Table of content

Kufa Journal For Veterinary Medical Sciences

مجلة الكوفة للعلوم الطبية البيطرية

ISSN: 20779798
Publisher: University of Kufa
Faculty: Veterinary Medicine
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

Kufa j. vet. Sci. is a scientific and refereed journal published by the college of veterinary medicine , University of Kufa , Kufa ,Iraq. It publishes in English original and distinguished research papers , communications , research notes , case reports and reviews in all aspects of veterinary sciences .
Manuscript shall be considered for publication only with the understanding that they are neither under concurrent consideration by any journal nor have been published else where . Manuscript are subjected to peer review for their scientific merit .accepted manuscript will become the property of Kufa j . vet. Sci . the journal is published two times a year.

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Contact info

البريد الإلكتروني لرئيس التحرير
vetmed@uokufa.edu.iq
أو البريد الإلكتروني للمجلة
kj.vs@uokufa.edu.iq
أو للإستفسار الإتصال بمسؤول المجلة على الرقم 07810115211

Table of content: 2017 volume:8 issue:1

Article
Clinical and hemato-biochemical studies in Awassi lambs infected with coccidiosis.
دراسة العلامات السريرية والتغيرات الدمية كيوحيوية في الاغنام العواسية المصابة بالكوكسيديا

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Abstract

The study was conducted on 95 lambs, divided into two groups depending on clinical signs, 55 lambs were clinically healthy and 40 lambs had bloody diarrhea and their feces had oocysts of Eimeria species. “Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein” into EDTA tubes for hematological value and plain tubes to separated sera were directly used for chemical investigation during January 2016 until April 2016 both groups aged 1 – 6 month in Najaf province. Results showed that the ranges and means ± SE of blood picture in healthy and infected with coccidia lambs were as follows; packed cell volume (PCV) 33.5 ± 0.47 % and 23.9 ± 0.46 %, hemoglobin (Hb) 10.9 ± 0.17 g/dL and 6.8 ± 0.12 g/dL, red blood cell (RBC) 10.6 ± 0.15 ×10⁶ /μL and 8.8 ± 0.24 ×10⁶ /μL, mean cell volume (MCV) 31.6 ± 0.37 fL and 27.5 ± 0.59 fL, mean cell hemoglobin (MCH) 10.3 ± 0.14 pg and 7.9 ± 0.15 pg, mean cell hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) 32.7 ± 0.16 g/dL and 28.8 ± 0.34 g/dL, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) 9 ± 0.54 mm/24h and 19.1 ± 2.10 mm/24h, white blood cell count (WBC) 9231 ± 379.3 /μL and 13707 ± 562.8 /μL, lymphocytes (L) 55.8 ± 1.27 /μL and 43 ± 1.46 /μL, neutrophils (N) 30.6 ± 0.76 /μL and 40.6 ± 2.25 /μL, monocytes 0.9 ± 0.10 /μL and 2.2 ± 0.30 /μL, eosinophil’s 1.9 ± 0.27 /μL and5.2 ± 0.64 /μL, basophils 0.3 ± 0.05 /μL and 0.3 ± 0.07 /μL respectively. Serum analysis in healthy and infected with coccidia lambs were as follows; iron 27.2 ± 0.75 μmol/L and 11.4 ± 0.59 μmol/L, copper 18.4 ± 0.74 μmol/L and 10.3 ± 0.50 μmol/L respectively. There were a significant decrease (P<0.05) in, RBC, Hb, PCV, MCH, MCV, MCHC and lymphocyte. Also, there were a significant increase (P<0.05) in WBC, ESR, neutrophils, eosinophil’s and monocyte count was observed in all lamb infected with coccidiosis. On the other hand, there were a significant decrease (P<0.05) in iron and copper in all lamb infected with coccidiosis.


Article
Effect of fenugreek seeds supplementation on growth performance, digestion coefficient, rumen fermentation and some blood metabolites of Awassi lambs
تأثير اضافة بذور الحلبة على الاداء الانتاجي ،الهضم ،تخمرات الكرش وبعض معايير الدم لدى الحملان العواسية

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Abstract

Twelve Awassi lambs with 5-6 month average 25.13±0.33 kg body weight (BW) were used to investigate the effect of adding graded levels of fenugreek seeds (FS) to the diet on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation, and some blood metabolites. The lambs were randomly assigned to four treatments (3 lambs per treatment) in a completely randomized design. Treatment diets were control diet without FS 0 g/head/day (FS0), control diet plus 2.5gFS/head/day (FS1), control diet plus 5gFS/head/day (FS2), and control diet plus 7.5gFS /head/day (FS3). Lambs were housed in individual pens and received 600g of concentrate diet once a day with ad libitum choice of rice straw as roughage. Body weight and feed intake were recorded. At the day 42, the digestibility trial was performed for all lambs with same diets. Rumen liquor and blood samples were withdrawn from all the lambs at the last day of digestibility trial. Results showed that increasing level of FS did not improve (P>0.05) feed intake, live weight gain (LWG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR). Fenugreek seeds addition had no effect (P>0.05) on diet digestibility of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF). Results also showed that fenugreek seeds administration did not affect (P>0.05) ruminal pH, ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N) and total volatile fatty acids (TVFA's) concentration. The NH3-N and TVFA’s concentrations were tended (P>0.05) to decrease as levels of FS increased in the diet. Serum glucose (SG), serum total protein (STP) and serum urea nitrogen (SUN) were not affected also by increasing levels of FS. It can be concluded; supplementation of fenugreek seeds in the diets of fattening Awassi lambs did not improve growth performance, nutrient digestibility and ruminal fermentation without adverse effects on blood metabolites.


Article
Topical Application to Mixture of Honey with Cod Liver Oil as a Novel Therapy to Treat Contaminated Skin Wounds in Rabbits Model
التطبيق الموضعي لخليط من العسل مع زيت كبد الحوت كعلاج جديد للجروح الجلدية الملوثة في نموذج الارانب

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Abstract

Contaminated wounds are common in all animals and human being; their treatments may complicated and need for prolong duration, therefore the current study aimed to investigate an alternative way to treat the contaminated wounds by using natural compounds that accelerate wounds healing; these study achieved on 30 local rabbits that exposed to surgical excision and contaminated by Staphylococcus aureus then divided into 5 groups in which 6 animals of each and treated for 14 days as the following: the first group treated with honey, second group treated with cod liver oil, third group treated with mixture of honey and cod liver oil, fourth group treated with fucidin while the fifth group contaminated with bacteria only. The results showed moderate (1.55 ± 0.11) wound contraction and healing in first group, while the second group showed (1.77 ± 0.10) was delayed in wound contraction and healing, the third group showed (1.0±0.13) which regarded the excellent and optimal wound contraction and healing, the fourth group showed (1.77 ± 0.12) which delayed wound healing and contraction, finally the fifth group showed(3.07 ± 0.11) in which no signs of wound contraction and healing. In conclusion, the using of mixture of natural compounds like honey and cod liver oil may accelerate wound contraction and healing and keep the wounds sterile.


Article
Effect of Taraxacum officinale and Saccharomyces cerevisiae or their Mixture on some Productive Parameters of Turkey
تأثير مسحوق نبات الهندباء و خميرة الخبز أو خليطهما على بعض المعاير الإنتاجية لطيور الرومي

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Abstract

Reaching to the highest body weight in return for each unit of feed consumption is the aim of raising commercial poultries these days. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of incorporating Taraxacum officinale, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and their combination powder as a growth promoter in turkey feed. A total of 40 turkey toms (black strain) at age 49 days old were randomly assigned to four equally treated groups (10 birds per treatment) with two replicates (5 birds per replicate),as following: The first group (T1) was fed on basal diet as a control group (without additive). While, second group (T2) and third group (T3) were daily fed on basal diet containing 0.25 % Taraxacum officinale and Saccharomyces cerevisiae respectively. On the other hands, four group (T4) was daily fed on basal diet containing 0.5 % mixture of Taraxacum officinale and Saccharomyces cerevisiae during period of experiment (28 days). Body weight, weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio were calculated on weekly basis. Generally, The results indicate that no significant improvement in measurements of productive performance. In conclusion, meat production in turkey had no effect by Taraxacum officinale (as prebiotic), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (as probiotic) and their combination powder (as symbiotic).


Article
Direct detection of "methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus" from buffalo raw milk in Al-Qadissiya province using Polymerase Chain Reaction assay
التشخيص المباشر لبكتريا "المكورات العنقودية الذهبية المقاومة للمثيسيلين" من عينات حليب الجاموس الخام في محافظة القادسية باستخدام تقنية فحص تفاعل سلسلة البلمرة

Authors: Hiba Shihab Ahmed
Pages: 38-44
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Abstract

The shedding of "methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus" in raw buffalo milk causes a potential risk if consumed without maintaining sufficient hygienic criteria due to numerous clinical implications to human infection. The present study was used the Polymerase chain reaction technique as highly specific molecular procedures for direct detection of "methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus" (MRSA) of buffalo raw milk samples that compiled from animals owners of different areas in the province of Diwaniyah during the period from July 2016 to December 2016. PCR technique was dependent on used specific primers that amplification of mecA gene in Staphylococcus aureus. This primer was designed in this study by using NCBI-Genk data base (KM505043.1) and primer 3 plus for primers design. The PCR results were shown that buffalo infected with (MRSA) at 8 positive samples at percent (16%) out of 50 milk samples. The purpose of this research was to establish a rapid and specific PCR Technique for the diagnosis of "methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus" in buffalo raw milk that will be used as alternative to the currently available convention detection methods and makes it possible to identify the foods at risk for MRSA contamination to public health.


Article
Gestational variations in the metabolites of the fetal amniotic fluid and maternal blood serum in Iraqi ewes at different stages of pregnancy
التغيرات الأيضية للسائل السلي ومصل دم الام للنعاج العراقية الحوامل في مختلف مراحل الحمل

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This study was conducted on 76 pregnant uteri were collected from 76 slaughter pregnant local Iraqi ewes (in different stages) in the Al-Shulla abattoirs/Baghdad province, the animals were intact in terms of health before slaughter and examined visually the genital tract after slaughter was natural and free from congenital malformations. This study performed from Dec. 2016 to Apr. 2017 , there ages range from 3-5 years. The aspiration of amniotic fluid was performed by using sterile syringe. The content of amniotic fluid which kept in a test tube while the maternal blood serum performed by sterile syringe from jugular vein before slaughter animals and kept in test tube and the serum was isolated after 24 hours from blood collection in -5ºC in refrigerator to determine the metabolites by using kits in spectrophotometer. The outcomes observed that the glucose was recorded significant differences (p˂0.05) in early pregnancy (amniotic fluid) & late pregnancy in maternal blood serum. But the total protein was significant highly(p˂0.05) in late pregnancy in amniotic & maternal blood serum , also urea and uric acid was recorded the same results which resembles of total protein. Finally the cholesterol was recorded non-significant in all stages of pregnancy in amniotic fluid but recorded highly significant (p˂0.05) in early pregnancy compared with late pregnancy in maternal blood serum. The outcomes recorded superior significant (p˂0.05 & p˂0.01) in all metabolites concentration related with maternal blood serum compared with amniotic fluid in different stages of pregnancy . In concluded that they recorded changes in metabolites related with different stages of pregnancy as well as the variations in concentration of metabolites were highly significantly in maternal blood serum compared with amniotic fluid and they considered one method of pregnancy diagnosis


Article
Improved vaccine strategies of infectious bronchitis disease to reduce shedding of virulent virus from infected birds
تحسين استراتيجيات التلقيح لمرض التهاب القصبات الهوائية المعدي لتقليل طرح الفايروس الضاري من الطيور المصابة

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Abstract

Infectious bronchitis (IB) threatens the economies of entire nations, by adversely affecting the backyard farmers, poultry producers and poultry industry throughout the world. Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), a member of the Coronaviridae family, is probably one of the most avian pathogens prevalent in the poultry industry worldwide. In the field which presents difference structures, especially in the S1 spike protein. Complicated immune response against IBV due to few similarities between serotypes. High mutation rate of the virus, in addition to the management and environmental factors, compromise the efficacy of the available vaccines and difficult the control of disease. Prepared effective IB vaccines from any IBV strain stimulates the immunity widely against morbidity and mortality after challenge with virulent IBV strains. On the other hand, vaccinates with live IBV vaccines do not reduce infection or viral shedding after challenge. In order to compare the prepared IBV vaccines taken four different IBV genotypes to determine stimulating immunity and the amount of viral shedding after challenge, two hundred fifty one day broiler chicks divided into five groups and vaccinated with oil-adjuvant vaccines prepared of Iraqi isolates (II, I-II, I- III and I-IV). different inactivated IB viruses including strains QX, CH Baghdad M 2014, CH Baghdad F1 2013, CH Babylon F2 2013, and an allantoic fluid control. Using a hemagglutination inhibition test for serum analysis after challenge with virulent IBV (Variant2) to knowledge antibody content against each of the vaccine antigens, Monitored the vaccinated birds daily for of morbidity and mortality were recorded, and used PCR to determine the amount of viral copy of examined clinical samples in selected periods of viral shedding. All vaccines used in the study gave good protection against morbidity and mortality, except the control group. Homologous vaccines gave good protection and lowest viral shedding in the trachea, kidney and feces compared to the heterogeneous vaccines. Key word: infectious bronchitis disease, inactivated vaccines, hemagglutination inhibition, viral load, challenge.

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Article
Induction of fertile estrus in Iraqi camel (camelus dromedarius) during seasonal anoestrus
أحداث الشبق الخصب في النوق العراقية أحادية السنام خارج موسم التناسل

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Abstract

This study was performed on 36 Iraqi she- camels aged between 5-8 years from Sept .2016 to Apr. 2017 in Al- Najaf province, these animals divided into three equal groups (12 for each one ) randomly according to the type of treatments , 1st group treated with CIDR (1.38gm progesterone ) intr-avaginaly for 10 days and 2000 I.U of PMSG /I.M injected withdrawal CIDR directly , 2nd group treated with CIDR for 14 days + 2000 I.U PMSG /I.M while 3rd group without treatment and represented the control group. The results in this study showed superior significantly (p<0.01) in 2nd group related with animals response compared with 1st and 3rd group as well as significantly between 1st and 3rd group, while the duration of response was recorded highly significantly (p<0.01)for the treated groups (1st&2nd) compared with control group( 3rd) . But the number of services per conception which recorded non significantly (p<0.01) between all groups, while the pregnancy rate was recorded 100%, 90% and 100% in 1st ,2nd and 3rd groups respectively with significantly (p<0.01) related with 1st and 3rd compared with 2nd group. Finally the days open recorded 94.13±7.01 , 97.24±6.78 and 153.57±12.64 in 1st, 2nd and 3rd groups respectively with highly significant for 1st and 2nd compared with 3rd group. In conclusion in this study that they used hormonal treatments (CIDR +PMSG ) for induction of fertile estrus was safe and effect for increasing pregnancy rate and reduction days open.


Article
Diagnostic study of internal parasites in camels of Al- diwaniya government

Authors: Azhar chaffat karawan
Pages: 64-71
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This study was carried out to detect the prevalence of intestinal parasites of camels in Diwanyiah city in 2016 by faecal examination. . A total of 110 faecal samples were examined, among them,95 camels were found infected with intestinal parasites by one or more species with percentage reach to 86.36% , Fasciola spp was maximum (31%), followed by Eimeria spp (26%) ,Cryptosporidium spp (17.89%) ,Nematodirus spp(7.36%),Trichostrongylus spp (6.31%) ,Moneizia spp(5.26%) and Trichuris spp (3.1%).Due to the lack of available studies on infected the camales by internal parasites in Al- diwaniya government This study was conducted for the purpose of diagnosis of the most important internal parasites in camales.


Article
Detection of E. coli, as a contaminant of minced meat in certain locations of Baqubah city-Diyala Province-Iraq

Authors: Raad Jabbar hammadi
Pages: 72-78
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This survey investigated the prevalence of Escherichia coli (E.coli)in raw minced beef meat collected from different areas of Baqubah city in Diyala Province for detection of contamination with E.coli. A(90) samples were collected at (10)samples from each area in Baqubah city.and different dilutions were made for each one (10-1 , 10-2 , 10-3 ,10-4 ). These sample were pour onto MacConkey Agar and thenstreak onto eosin methylene blue agar(EMB) plates.The results was shown presence of high contamination ratio of the microbial isolation from minced beef meat of E.coli bacteria in different areas of Bagubah city. with positive ( 76.85% ),while negative (23.1%).


Article
Comparative histological study of protective effect of oil and alcoholic extracts of dry palm dates and leaves ( Phoenix dactylifera L) against CCL4 induced oxidative stress in rats
دراسة نسيجية مقارنة للتاثير المضاد للاكسدة المستحدثة ب CCL4 للمستخلصات الكحولية والدهنية للتمر الجاف والسعف ) phoenix dactylifera ( في الجرذان

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A study was performed to investigate the protective effect of different extracts of alcoholic and oil of leave and dry date of ( Phoenix dactylifera) against oxidative stress induced by CCL4 at a dose of 100 mg/kg given orally daily to five treated groups (CCl4 control (+ve) , alcoholic extract of leave (150 mg/kg) , alcoholic extract of dry date (100 mg/kg) , oil extract of leave and date (250 mg/kg), also two control dosed with vehicles (distal water and corn oil) were used . At the end of two months experiment the animal scarified and histopathological sections of selected organs were examined for all rat groups including ( liver, kidney and spleen). The result showed in CCL4 group (shrinkage of glomerular renal tubular , necrosis of epithelial cell lining renal tubule, congested blood vessel, interstitial fibrosis in kidney while liver cell showed necrosis of hepatocyte, vacuolar degeneration, sever central fatty change , congested of blood vessel and fibrosis. No lesion absorved in spleen of all groups while less kidney and liver cell lesion were observed in groups treated by by oil of dry date and leave extracts indicating partial protection by such extract against oxidative stress induce by CCL4. No histological lesion were observed in kidney and liver of groups treated with methanolic dry date and leave extract that indicate complete protection of these extract against oxidative stress induced by CCL4 Aim of study: To study the histopathological effects and compare the antioxidant of different palm dry date and leave extracts against CCL4 induce oxidative stress in rats


Article
Diagnosis of parasitic diseases of fish cages (Cyprinus carpio) in the Al furat River Bridge of Mussayab in Babylon province
تشخيص الامراض الطفيلية لاسماك الكارب الاعتيادي في الاقفاص جسر المسيب نهر الفرات محافظة بابل

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77 fish from the common carp has been examined farms of fish (cages) In AL Furat River- Mussaib Babel province Period of four months from January to April. took Samples from the cages to laboratory . Investigate every of gill, skin and fins of fishes inspected by microscope and in second phase direct Samples are prepared from probable lesions. Gills were dissected and its filaments placed in Petri dishes with Glycerin. Have been found total 6 parasites, Two species from protozoa Myxobolus , Trichodina and four species from the monogenetic D. extensus , D.achmerowi, D. minutes, Dactylogyrus vastato The diagnosis by ( 1)

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Parasite --- Fishes --- Fresh water --- Furat River --- Babylon.


Article
Serological Investigation Of Caprine Brucellosis At Saniyah District
الاستقصاء المصلي عن مرض البروسيلات في الماعز في ناحية السنية

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Brucellosis is important zoonotic disease in Iraq affect variety species of animals, cattle, sheep goats, camels and horses and transmitted to human being by direct contact with diseased animals or by ingestion of contaminated unpasteurized milk and milk products .The disease characterized by chronic nature and the infection may develop unobserved which lead to local clustering of infected cases. Serological survey was conducted to detect prevalence of brucella antibodies among goats by random selection of 120 animals in two villages at Saniyah out of target population of 848 in 32 villages. Rose Bengal test used for detection of IgM antibodies by using standard Brucella antigen ( Synbiotics,Lyon, France ), indirect ELISA kit ( NovaLisa, Germany) was applied to investigate the seroprevalence of brucellosis in goats of studied area, the results of collected serum samples which subjected to RBT & i ELISA were 10.8 % and 12.5 % respectively,the positive results of i ELISA were higher than that of RBT which was significantly differed .The seropositivty in male 20% were higher than female 12.17% with significant difference , while the seroprevalence in relation to age groups were reported in adult animals only 14.4% and 16.6 by using RBT and ELISA respectively and there were no positive results in young ones . In conclusion brucellosis is still spread among goats and host risk factor comprise age and sex in addition to the types of serological test influence the seroprevalence percentage, more attention should be directed towards preventing of caprine brucellosis by application of proper control programs.


Article
Comparison the therapeutic effects of henna, procaine penicillin and povidone-iodine solutions as uterine flushings in Iraqi Arabian mares
مقارنة التأثير الدوائي لمحاليل الحناء والبروكائين بنسلين واليود كغسول رحمي للأفراس العربية العراقية

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In the last decade, many researchers tried herbal medicine due to its beneficial therapeutic effects by less side effects, so our study is conducted on (12) Iraqi Arabian mares to compare the therapeutic effect of henna 20% with procaine penicillin and povidone-iodine 1% solutions. The results shows the superiority therapeutic effects of henna 20% than that of procaine penicillin and povidone-iodine therapies as uterine flushing . The comparison between the types of treatments and their effects on the different types of bacteria which are included in this study, shows the superior effect on E. coli is by Henna (54.25± 1.49), the procaine penicillin has moderate effect(177± 3.22), while Povidone- iodine has weak effect(278.8± 1.71). The superior effect on Staphylococcus aureus is by procaine penicillin(148±25.99), and Povidone- iodine ( 220±20.81), While Henna has weak effect (278.8± 1.71). While the moderate effect on Streptococcus zooepidemicus is by Henna(70± 7.93) and Povidone- iodine(240.33±32.64), while procaine penicillin has weak effect(180.66± 2.33). The fertility rates of the treatment groups are ( henna solution 20%, 91.66%, procaine penicillin solution, 66.66%, and Povidone- iodine solution, 58.33%) respectively. The pregnancy rates of the treatment groups are (henna solution 20%, 100%, procaine penicillin solution , 58.33%, and Povidone- iodine solution , 33.33%) respectively. The fertility rates of the treatment groups are ( G1, 91.66%, G2, 66.66%, and G3, 58.33%) respectively. The pregnancy rates of the treatment groups are (G1, 100%, G2, 58.33%, and G3, 33.33%) respectively All the results are significant statistically atP≤0.05.According to our results, we conclude that henna solution has beneficial therapeutic effect as uterine flushing for the most common causative bacteria in mares uterine. These results are very useful for veterinarians who are deal with horses health.

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Article
Effectivness the Acupuncture and Electroacupuncture in the Treatment of Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness in Racing Horses: Comparative Study
استخدام الوخز بالأبر والأبر الكهربائية في علاج تأخر بداية وجع العضلات في خيول السباق دراسة مقارنة

Authors: Abdul Muniem Ibrahim Salih Aljobory
Pages: 109-119
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This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of acupuncture and electroacupuncture on the symptoms of Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness DOMS in racing horses through diminishing inflammation and decreasing pain. Unpredictable allocation to (10) racing horses with (DOMS), were assigned randomly to two groups, namely Acupuncture (A group) and Electroacupuncture (EA group). Both groups were performed the treatment three times every week for four sequential weeks. Measurement of pain with both front legs was used as indices of their efficacy by using the VAS (Visual Analogue Scale). Significant differences in visual analog scores for pain were found between (A group) and (EA group) immediately after treatment. The results show that stimulation points of Acupuncture and Electroacupuncture relieved muscle pain of DOMS.


Article
Molecular detection of haemotropic mycoplasma infection in sheep
الكشف الجزيئي عن الاصابة بالمايكوبلازما الدموية في الاغنام

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This study was the first report about hemotropic mycoplasmoses in sheep at middle of Iraq as well as the first trail to investigate this infection among ticks .EDTA blood samples were collected from four hundred ( 400 ) Awassi sheep during February –July 2016 ,two hundard ( 200) of sheep clinicallyhad signs of anemia ,weakness ( infected group )and another 200 sheep that clinically healthy( healthy group ) ,all examined sheep were ranked according to gender( male and female ) and to age periods ( less than and more than one year ) and each sub group included 100 sheep , that tested by PCR assay by using specific Mycoplasma ovis primer with 1341 bp that detect infection rates 17.5% which significantly higher in infected group 25.5% than healthy group 7.5% and the yearling sheep was more susceptible to infection 22.5% than adult 12.5% and the infection was higher in female 20.4% than in male 14.5% , the Mycoplasma ovis infection was recorded with higher percentage in July 24.7% while no infection in February will be showed . All blood samples of positivity infected sheep (70 ) were submitted into blood indices analysis which exhibited significant reduction in all blood parameters ( RBCs ,Hb ,PCV ,MCH ,MCHC, platelets ) when compare with group of negativity PCR healthy sheep as control group . The trail to investigate about Mycoplasma ovis in (40) ticks picked up from examined sheep from tail and ear sites with standard parasitological methods by using the same primer of Mycoplasma ovis by PCR , this technique was gave negative result . The conclusion include Mycoplasma ovis infection was registered in Awassi sheep with increasable rate in emaciated ,anemic sheep and so in yearling ,female and warm months of year with haemolytic macrocytic anemia.


Article
Efficiency of Dietary Turmeric on Growth Performance, Hematology and Survival Rate in Common Carp Cyprinus carpio Challenged with Flexibacter columnaris

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The present study was carried out to assess the effect of turmeric (curcoma longa) supplemented diet on growth performance, hematology and survival rate of Cyprinus carpio L. against the pathogenic bacteria Flexibacter columnaris. For this purpose, 180 common carp were used, 60 fish were used to determine LD50 and 120 fish were weighed and randomly distributed into six treatments (two replications for each treatment). Fish groups were fed six dissimilar diets up to 45 days, the first group was fed with 0.25% turmeric, the second group was fed supplemented with 0.5% turmeric, the third group was supplemented with 0.75% turmeric, the forth group was fed with 1% turmeric, the fifth group was supplemented with 1.25 % turmeric and the sixth group was served as the control group fed basal diet without supplementing with turmeric. After 45 days of feeding trail all fish in experimental groups were challenged intramuscularly with 0.2 ml F. columnaris at a concentration of 120 × 106 CFU/ml. after 45 day of feeding trail and post challenge the different parameters were determined including: growth performance, hematological parameters (WBC and RBC count, Hb content and PCV value) and survival rate were also determined. The obtained results showed that T5 was the best treatment followed by T4, T3, T2 and T1 respectively, which revealed a significant increase (P≤0.05) in comparison with the control group in all growth performance parameters (final weight, daily gain, SGR(%), relative growth rate, FCR and FCE%). RBC, HB and PCV% after 45 and 60 days (pre and post challenged with F. columnaris) revealed significant differences (P<0.05) in all experimental groups relative to the control group. In conclusion, our findings indicate that turmeric powder has improved the growth rate in C. carpio when challenged with F. columnaris. Also, addition of turmeric t into commercial feeds increased survival rate of carp fish challenged with a bacterial pathogen. This will be worth and useful for application in fish aquaculture.


Article
Role of seasonal changes on serum ghrelin and lipid profile in Turkish Awassi Rams
دور التغيرات الموسميه في مستوى هرمون الكرلين ومعايير الدهون في الكباش العواسية التركية في العراق.

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The present study was designed to investigate the role of sesonality changes on some physiological aspect of Ghrelin , lipid profile and their relation to body weight.Ten adult Turkish Awassi rams (1.2-1.3 years in age) and bodies weights ranged (45-58kg) were used in this study , which lasted from the beginning of January 2016 to the end of October 2016. Body weights of each individual ram were taken for each ten days. Blood samples were collected every ten days along the experiment at fasting and feeding states . and then blood samples was collected one hour after feeding for the same ten adult rams(considered feeding state). Ghrelin , cholesterol, triglycerids ,HDL-C,LDL-C,VLDL-C concentrations were estimated . The environmental temperature was measured by using special thermometer every day along experimental peroid. The results of this study revealed a significant increase in ghrelin hormone,cholesterol, triglyceride,HDL-C,and VLDL-C concentrations ,specially at Winter and Spring seasons in Turkish awassi rams serum at fasting state as compared to feeding .Additionally , the concentration of LDL-C shows a significant decrease during feeding state. The correlation coefficient between studies parameters indicated that ghrelin has a positive significant correlation with Cholesterol, Triglyceride, HDL-C and VLDL-C level in rams serum. On the other hand , the environmental temperature seems to has a highly negative significant(p≤0.01) correlation with serum levels of cholesterol, Triglyceride ,HDL-c,LDL-c and VLDL-c So we concluded the positive relationship between the ghrelin hormone and parameters related to lipid profiles and nagativelly relationship between environmental temperature and lipid profile under the effect of seasonality in the Turkish awassi rams.


Article
Comparative microscopically study of the skin in local and wild rabbits
دراسة نسجية مقارنة للجلد في الأرانب المحلية والأرانب البرية

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Abstract

This study was prepared to compare between the skin of local and wild rabbits. The samples were taken from five body region (ear, abdomen, neck, thorax and back ).The present study revealed that the basic structure of the skin in local and wild rabbits formed of supperfacial layer is epidermis, which covered with keratinized stratified squamous epithelium and arranged into four rows from cells, beside thickness of epidermis in local rabbit more than that thickness of epidermis in wild rabbits .The deep layer is dermis which dermis divided into two layers, the superficial papillary and deep reticular layers without a clear line demarcation between two layers. Local rabbit dermis was thicker than that wild rabbit dermis due to density of dense irregular connective tissue and fibers. There are two types of hair follicles in both animals was primary and secondary hair follicles. The follicles consists of one into three primary hair follicles and clusters of secondary hair follicles in local rabbit whereas in the wild rabbits, the follicles consists of central primary hair follicles and several of smaller secondary follicles surrounded the central primary hair follicles. The present study revealed that ratio of secondary to primary hair follicles was less in local rabbits than that wild rabbits.


Article
Relative Frequency and Regional Distribution of Enteroendocrine cells in small and large intestine of goat

Authors: Saffia Kareem Alumare
Pages: 157-166
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Abstract

Some parts of the intestinal tract, which involve in secretion of certain hormones that regulate significant organs of the body, the purpose of the research to study the site endocrine cell in small intestine & colon in goat, the present study included 5 specimens of intestine goat from the ages ranging from 1-5 years to determine the site endocrine cells in the parts of intestine examined via using immunohistochemistry procedure material. It was used immunohistochemistry textile technology and (ChromograinnA), which is a special detector Endocrine intestinal cells, three types of hormones. Immune chemical assessment in the mucous layer duodenum and the presence of hormones, 'glucose insulin tropic polypeptide(GIP) results showed (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide2 (GLP-2)' in epithelial cells collection along the internal axis of the villi , the cells appeared triangular or slender shape indicate that they are enter ondocrine cell chemical immunological consequences for many of the sections shown note chromogranin A detector chiefly for intestinal endocrine cells, the cells that have hormones (GIP) , glucose insulin tropic polypeptide and glucagon peptide GLP-1) containing this reagent representative confirm the site of these cells, a gastric endocrine cells ,the result attendance that presence the GIP was in the duodenal region higher than ilium & jejunum while the GLP-1/ GIP-2 was clear to a large extent in colon and obtrusive in ilium .


Article
Molecular Detection of Some A.hydrophila Toxins and its Antibiotics Resistance Pattern Isolated From Chicken Feces in Thi-Qar Province (Iraq)

Authors: Muslim Dhaher Musa --- Waffa Abdulelah Ahmed2
Pages: 167-180
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Abstract

The high isolation rate of virulent A.hydrophila from chicken represent an important public health concern especially when these bacteria exhibit increased antimicrobial resistance to medically important antibiotics, so this study was conducted to isolate A.hydrophila from chicken feces and investigate the presence of some toxins genes and determine their antibiotics resistance profile. Chicken feces were collected from different regions, throughout Thi-Qar province south of Iraq, in period extended from July 2015 to January 2016. A.hydrophila isolates were identified by morphological, biochemical and API20E. These isolated were subjected to PCR assay for confirmation, targeting 16S RNA-23SRNA Intergenic Spacers Region and for detection of important virulence genes including hemolytic toxin Aerolysin (Aero), Heat labile enterotoxin (Alt) and Heat stable enterotoxin (Ast). Twelve A.hydrophial were isolated and identified to species level among 23 Aeromonas spp isolated from chicken fecal samples with overall incidence rate (52.6%). Screening for virulence genes revealed that 10/12 (83.4%) were positive for Aerolysin ( Aero) gene and 9/12( 75%) for Heat labile enterotoxin (Alt ) gene, while none of these isolates were positive for Heat stable enterotoxin (Ast) gene 0/12(0%).The most prevalent genotype was (Aer+ Alt+ Ast_). Antibiogram against 19 antibiotics revealed that, all isolates in showed absolute susceptibility(100%) to Gentamycin, Oflaxacin, Amikacin, Norfloxacin, Imipnem Ciprofloacin. However, multidrug resistance recorded in all isolates, 2 isolates (16.7%) were resistant to eight antibiotics including , Clindamycin, Cephalothin , Vancomycin, Ticacillin-clavulnoc acid, Ceftazidime, Cefoxitin, Trimethoprim-sulfamethaxazon, Azithromycin ,with multidrug resistance index (0.42) , and 5/12 (41.7%) were resistance to seven antibiotics (58.4%) with MDRI( 0.36), four isolates( 33.4%) were resistant to six antibiotics with MDRI ( 0.31), while only one isolates 1/12(8.4%) were resistant to five antibiotic with MDRI (0.26). The present study showed that detection of pathogenic A.hydrophila harboring important virulence genes Aerolysin and Alt with resistance to many clinically important antibiotics is a good indication that chicken feces constitute important source for pathogenic Ahydrophila infecting human that come in contact with chicken and spread of multidrug resistance organisms in environment .


Article
Anatomical and histological study of adrenal gland in new natal and adult guinea pig (Caviaporcellus)

Authors: Thamir A. Abass
Pages: 181-192
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Abstract

Histomorphological study on the adrenal gland was conducted in guinea pig after birth including three period of life, one day old, 15 days and adult guinea pig. Right and left adrenal glands were collected from guinea pig and fixed in10% neutral buffered formalin, and Orth stock solution as a fixative for routine paraffin embedding. The organ sections at 6 μm thickness and after that stains with H&E and PAS stain. Anatomically the adrenal glands are paired white flat organs embedded in fat located cranial to the kidneys within the retroperitoneal space. The adrenal gland has a very characteristic tissue design that is often easily recognizable even without a microscope. Each gland in cross section show an outer cortex appears yellowish connective tissue , and an inner medulla that appears brownish in color .Hitologically adrenal gland is surrounded on the surface by a connective tissue capsule and zones, from the outer to inner are; 1. Zonaglomerulosa 2. Zonafasciculata 3. Zonareticularis.. The adrenal cortex represents 80-90% of the adrenal gland.

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Article
Detection of Salmonella Spp. in milk samples of selected regions of Diyala city
الكشف عن تلوث حليب الابقار بجرثومة السالمونيلا المرضية في مناطق مختلفة من محافظة ديالى

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Abstract

The aim of this study was to identify milk contamination that produced from dairy cattle with salmonella organisms in different regions of Diyala city. Fresh (unpasteurized) and heat treated (pasteurized) milk samples (n=10) were collected randomly from non-similar five regions of Diyala city that well-known with dairy cattle production particularly local shops and cattle shepherd markets, samples were send to the laboratory for some microbial testing. Special selective media were prepared and cultured with pasteurized and raw unpasteurized milk, the results refered that there were infected milk samples out of 10 fresh unpasteurized milk as the following percentage, 10% Rashdiah, 20% Bani saad, 80% Ghalbiah, 50% Khalis and 20 % Shiftah, while the pasteurized milk samples displayed contamination out of 10 samples as the previous (20% Rashdiah and 10% Ghalbiah), other pasteurized samples regions showed negative results for salmonella in regions of Bani saad, Khalis and Shiftah. We concluded that both heat treated and fresh milk may be unsafe for humankind ingesting if produced under unsanitary conditions or insufficient pasteurization.


Article
Molecular detection of Stx1 and Stx2 genes in E.Coli O157:H7 isolated from Cow's and Buffalo's soft cheese samples inBabylon Province, using Multiplex PCR technique.
التحري الجزيئي عن ذيفانات الاشريشية القولونية E.Coli O157:H7 والمعزولة من عينات الجبن المحلي للابقار والجاموس في محافظة بابل بتقنية PCR

Authors: Najm Hadi Najim --- Amer Jebur Obayes AL-Isawi
Pages: 199-207
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Abstract

Colonies of E.Coli O157:H7 were isolated from 80 locally produced Cow's and Buffalo's soft cheese samples that were collected randomly at weekly intervals (5 samples/ week) from various retail markets in different locations of babylon province during two climatic periods(40 samples /species/season) where the first periad was extended from the begining of December 2015 to the end of February 2016 while the second period was extended from the begining of July to the end of September 2016.The identification of E.Coli O157:H7 isolates were confirmed based on their cultural, biochemical and seralogical characteristics using the commercial latex agglutination test kit and by duplex PCR technique. Data revealed that there was a significant (P≤ 0.05) seasonal variation in the prevalence of E.Coli O157:H7 where all Cow's and Buffalo's soft cheese samples had significantly (P≤ 0.05) higher prevalence of E.Coli O157:H7 in summer season (50% and 40% respectively) than in winter season (25% and 15% respectively).It was found that all of the 80 bovine soft cheese samples had significantly (p<0.05) higher prevalence of E.Coli O157:H7 in summer (45%) than in winter (20%) seasons. The results of the diagnosis of E.coli O157:H7 were confirmed by PCR assay which showed that,six culturing isolates serotype E.coli O157:H7 were postive by PCR assay and five of these isolates expressed gene of Stx1 whearse one isolate expressed gene of Stx2


Article
Effect power levels in microwave of E.Coli O 157:H7 from bovine milk and Soft Cheese samples in Babylon Province
تاثير مستويات مختلفة من الموجات الصغرى الكهرومغناطيسية للاشريشيا القولونية E.Coli O157:H7 والمعزولة من عينات الحليب والجبن المحلي للابقار والجاموس في محافظة بابل

Authors: Najm Hadi Najim --- Amer Jebur Obayes AL-Isawi
Pages: 208-217
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Abstract

Colonies of E.Coli O157:H7 were isolated from 80 locally produced Cow's and Buffalo's soft cheese samples that were collected randomly at weekly intervals (5 samples/week) from various retail markets in different locations of babylon province during two climatic periods(40 samples /species/season) where the first periad was extended from the begining of December 2015 to the end of February 2016 while the second period was extended from the begining of July to the end of September 2016.In addition,50 fresh cattle faecal samples were collected from different farms in babylon province for the isolation of E.Coli O157:H7.The identification of E.Coli O157:H7 isolates were confirmed based on their cultural, biochemical and seralogical characteristics using the commercial latex agglutination test kit .Data revealed that there was a significant (P≤ 0.05) seasonal variation in the prevalence of E.Coli O157:H7 where all Cow's and Buffalo's soft cheese samples had significantly (P≤ 0.05) higher prevalence of E.Coli O157:H7 in summer season (50% and 40% respectively) than in winter season (25% and 15% respectively).It was found that all of the 80 bovine soft cheese samples had significantly (p≤0.05) higher prevalence of E.Coli O157:H7 in summer (45%) than in winter (20%) seasons. In addition to that, all the 50 bovine faecal samples had significantly (P≤ 0.05) higher prevalence of E.Coli O157:H7 in summer (72%) than in winter (40%) seasons. Complete elimination of viable E.Coli O157:H7 was achieved when the inoculated milk was subjected to the microwave power level of 900 watts after 30 seconds of exposure. Complete elimination of viable E.Coli O157:H7 was acheived when the contaminated soft cheese samples were subjected to the microwave power level of either 300 or 450 watts for 60 seconds of exposure.


Article
Molecular Detection of virulence factor genes in pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from human and animals in Diwaniya province
التشخيص الجزيئي لجينات عوامل الضراوة في الزوائف الزنجارية المعزولة من الانسان والحيوان في محافظة الديوانية

Authors: Azhar Abdulsada Neamah
Pages: 218-230
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Virulent factors are molecules that produced by pathogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosa that enable it to play a great role in causes of the disease , these virulence factors encoding by virulence genes located in the chromosome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. However, this study was examined four virulence factors genes included (toxA) that encoding to exotoxin A , (exoS) that encoding to exoenzyme S , outer membrane protein (oprL), and outer membrane lipoprotein I (oprI) that encoding surface protein (lipoprotein) by use PCR technique based using specific primers were design in this study.(50) swab samples were collected from human clinical infection samples from Al-Diwanyia hospital, and (30) milk samples were taken from cattle milk that infected by mastitis from different fields in Al-Diwanyia province. The samples were cultured on selective media and then extracted DNA followed by PCR technique to detect the virulence genes. The results were shown a clear difference in isolation of P. areuginosa isolates from human and animal source. Where, in human the percentage of P. areuginosa in wound was (42.8%),in the burn was (70%) , and Otitis media was (68.7%), while, in cattle the percentage of P.aeruginosa in milk was (26.6%); Where percentage of ToxA genes was (100%) in the wound and cow milk; and it was (92.8%) and (81.8%) in burn and Otitis media respectively. while , exoA gene were (66%) , (57.1%), (45.4%) and (75%) while were oprL gene was (50%) ,(50%) , (54.5%) and (50%) , oprI were (66%) ,(42.8%) , (54.5%) and (50%) in Wound , Burn, Otitis media , Cattle milk isolates respectively .In conclusion,use of PCR technique which given high specific and accurate results for detection of virulence factors genes in P.aeruginosa isolates that responsible for cause in disease in human and animals.


Article
Detection virulence factors of Klebsiella pneumonia from cattle by using PCR tec.
الكشف عن عوامل ضراوة الكلبسيلا الرئوية المعزولة من الابقار باستخدام تقنية سلسلة تفاعل البلمرة

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Identification of K. pneumoniae was avaluated using conventional microbiological characteristics and molecular assays . Milk specimens were collected from cattle suffered from clinical symptoms of mastitis from different farms of AL-Qadisyiah province. Out of 45 samples obtained, 20 isolates ( 44.4 %) were detected as K. pneumonia according to morphology of colonies and biochemical features. Molecular detection of Klebsiella pneumoniae based 16S rRNA gene for determination two virulence factor genes(rmpA,magA) by using specific primer.These genes potent the pathogenesis of Klebisella pneumonia. The primers were made in this study by using NCBI-GenBank and primer3 plus design online. The primer is made by company in Korea (Bioneer). Moleculer detection of isolates which give away specific PCR products of of 312bp for magA gene and 835bp for rmpA gene . The magA and rmpA genes were amplified in six (30%)and five(25%) isolates out of 20 isolates of Klebsiella pneumonia.


Article
The Cytoprotective Effect of Crocin on Oxaliplatin Treated VERO cell line In Vitro Study

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Abstract

Background Cancer is a disease characterized by a shifted in the control mechanism that governs cell survival, proliferation and differentiation. There are many types of treatment to the cancer like surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, immunotherapy and others. Each of these above treatments has its indication effect and has Sid effect and / or adverse effect. The chemotherapy is one type of this treatment to the cancer that have the indication effect, side effect and adverse effect. There are many type of chemotherapeutic agent that used for this type of cancer one of them it is platinum compound (cisplatin, oxaliplatin and others). There are two types of limitation in the use of these agents one of them is the side effect which is neurotoxicity, Ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and etc. and the second one is the resistance of cancer cells to these agents. Aim of the study Taste the cytoprotection effect of Crocin on oxaliplatin treated VERO cell line Material and methods:- By using the tissue culture techniques which is a newly used techniques to check the cytotoxicity of many compound and the expected mechanism of action these techniques made a good jump in the research in many field In this study we use VERO cell line and after exposure of this cell line firstly to different concentrations of oxaliplatin ( 1, 0.5, 0.25 and 0.125 mg/ml) for 48hr, secondly to different concentrations of Crocin (0.5, 0.25 and 0.125 mg/ ml ) for 48hr. And thirdly to mix concentrations of oxaliplatin and Crocin in 48hr for the VERO cell line and measure the cytotoxicity of these exposures by crystal violet test (C.V. test) to show and compare the effect of these agents specially the Crocin. The oxaliplatin has cytotoxic effect, its inhibitory concentration 50% (IC50) in 48hr is (0.031mg/ml) which is the maximum cytotoxic effect in vitro. While the Crocin don’t have cytotoxic effect at this tested concentration and for this cell line. After mixed different concentration of Crocin with different concentration of oxaliplatin the cytotoxicity of oxaliplatin reduce significantly. Conclusion:- From our study we can conclude the following:- The Crocin has cytoprotective effect. The Crocin has no anti tumor and anti proliferative activity within these tasted concentration and this cell line

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Article
Rice bran phytic acid protects against methotrexate -induced oxidative stress and acute liver injury in rats
دراسة التأثير الكابح لحامض الفايتك ضد الاجهاد التأكسدي في ضرر الكبد الحاد المستحدث بلميثوتكسيت في الجرذان

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Methotrexate is an effective and extensively used chemotherapeutic agent to treat range of malignancies, but its therapeutic use is limited because of dose dependent hepatotoxicity. Several published reports advocate that supplementation with antioxidant can influence methotrexate induced acute liver injury. Twenty four adult male rats (aged 56 days and weighted 138±8.8g) were randomly assigned into four equal groups (control and three treated groups), first group as control group given normal saline, a second single injection 20mg /kg B.W. i.p. of methotrexate, third group given15mg/kg B.W. of phytic acid, then given single injection 20mg /kg B.W. i.p. of methotrexate and fourth group given 15mg/kg B.W. of phytic acid for 10 days, and male rats were sacrificed. Blood and liver, subcellular fluid was obtained to assess subcellular activity of Alanine aminotranferease (ALT), Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase, quinone reductase (QR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), lipid peroxidation, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and total protein. The results of liver injury rats (T) showed significant increased activity of ALT, AST, GGT, LDH, decreased GSH, GR, GST, GPx, CAT, QR, SOD, (p<0.05) when compared with the control, and histological findings further supported the protective effects of phytic acid against methotrexate induced acute liver injury. phytic acid (D) therapy moderated liver damage and normalized the activities of all antioxidant enzymes. In conclusion, present study demonstrate that oxidative stress and liver injury are closely associated with methotrexate induced toxicity and phytic acid shows the protective efficacy against methotrexate induced acute liver injury possibly via attenuating the oxidative stress and inflammatory response.


Article
Efficacy of Parenteral Kanamycin - Colistin Mixture in Treatment of Contaminated Wounds in Local Breed Donkeys
فعالية علاج خليط الكاناميسين كوليستين بالحقن في علاج الجروح الملوثة في الحمير - المحلية

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This study was conducted on donkeys in Al-Najaf city in university of kufa /college of veterinary medicine during January /2017 till Faberuary /2017 to evaluate the effect of (kacolis® ) Fivevet/vietnam (kanamycin and colistin mixture) in treatment contaminated woundes in donkeys,and observe of the clinical features , blood picture and levels of some enzymes in the serum . In this study five donkey treated with the drug as affected group and three donkeys as control group treated with normal saline,and blood samples were collected from each one to estimate blood picture and serum enzymes concentration The clinical examination of treated donkeys was showed normal heart and respiratory rates and body temperature while in control group which showed increase in heart ,respiratory and temperature. The results of hematological picture of control and treated donkey group show non significant differences between of them except the neutrophile cell number which appear increase in control group than treated animals Serum alanin transefers eenzyme concentration was (15±0.43)U/L ,urea (25.3 ±0.3 mg/dl)and creatinin (1.3±0.031 mg/dl) in treated donkey within normal valeus, and the result of control donkeys were (14.6±0.13 ) U/L , (24±0.5 mg/dl )and (1.24±0,02 mg/dl) respectively .

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