceptance.


Article
BIOFORTIFICATION AND HUMAN HEALTH
ألإغناء الحيوي وصحة الإنسان

المؤلفون: N. S. Ali نورالدين شوقي علي
الصفحات: 144-147
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الخلاصة

Micronutrients deficiency can be consider as one of the yield "quantity and quality" limiting factor in arid calcareous lands and can be consider as the troubling component of hunger. Therefore, enriching food product through adding nutrient to food product or through increasing soil fertility and breeding crop for nutrient efficiency are alternatives available to improve food quality. However, poor people have no excess to food additives and can benefits from naturally enriched food products or what being called biofortification. The undergoing short review would discuss these concepts and their implementation and uses in Iraq.


Article
THE EFFECT OF FEED WATER TYPE AND FEED FLOW RATE ON THE PERFORMANCE OF REVERSE OSMOSIS FOR WATER DESALINATION
تأثير نوع مياه التغذية ومعدل الجريان على إداء منظومة التنافذ العكسي لتحلية المياه

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الخلاصة

This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of water type and feed flow rate on the performance of reverse osmosis system which was used for water desalination. Two types of water included well water ( 9.6 dS.m-1 ) and drainage water ( 4.25 dS.m-1 ) and three levels of feed flow rate included 4.2, 4.8 and 5.4 m3 h-1 were used in this experiment. Productivity, recovery ratio, specific energy, electrical conductivity and rejection ratio were measured in this experiment. Split plot under complete randomize block design (CRBD) with three replicates was used. It was found that the use of drainage water ( EC = 4.25 dS.m-1) led to obtain higher productivity ( 3.04 m3 h-1 ) , higher recovery ratio (63.91% ) and higher rejection ratio ( 97.42 % ) and led to obtain lower specific energy ( 2.56 kW m-3) and lower electrical conductivity ( 0.109 dS.m-1 ) . It was also found that the use of higher feed flow rate ( 5.4 m3 h-1 ) led to obtain higher productivity ( 2.53 m3h-1) and higher rejection ratio ( 97.06 % ) and led to obtain lower recovery ratio ( 46.98% ) , lower specific energy ( 3.5 kWm-3) and lower electrical conductivity ( 0.218 dS.m-1). It was found that The interaction between lower feed water salinity ( drainage water ) and higher feed flow rate 5.4 dS.m-1 led to obtain the highest productivity 3.21 m3 h-1, lowest specific energy 2.45 kW m-3 , lowest electrical conductivity 0.101 dS.m-1 and highest rejection ratio 97.60 % while the interaction between lower feed water salinity (drainage water ) and lower feed flow rate 4.2 m3 h-1led to highest recovery ratio 68.75 % .


Article
PARTICIPATION OF AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICES IN THE FIELD OF FISH-FARMS PRACTICES IN MIDDLE PROVINCES OF IRAQ
مساهمة الإرشاد الزراعي في عمليات خدمة المزارع السمكية في بعض المحافظات الوسطى

المؤلفون: A. A. Naji أشواق عبدالرزاق ناجي
الصفحات: 156-160
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الخلاصة

The objective of this to determine the level of Agricultural Extension services provided to fish farmers in middle provinces of Iraq. A sample of 50% of the middle province was chosen. These provinces were Wasit, Babelon, Dewaniah and Najaf. The study also included a randomized sample of 95 of the fish farmers (keepers) from the above mentioned provinces. A scale of five grades was developed to measure the level of Agricultural Extension services presented to the farmers. The scale was consisted of 26 items distributed on five domains, that were environmental extension, nutrition, culturing, fishing and marketing. The study revealed a weak participation of extension in the field of fish-farms. The statistical analysis indicated that the level of extension participation was 42.2 out of 104 degree which represents the maximum attainable degree.


Article
EFFECT OF USING DIFFERENT LEVELS OF MUSHROOM CULTIVATION SPENT IN AWASSI LAMBS RATIONS ON SOME PRODUCTIVE TRAITS
تأثير استخدام مخلفات زراعة الفطر الغذائي بمستويات مختلفة مع العليقة في الصفات الانتاجية للحملان العواسي

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الخلاصة

This study was conducted to investigate the ability of using mushroom cultivation spent (MCS) in different levels instead of barley in Awassi lambs ration and their effects on productivity characteristics. Multi reproductive cycle of Pleurotus ostreatus mushroom spent quantities were collected from Agriculture College /Tikrit's university mushroom farm before dried and mixed with rations. Thirty five locally Awassi male lambs aged 5.5/6.5 months with initial weight of 30±0.39 kg were allocated for five treatments with seven lambs each treatment and distributed to individual cages, treatments was as follow: treatment one T1 (control treatment), treatment two T2 (5% of MCS), treatment three T3 (10% of MCS), treatment four T4 (15% of MCS) and treatment five T5 (20% of MCS). Percentage use of barley was minimized for each treatment rations in order to maintain a fixed percentage of protein (14%). Wheat straw was provided ad libitum as a roughage diet for each treatment lambs for the whole study period while concentrate diet was provided for each treatment lambs by 3% of live body weight for the whole study period also which was seventy days. During and after finishing the study, several measurements were taken. The results show significant reduction (p≤0.05) in each final weight, daily and weekly average weight gain, feed conversion ratio, hot carcass weight and dressing percentage for treatments T4 and T5 while no effect was record for MCS treatments on each average feed consumption, external and internal offal's percentage weight. As a result we can conclude that it is able to use mushroom cultivating spent (MCS) instead of barley in Awassi lambs ration within 15% without any negative effects.

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