Table of content

journal of Human Sciences

مجلة العلوم الانسانية

ISSN: 19922876
Publisher: Babylon University
Faculty: Education / Safi Al-DainAl-Heliy
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

Humanities Journal

HJ is a precise scientific journal issued by College of Education for Humanities and started in 2010 to emit the rays of light to different research in both Arabic and English.
Before all, it is seasonal published four times a year.the scientific evaluation of all the researches are done at the hand of experts specialized academically and linguistically from inside and abroad.
One of the achievements the journal exudes is to issue a version exclusive to the yearly scientific conference into which many researchers, from Iraq and other countries participate. In the aggregate, the journal reaches fruition ,as it receives many notes of appreciation from Iraq and other countries for the meritorious efforts.

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Table of content: 2016 volume:4 issue:23

Article
Chiasmus as a Stylistic Device in Donne’s and Vaughan’s Poetry

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Abstract

This study investigates chiasmus as a stylistic device in ten metaphysical poems (five for John Donne and five for Henry Vaughan). It aims at showing how both, Donne and Vaughan, utilize chiasmus at the different linguistic levels as a stylistic device in their poetry. Thus, to achieve this aim, it is hypothesized that chiasmus as used by Donne constitutes a distinctive stylistic device in his poetry, in comparison with Vaughan. Then, in order to achieve the aim of the study and test its hypothesis, the following procedures are adopted: (1) presenting a theoretical background about chiasmus and the linguistic levels on which it can manifest itself. (2) analyzing ten poems (five for each poet) according to an eclectic model developed by the study.

Keywords

Chiasmus --- poetry --- stylistics


Article
الانحياز الجنسي (مركزة الرجل وتهميش المرأة ) في رسائل الجاحظ (ت255ه)

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sexual bias, taking the board bigeye of issuance of his communications material anatomical encouraging to discover the fingerprints of this patriarchal cultural pattern Almngol in Arab culture structure since ancient times, and summed up the central idea, which is struggling Search For provable and indigenization that bigeye may insist the man on the expense of women, and toil in order to centralize the male and Tsidah female, suppression and marginalization of the starting point in that of his memory Assembly and contributing at the same time in perpetuating the status quo, and the consolidation of the close cultural pattern in the Arab and Islamic culture, especially the Abbasid era in which he lived bigeye.


Article
مخارج الأصوات عند شرّاح كتاب المفصَّل للزمخشريّ (ت538هـ) في ضوء دراسات القدماء والمحدثين

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This research deals with the study of the place of articulation of the Arabic letters in Alzamakhshery’s annotations in his book Almufasl. Also it deals with the, these annotation: sherh Almufasl fi sun’at Ale’arab for sader Alafadhel Alkhawarizmy(die 617 A.H), sherh Almufasl for Ibn ya’esh (die 643 A.H),and Al’eedhah fi sherh Almufasl for Ibn AlHajib (die 646 A.H). And This research will do akind of comperation between the opinions of the ancient writers like Alkhaleel (die 175 A.H), seebawaih (die 175 A.H) and modern linguists The research will high light the labous of the three annotators , their agreement to the opinions of the ancient , their solitary as well as the range of the agreement of the modern linguists to the annotators opinions


Article
الدلالة النحوية واللغوية للجملة والنص في اللغة العربية بين القدماء والمحدثيندراسة موازنة

Authors: حسام عبد علي الجمل
Pages: 1448-1483
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The philologic text represents -in the form of writing or speaking- a ground for interaction, and the texts used differ in their length, whether they were short or long, mono-sentenced or multi-sentenced, that’s why texts are considered a horizontally organized sequence of philologic signals that are taken as directions from an identified sender. Of the most obvious signs, is the coupling between eloquent and colloquial language producing a (hybrid) language. That what happens in any other language spares the Arabic language that has been linked to the holy Quran, that’s why for the old grammarians; the grammar study had been linked to the holiness of the Arabic language, and those who are interested in other languages avoid comparing studies of the Arabic with its Semitic fellows on one side, and with its local accents on the other. From all that came to us, the grammarians approximate the Arabic language to other languages, and in all human languages the sentence is the root that the text is depending on, and it is the basic constituent. As for the textology and the grammar they depend in the science they state on the semantic and grammarian relationship, as they anchor on the formation that constitutes the text depending on the sentence. And regarding the structural connections they don't give clear meanings or significances to the text, so they lack the accuracy of the text and its objectivity, and the research had made its way to study the semantics between the sentence and the text in the eyes of old grammarians on top of which is Sibawayh, Ibn Jinni, Aljahidh, Aljurjani, and Alsakaki, as well as the new ones: of the Arabs Ahmed Almutawak'kil, Abdul Qadir Alfasi Alfihri, Muhammed Ahmed Abu Mosa, Fadhil Alsamarra'ee, and Tamam Hassan, and of the foreigners of which the most famous ones were Dick, Julia Kristeva, Spillner, Klaus Brinker, Haldi, Brigitte Parch, Harris, J. Firbas, F. Danes, Hymes, Austin, Searle, Grace, Goffman, Mathésius, and Dance, and from the new ones: Phet, Hatfield, Chomsky, de Saussure, J. Greimas, P. Hartmann, and Deborah Cameron. The research included an introduction, four studies, and a conclusion. In the first study came the modern recruitment of grammar, while the second study was about the sentence between the past and the present, the third study dealt with Arabic sentence from the modern perspective of grammar, and in the fourth one I studied the Arabic sentence relationship with science of text language.


Article
البعد النفسي في ثنائيات المكان عند الشعراء العراقيين (1990-2003)

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This spatial Polarities that we have experienced in this chapter chunky movement and stillness, but are complementary to each other, do not cancel each other and are integrated with each other, and assist each other in the formation of the significance and meaning in the text, the intensity of association consciously rights and activities of actors, depending on the diversity of categories of physical, sensory and The Colored, because of their of side effects in the characters corner it, and that the texts that were subject to follow-up within this dialectical vary in their levels, but the creativity was evident in each of them, and the fingerprints of possibilities poetic conscious were prominent in, but this disparity prompted us to analyze these texts in ways that vary from the text to another, may find the poet in those places wandering, and this is creating a kind of embrace and harmony between them, the opposite may happen. Hence, we can emphasize the fact that the human / poet clung to the place is nothing but a form of adherence to life, the place is not just a container to protect us, but it is the interaction and practice and meet and dialogue in the presence of life projects.


Article
الأخطاء القرائية لدى طلبة قسم اللغة العربية دراسة تحليلية

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Emphasizes research problem on the face of the large number of errors literacy in the readings students of the Language, it has become a phenomenon of remarkable and rampant them to paralyze large, and the fact that this phenomenon aboard phenomena serious Boalnsabh students specialists studied Arabic, so the researchers found harmful studying this problem because of its negative effects on levels Student achievement, was the objective of the study is to identify patterns of errors made by the students Atinaalqrah located and identify current research a particular third student in the Department of Arabic at the college of Education for human Sciences amounted to (40) students pulled at random from the research community total of (240) students to achieve the goal of research the researchers choose the text Qarane of Surah Al-Imran from verse (1-25) after taking the views of specialists in the Department of Arabic language, the researchers logged readings students of Quranic text, each student individually, then sorts the other patterns that occurred with students during the reading, and to verify the stability of sorting mistakes use researchers style Sort mistakes, another researcher, has matched the result in both cases (100%), It took the search results, but the students and Qao in three patterns of errors during reading, to varying degrees, and these patterns are: - A pattern of grammatical mistakes in reading, as students missed twenty subject grammatically prints reading. B mistakes literal reading style, if students missed (3) the patterns of errors craft. C- mistakes acoustic style, has missed the students a set of acoustic mistakes in regard to the pronunciation of letters and Besorsahihh movements during reading. The researchers recommended a set of recommendations including: A need to follow up teaching Arabic language section to the extent recruit students to the rules of the Arabic language during reading. (B) the need to train students to Te Arabic Language in oral expression through verbal exercises work in the classroom. C methods that include students' verbal tests measure the student's ability to correct reading tests as well as the written evaluation. Magtrah researchers set of proposals Asthmala current search them. (A) conduct a study to investigate the reasons for class reading among students in different stages of learning. (B) conduct a study to build a standard for proper reading skills.


Article
لفظة ( أئمة ) في القراءات القرآنية

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Abstract

Keywords


Article
تحليل التذبذب والاتجاه لعناصر مناخ السماوة للمدة 1980- 2012

Authors: قصي فاضل الحسيني
Pages: 1546-1576
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Address Search Volatility and trend analysis of the elements Samawa climate for the period 1980- 2012 The research aims to study and analyze the fluctuation and direction of the elements of the climate in Samawa and for the period 1981- 2012, as the affected area as do the neighboring areas locally or regionally climate chainging witnessed by the world as a whole, took a rain great to fluctuate in the fall dates from year to year either temperatures upward in annual rates and levels, minimum and maximum in light of global warming and what that temperature is the base engine for the rest of the climate elements so our study came to shed light on the progress and direction of the fluctuation of climatic elements in Samawa station and through the climate data collection from the beginning of the founding of weather station in 1980 until the year 2012 draw time series at a rate of (5 years) and follow the trend line as it was heading towards the rise or fall through the annual rate or it may be a large annual fluctuation The study came up with several conclusions was the most important 1- all weather elements in the region have seen a clear fluctuated from time to time for the annual general rates. 2-The change got more climatic elements and deviation from the rates in the last years of the period, especially the beginning of this century and this is in line with the severity of climatic changes witnessed by the world during the same time. 3-the most weather elements change is the temperature at which tended to rise in the current global warming and the element of rain that tended to decline in the general totals. 4-the maximum temperature deviation large role in the upward trend line has risen for the last years dramatically


Article
النظام الحضري في محافظة بابل

Authors: اميرة محمد علي حمزة
Pages: 1577-1597
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Abstract

I have dealt with many researches and civilian studies in in temaional and local levels .The civilan system conceming pyramidal arrangement and spatial distribution and its types for civilian settlements for its great importance for peoples' life and its development .Specifying and putting developing policy is considered one of the most elements that contribute to realize the human development level and overcoming the difference phenomenon in levels of progress and growth development within one state and among different regions moreover : reducing the rural and civilian differences in developent level . It also contributes in removing the differences among administrative units to find a state of balance with effective elements in development in order not to be changed into defects that stop the progress process and growing up as one mass and to prevent growing some certain regions on the cost of other regions.


Article
حركة رابح فضل الله بين الحركة المهدية والدعوة السنوسية 1879-1900

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and more important inducements which was motive him to assumed region of lake Techad basin field for his activity ,and its impression on local forces ,and attitude of their forces from this activity .In same way the research treat Rabih relationship with Al- Mehdiya Movement which was contemporary to his activity , and his relationship with Senosian organization which was spread through and controlled on African great desert, as just the researcher had deal more important results of Sudanian Muhammed Ahmad Al-Mehdi and his successor Abdullah Al-Taaishi requests to Rabih, and the reasons which was behind Rabih refuse them requests ,as just the researcher had deal The Senosian attitude from Rabih activity and his with local forces and their relation with Francians,and them attitude from relation between Rabih and Al-Shaikh Al-Senosi and at the end I shall be describe the finally rounds from battle between the France force and Rabih


Article
((الجذور التاريخية لموضوعة المسألة المصرية قبل عام 1805))

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Egypt is located in the northeastern tip of the African continent and is part of a Sinai Peninsula on the western edge of Asia, and thus occupy an area of Asian part and part African, and the few countries in the world that its territory is situated on two continents, and overlooks the two seas Mediterranean and the Red Sea and spaces long and adorned with the Nile River, this geographical location between Europe and the Middle impact on its history, which awarded a situation strategically, the more important the inability of the Ottoman Empire to protect them, and by virtue of it all headed for the attention of Europeans towards Egypt being expressive and commercialization pathway vital link between the East and the West, throughout the nineteenth and twentieth, and we have this geographical factors awarded to Egypt especially important Krqah strategy did not bloom with European eyes, but with the French campaign and that was the beginning of a real European intervention in Egyptian affairs. Make Egypt a living, economic, political and social conditions of unstable since the French campaign in 1798, led to a series of political developments, perhaps the most notable is the Egyptian issue, and there was reason Meiberr launch of this description on Egypt, Vallfez often Maystkhaddm in international politics to express overlapping number of factors and states to determine the status of a country or region, and will be entering each country due to the different interests and visions, and this is what happened to Egypt during the first half of the nineteenth century, as the situation in Egypt over four periods since 1798 and until 1841 was closely linked to what is happening in the system European affect it and affected by it, and interact with all the developments in it, which made it a truly international issue.


Article
منهجيه ابن ابي الدنيا في كتاب العقوبات

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In the Name of Allah the most Gracio us and Merciful All praise is to Allah, the Lord of the worlds and His blessings and peace upon his prophet Muhammad and his Descendants (Ahl al-Bayt). The study of "Alukuba'at Book" written by Ibn Abi al-Dunya is one of the significant matters in religious Islamic History. Ibn Abi al-Dunya's full name is Abdullah bin Muhammad Bin Ubaid Bin Sufyan Bin Qais, Alqurashi, .He was born in 208 H/823 A.D in Baghdad and died there(Jumada Al-Ula) in 281H/894 A.D. He is considered one of the best learned and highly respected religion teachers, (deeply spiritual man) historians and narrators in the Third Hijri Century. His contributions are wide-spread in various fields of knowledge. His wide mentality and vast thinking are distinguished. The Ibn Abi Al-Dunyas Method in his BooK Alukuba'at His Method Was distinguished that he even didn’t order (put them) historical Hadiths according to Their time , There is an interference and repetition for some Hadiths and as follows : 1- The basics of selection to The resources (Historical topice) His style and study were vast to field historical topics. 2- His recitation of quoranic verses , So he recited (107) quoranic verses in his Book Alukuba'at in variety . 3- His Way of reciting(taking) holy Hadiths Which were (138) Hadiths in various topics. 4- The use of authentication in his Books. 5- His personal efforts Which were : A- Explaining (clarifying) the quoranic verses. B- His criticism and adjustment taking core of . C- Th use of poetry. 6- Linguistic Words : his language of writing proves this The Way of taking and reeiting of Hadiths and Books ،


Article
المحاولات البريطانية لتعزيز السيطرة على إمارات ساحل عمان 1945-1971

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Britain made several attempts to enhance its control on the Arab Gulf Area and to increase its colonial power, especially when it moved the headquarter of the British political official in 1946 from Bushahar on the Eastern coast of the Arab Gulf to Bahrain on its western coast. Also, Britain appointed political agents and employees in the Omani eastern coast Emirates like Abu Dhabi, Al-Shariqah and Dubai for the purpose of achieving its own interest in the area. Moreover, it established Omani coast force in 1951 from mercenaries to serve in the British army for the stability and security in the area, as well as the establishment of a council for the reconciled Emirates rulers in 1952 including the rulers of the seven Emirates. The goal of this council is to discuss the internal affairs of the area. As a final attempt, Britain established a bureau for developing the coastal Emirates in 1965 as a reflection to the help provided by the Arab league to the Emirates and making several project.


Article
المدجنون في بلنسية دراسة في احوالهم العامة (636-932هـ/1238-1525م)

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The Mudéjares in Valencia is a word refers to the Muslims who opted to stay in the Andalusian cities that fell to the northern Spanish kingdoms after the Christian Reconquista. It is notable that Mudéjares term involves a submission, the word Mudéjar means "domestic" which used to refer to the domesticated animals. The Mudéjares Muslims were working in farm lands that seized by Spanish nobles after they had taken the Muslims cities in Andalusia for their experience in farming. The Christian authorities were treated them with leniency and tolerance for their economic importance, so the Mudéjares Muslims were able to maintain their religion, language and social traditions under the Christian society for more than two and a half centuries until the issuing of the of the resolution of Christianization in 932 AH/1252 AD, so this study was carried to shed light on the political, economic and social situations of this component


Article
دور القائد الالماني بسمارك في تحقيق الوحدة الالمانية 1871م

Authors: صباح كريم رياح
Pages: 1723-1753
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All the leaders and thinkers carry out great thoughts and values which supererogation the real needs for their societies , at the same time, their views were built on values and thought that participate in develop the ration in the future and history of European people in general as well and especially in Germany people, because of these features, one of the most popular leader appeared in Germany in that time he is auto on bismark therefore, his impart reached to all European countries, he had made a big change or great change in German population . Bismark worked to write Germany as as strong power and then he supported it by peace , He also controlled the outside policy completely .he did many achievements which made Germany as great power in the end of nineteenth century .


Article
العسل عند العرب دراسة تاريخية تحليلية لبعض آثاره الثقافية والدينية والسياسية

Authors: رزاق حسين عبد معين
Pages: 1754-1780
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The Arabs were invested in a lot of fields, for example :They were made it in cultural field ,and invest it for beautiful anything in the Arab environment, all thing found in the Arab habitat . As use the honey in religious text for motivation to good work, then invest it in political ,where used in kill the adversaries …etc


Article
أثر التدريس على وفق النظرية التواصلية في الاداء التعبيري لدى طالبات الخامس الادبي

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The expression is considered the most important branches in Arabi language as it disclosesthe speaker's or the writer's thoughts and feelings besides his or her ability, talents or inclinations The expression also represents social and arts active. It is the way that protects the person's feelings and thoughts by a neatly language and means of communication between the person and the other people. By it, she or he can understand what he need and make them .understand what they need from him in the same way In spite of the importance of the expression, it is still studying by the way that depends on indoctrination and memorization. Therefore, the researcher thinks that the students need a new method for teaching, which helps them to expand and enrich their knowledge, develop .mind skills; directions or inclinations by depend on dialogue and discussing the information On the other hand, give the pupils chance to express their new ideas and make them in different forms so as to encourage them to be able to make questions and inquiries about information. According to that, the researcher wanted to do her studying which is called "The Effect of Teaching according to the communicative theory in the Expressive Performance for Fifth Students Literary Branch "In order to achieve the aim of the research, she supposed" :"Null Hypothesis There is no related differences with statistically significant between the average pupils scores at the semantic level of (0.05) and between the experimental group students who are studying the way of expression with communicative way and between controlling group of students .who are studying the expression in the usual way In order to achieve the aim of the research, the researcher has chosen Al Zarqa School from the preparatory and High Schools which the number of the division not less two of the fifth .literary stage The researcher relied on the random method and with same way; she has chosen the B division to become the experimental group and the division A to become the controlling .group The research sample was 42 by 21 students in the control group and correspond researcher between the two groups in chronological age and educational attainment of the parents and .degrees of the first course of the academic year The researcher applied in the second half of the academic year 2015-2016 and continued to apply the experience classrooms full at the end of the experimental the researcher conducted a final test of the expressive unified theme for the two female researcher and corrected papers .on Al-Hashemi according to standard adopted by the researcher مجلة العلوم الانسانية / كلية التربية للعلوم الانسانية/المجلد /32العدد الرابع-كانون الاول/3102 The researcher handled statistical data by using ({t}- test for two independent samples; test .)kai square, Pearson correlation coefficient The results showed superiority of the students in the experimental group to the controlling .group in the expressive performance :The search is over to a set of recommendations including 1- Train the students to talk about their experiences and their observations with a correct and proper language in addition to a focus on topics that close to the environment of the students .and their minds 2-Determine the curriculum or curriculum for the teaching of expression and giving it an . .important sufficient like all other branches of the Arabic language .3-Encourage the students to foreign reading then using it in their lesson expression . After she had completed the research, the researcher proposed a similar study of the current study on other branches


Article
أثر استعمال الألعاب التعليمية في تحصيل طلاب الصف الثاني المتوسط في مادة قواعد اللغة العربية

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The overcoming of all that is traditional in the education goal of educational institutions , planning was , or executive , and the best methods , the ones that open up in front of the learners more effectively participate in the completion of the lesson, and extract the results and the achievement of its goals and tactics and so consult with their preparations and stimulate their talents and enhance their capacity to develop , and innovation. Educational games and styles That lead to freedom from restrictions imposed by the thought that , traditional methods that lead to the obstruction of innovation and used to produce ideas successive or alternating and intellectual production and innovation generated by the Games is the kind that is generated from the friction between individuals , and see the researcher that this style ( educational games ) if what was used in the teaching of Arabic grammar , it increases the effectiveness of teaching the course and thus increase student achievement where , so the researcher developed a null hypothesis of the following : ( There is no difference statistically significant between the average achievement of students who are studying Arabic language rules by using educational games and the average achievement of students who are studying Arabic language rules in the traditional way ) , and included limits Find a sample of second grade average students in high schools and middle in Babel province school year (2013-2014) , and topics Arabic language rules second grade average The sample of research ( 60 ) male (30 ) students in the experimental group and 30 students in the control group , after conducting the experiment , the researcher to the conclusion outweigh the experimental group the control group , and in the light of this finding , the researcher recommended the following: - 1. Training Department of Arabic Students in the College of Education to use the method of educational games. 2. teacher training , and the Arabic language teachers to use the method of educational games in the teaching of Arabic grammar . 3. Adoption of educational games in the teaching of Arabic grammar .


Article
اثر إستراتيجية التحليل البنائي في تحصيل طالبات الخامس العلمي في التعبير

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The current research paper aims to identify "the effect of the positive strategy in getting marks in composition for female pupils of fifth scientific class ".to achieve this goal , the searcger depends on the experiential textbook of two groups consists of (52) female pupils from tuleitala high school for girls which is located in nader al-thaniya area. it is distributed group which include n(26 pupils) for the experiential group who study composition in the positive analysis strategy and (26 pupils) in the regulated group who study composition in the ordinary way. The searcher has taken some variables in to consideration like: the age (calculated in month ), the marks of the pupils of both groups in Arabic for the first course for the year (2015-2016) and the qualifications for parents .the searcger uses the following statistical means that are: taee test for two independent samples ,kay square and person correlation coefficient. the searcher has reached the following result that is: the pupils of the experiential group who study composition in the positive analysis strategy are more clever (excel in composition) than pupils of the regulated group who study composition in the ordinary way. The searcher suggests the following recommendations: 1-It is necessary to depend on the strategy of positive analysis in teaching composition subject for the pupils in the ordinary group. 2-the composition must be taught in a right way just like other subjects and do not deal with this subject as unimportant on. 3-it is necessary to make regular training courses for the teachers of Arabic language on how to use the modern strategies like the positive analysis strategy


Article
اسباب و اثار جريمة تعاطي المخدرات

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The importance of the study of the importance of the subject because the protected interest in the punishment of the crime of drug abuse represents a higher interests of the country as each of the legitimacy of criminalization and punishment in the state and the protection of social values and ideals in society represents an essential foundation indispensable for any country and then becomes necessary to determine the protected interest to criminalize drug use in order to determine the legal framework of her and then a statement to ensure criminal policy and effective to protect these interests, because you do not specify those interests and the legal framework it becomes difficult to formulate punitive texts lend criminal protection for members of the community and the importance of the study of the significance of the interests Protected criminalization of drug use through the scope of this statement of interest and lend them protection so as to provide maximum protection to them. It is a crime of drug abuse one of the biggest threats to human and because of scientific progress and technical witnessed by the world, which led to the increase in types of narcotic substances, which reflected negatively following the drug, which requires awareness and prevention notified and deterring to protect society from the harmful consequences. And it proved the scientific development of dangerous and harmful effects of the crime of drug use because of what it contains those drugs from the adverse effects on the overall health of the human being. The drugs in general may be normal and may be Tsenaih and in front of this huge number of drugs either through production or trafficking or dealing pose a problem disturbed humanity so that became the deal is a phenomenon spread in most countries of the world and about the size of the risk and spread consistently the international community to combat because it has become gain by harming the whole world. The subject of the study will be divided for the first two sections of the reasons for the crime of drug abuse and the second raised


Article
فاعلية المنظمة والتكيف البيئي ( الاثر والعلاقة ) دراسة استطلاعية في المعهد التقني بابل ( الاقسام الادارية حصرا ) للفترة من 2004/2012

Authors: خولة عبد الحميد محمد
Pages: 1889-1913
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The basic requirement for organizations present is the survival, growth and the ability to adapt because they face many pressures and challenges affecting the survival and growth, particularly which is found in an environment characterized by a lot of volatility and the intensification of competition, so they need improvements, programs and technologies for the purpose of addressing these challenges, this could be considered to organizational effectiveness as the main engine for the development and continuous improvement of the performance of the organization because it is based on achieving organizational goals and making a difference and switch the current situation. Since the Higher Education represents one of the pillars of the development of human societies, so The research highlights the Technical Institute / Babylon for being one of the tributaries mission in the province of Babylon, which aims to prepare a cadre of leadership in various disciplines and prepare for careers different, where Receives يخرج annually huge numbers of students in the various disciplines that represent the main pillar for the development of society. Has adopted the current research to measure the effectiveness of the administrative departments (Department of management techniques materials, Accounting Department, Department of Legal Bureau, Department of Computer Systems) on two types of indicators, specific indicators to measure the goal, and specific indicators to measure the Environmental Adaptability, has included research detective following - The first topic: the theoretical side The second topic: Research Methodology Section III: Analysis and interpretation of indicators used to measure effectiveness. Section IV: Conclusions and recommendations

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