Table of content

journal of Human Sciences

مجلة العلوم الانسانية

ISSN: 19922876
Publisher: Babylon University
Faculty: Education / Safi Al-DainAl-Heliy
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

Humanities Journal

HJ is a precise scientific journal issued by College of Education for Humanities and started in 2010 to emit the rays of light to different research in both Arabic and English.
Before all, it is seasonal published four times a year.the scientific evaluation of all the researches are done at the hand of experts specialized academically and linguistically from inside and abroad.
One of the achievements the journal exudes is to issue a version exclusive to the yearly scientific conference into which many researchers, from Iraq and other countries participate. In the aggregate, the journal reaches fruition ,as it receives many notes of appreciation from Iraq and other countries for the meritorious efforts.

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07811309967

Table of content: 2017 volume:1 issue:24

Article
A Pragmatic Study of Exaggeration in British and American Novels

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Abstract

The main concern of this study is to tackle exaggeration in British and American situations taken from Mrs. Dalloway and The Great Gatsby novels. From a pragmatic point of view, exaggeration in the field of literature has not been given enough attention. Accordingly, this study is an attempt to develop a model for the analysis of exaggeration pragmatically. Thus, it concerns itself with achieving the following aims:(1)investigating the kinds of speech acts through which the exaggeration language occurs in Mrs. Dalloway and The Great Gatsby novels.(2)identifying the devices of exaggeration used in Mrs. Dalloway and The Great Gatsby novels.(3)showing how exaggerators pragmatically proceed the Politeness Principle and the Cooperative Principle in these two novels.(4)figuring out the pragmatic functions of exaggeration used in these two novels. In relation to the abovementioned aims, the following hypotheses are tested:(1) various kinds of speech acts through which the exaggeration language occurs can be used in Mrs. Dalloway and The Great Gatsby novels.(2)a variety of devices of exaggeration are used in these two novels.(3)the Politeness Principle and the Cooperative Principle are violated in The Great Gatsby more than in Mrs. Dalloway.(4)there are different pragmatic functions for exaggeration in these novels. To achieve the aforementioned aims, the following procedures are followed:(1)surveying the relevant literature on exaggeration in general and its pragmatic perspective in particular.(2)analyzing the exaggeration language pragmatically in Mrs. Dalloway and The Great Gatsby according to a model developed by this study. The results of the analysis prove the first, second, and fourth hypotheses, whereas they partially reject the third hypothesis and partially verify it.


Article
A Pragmatic Study of Vow in Biblical Verses

Authors: Razzaq Naif Mukheef --- Ibtihal Jasim Abbas
Pages: 16-33
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This paper investigates, pragmatically, the biblical verses of vow. It attempts to achieve the following aims: (1) identifying the types of biblical vows; (2) investigating the speech act theory in relation to vow; (3) identifying the pragmatic components used in making vows; (4) finding out how rhetorical devices are utilized in making vow; (5) and using an eclectic model for the analysis of biblical texts of vows. To achieve the aims of this study, it is hypothesized that:(1) there are different types of vow used in the Bible; (2)the speech act theory has a role to play in making vow that all texts of vow are made according to the felicity conditions of the speech act of vow; (3) vows are made by using different pragmatic components like the use of speech act of vow, politeness principles, presuppositions, and deixis; (4) persuasion, repetition including (full repetition, parallelism, and chiasmus), irony, and symbol, as rhetorical devices, can be utilized in making vows. The following procedures have been followed:(1) reviewing the literature about biblical vows along with some pragmatic notions such as speech act of vow, politeness principle, presupposition, deixis, and some rhetorical devices like persuasion, repetition including full repetition, parallelism, and chiasmus, irony, and symbol, (2) analyzing five biblical texts containing vow according to the model developed by this study.


Article
Seller-Buyer Hard Distributive Bargaining in Commercial Dialogues: A pragmatic Study

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This study investigates, pragmatically, the language of three hard commercial distributive bargaining dialogues. Consequently, It attempts to achieve the following aims: (1)showing how sellers and buyers exploit speech acts in issuing hard distributive bargaining,(2)analysing the rhetorical devices used in hard distributive bargaining, (3)identifying the hard distributive bargaining strategies that are used in the bargaining stage. To achieve the aims of this study, it is hypothesized that :(1)various and different types of speech acts are used like request, offer, assertion, threatening, and promise in hard bargaining. (2)persuasion, rhetorical question, hyperbole, and understatement are the rhetorical devices used in the bargaining stage of hard bargaining,3) ) many hard bargaining strategies are used in hard bargaining .To test the validity of theses hypotheses, these procedures will be followed: (1)surveying the relet literature on hard distributive bargaining,(2)analysing three commercial hard bargaining dialogues which represent the data of the study,(3)using a model developed by this study for the sake of analysing the data.


Article
A Critical Discourse Analysis of Risalat Al-Huquq of Imam Ali Al-Sajjad (p.b.u.h.

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This study applies the field Critical Discourse Analysis (henceforth, CDA) for the analysis of Risalat Al-Huquq "Treatise on Rights" of Imam Ali Al-Sajjad (p.b.u.h.) (henceforth, RH). It is an initial effort to come across the following aims: (1) Describing the linguistic representation of the text under study. (2) Interpreting the text under study by highlighting four interpretative procedures, namely, situational context, intertextuality, speech acts, and schemata. (3) Explaining the ideologies that are conveyed in the text under study. In order to accomplish these aims, it is hypothesised that: (1) the linguistic representation reveals the constituting ideologies of the text under study. (2) The observed interpretative procedures show that: (a) The purpose behind the construction of RH is an efficacious one. (b) The texts that are reflected in the text under study are mostly concerned with the issue of rights whether directly or indirectly. (c) Having an instructive nature, the text under study figures the use of directive speech acts in addition to other types of speech acts which accord with its minor concerns. (d) RH has a didactic form. (3) RH's ideology is multidimensional attentive to moral, social considerations and a collection of other considerations. To investigate these hypotheses the next procedures are adopted: (1) Presenting a brief account of CDA. (2) Discussing the model adopted. (3) Analysing the text selected. Finally, the results of the analysis verify the hypotheses set for the study.


Article
Intertextuality in Ian McEwan's Selected Novels

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The term intertextuality is coined by poststructuralist Julia Kristeva, in her essay “Word, Dialogue and Novel” (1969). The underlying principle of intertextuality is relationality and lack of independence. In this paper, this technique (intertextuality) will be discussed in Ian McEwan's selected novels. The novels are Enduring Love (1997), Atonement (2001), and Sweet Tooth (2012).


Article
The Function of Animal Imagery in Edwin Muir Poet

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Modern poetry abounds in animal imagery which serves as a functional element in the modern poem. The imagery is so varied that one can distinguish what features of these images could be ascribed to a certain poet. Few poets have distinguished themselves or rather better known for their use of animal imagery namely Edwin Muir. Animals are at times even superior to man and given a credit of keeping " the spark of divinity" if one can use a neo-platonic metaphor. Muir pushes things to extremes by adopting a Romantic view which holds that modern chaos is ascribable to the loss of the link between man and nature and notably animals as an intrinsic aspect of that nature. The paper probes into the meanings of how these animal images are employed by the poet and how they function according to his philosophy.


Article
التداولية عند علماء العربية دراسة تطبيقية في النحو والدلالة

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Abstract

After this tour in the linguistic lesson : (Pragmatics ) and proving the effort of the Arabic scientists in it syntactically and semantically ,so I can write the following results: 1-Theroughout the research shows that the Arabic scientists know the deep and surface meaning of the pragmatics this throughout it stands on much of the texts have phrases or vocables refer to they care with the pragmatics process which occur between the speaker and the addressee ,the vocables are :the intended meaning ,utilitarianism,the addressee ,the speaker ,the people use ,deliberated , the contemporary ,the role ,the connection of their talking ,substitution the addressee into the speaker position in knowing the prediction . 2-The pragmatics is found in the two roles of speech are the speaker and the addressee in using verbal in it's special field means :the use which is the sons of linguistic used it like the verbal is not unless in the perpetrations ,if it is substituting in another verbal which is unknown its use in the field of perpetrations the pragmatics process will not be found. 3-The speaker and the addressee share in knowing the circumstance of the text and its social and behaviourism externals so the pragmatic process is found in analyzing the oration which is analyzed by the addressee when the speaker said it 4-The more use has a clear role in concluding something from the text or the structure ,and this conclusion has no effect on listener's understanding to the text's or the structure's content , this means that both the speaker and the listener know this conclusion , and impossible to the speaker to omit something from his speech unless the listener know and hear it . 5-The context has a clear role in showing the intended meaning if the word has more than one meaning , the word which has more than one meanings it is the one which conveys all its forces in showing the meaning of the expressions and the meaning of a word as a single word give us general meaning unless it does not put in the context . 6-The speaker and the listener suppose to know the structures or utterances meaning , if the listener does not know the meaning of the structures or the utterances the rhetorical message will be not true which the speaker aims to give it to the listener .


Article
المعري وآل الرسول (ص) (دراسة في ضوء النقد الثقافي)

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This research aims to identify the cultural actor who impact on not aware of Maari, pushing him to the revenue a lot of special people of the Apostle events, depending on the categories of cultural criticism, which emphasizes that culture indirectly engaged in the formulation Alafcarwalmwaagaf issued by the creators, all of this is in the subconscious area. Therefore, we find most authors express their views (political,social l,religious, scientific...), and the engine in all this culture Assembly. Words key: Al-Ma'arri، a religion، cultural


Article
معجم المفردات القرآنية في تفسير الدكتور شوقي ضيف

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In this research, our readers - the extent possible. Shawki Daif efforts in dictionary vocabulary Quranic; We have seen of his leanings toward easing away from the interpretation and modeling Almagamaan Babaih of those who have contributed in drawing explanatory of many of these Quranic vocabulary border written form in which it was not liberated from the authority environmental, historical, religious, national and official, a civilized systems grant Privacy emotional and intellectual attributes and paint for I actors borders, customary and its environs, which has controlled a lot of choices, and Lindas in her explanatory, methods and Onsagah to head towards the reader written form, publication, and we have to read his cash editor and interlocutor for this energy and knowledge stored in this humanitarian effort, and the God of the intent behind


Article
الاستلزامُ الحواريُّ والحِجاج في الخطاب الدينيّ عند ابن طاووس الحليّ (ت 664ه)

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The research Alastelzam Apostle and pilgrims when Radhi Din Ali Ibn peacock ornaments, a response to the invitation to unnecessary re-reading heritage with modern methodology, in order to devise various foundations and cognitive Acetknahha which it inherited thought, and thus contribute to the serious and fruitful in the activation of Heritage in Modern Linguistics. We have adopted to weave strands of this research descriptive and analytical approach based to pick the most important religious discourses, and then presented to the subject matters, and discussed, and enriching to benefit from the words of researchers, who wrote in this area, as well as Alotarih provided in the speech, and trading. And get search in light of the preview of the manifestations of religious discourse when the son of a peacock ornaments Pastrvad principles Alastelzam Apostle, varieties of pilgrims in it, to be in two sections: first, Alastelzam talk in religious discourse when the son of a peacock ornaments .othanehma: pilgrims in religious discourse when the son of a peacock ornaments, stamping Find a set of results we calculate it Matah and helpful, seal search a set of results we calculate it Matah and useful


Article
العنصر الصّوريّ عند الدكتور محمود البستاني( أسلوب التّشبيه أنموذجًا )

Authors: ميثم قيس مطلك
Pages: 203-228
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People knew of Imam Hussein , For decades a huge man , range and failure to surrender so much the same goals for the blaze so his history and one rebel from and adults against abuse and injustice . The portions of this research forword and one of the top rebel was destroyed by the previously cash were distributed among several speeches , prayers and messages and governance . All of these species sex is the reader will find several Tafralat during the search , It should be noted that I dealt with this study Alakabbas purely objective study …..


Article
الإعلال في الدرس الصوتي الحديث

Authors: حمزة خضير أفندي
Pages: 229-249
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Abstract

This thesis addressing vocalization subject within the data talk voice lesson, and then through a series of acoustic laws are: the same Act, the offense, the law tomography system (audio clip) of the Arabic language, and the law of least effort, and the law of the strongest (turn the weak into the strongest voice sound ) depending on the vocal writing in interpreting it. The purpose of this research; because there are a number of issues on the subject of the old Alaalal linguists may mix resulting in a reflection so confused on acoustic and morphological issues. And I view the old views quickly, and then touched on the views modernists, sometimes in favor of, and opposed to other times, with a host of cast based on scientific grounds my views in order to reach a number of morphological and vocal on the subject of Alaalal rules. Among the illusions that the movements have long consonants and this is something that does not exist in Arabic. How inhabit those characters which movements? Or that these long movements are preceded by the movement of her sex, it means that the silent voice in one section peaks and this, too, which does not exist in the Arab, or the issue of the confluence of dwelling which is when it comes after a long movements, the voice of the silent residents and Hzvoha and compensated by appropriate movement and this also does not It exists in Arabic, so they talk voice lesson came to address these issues

Keywords

Alaalal --- Half mark --- Slip --- Diphthong --- يُعنَى هذا البحث بمعالجةِ موضوعِ الإعلال ضمن مُعطيات الدرس الصوتي الحديث --- وذلك عن طريق مجموعة من القوانين الصوتية وهي : قانون المماثلة --- وقانون المخالفة --- وقانون النظام المقطعي ( المقطع الصوتي ) للغة العربية --- وقانون الجهد الأقل --- وقانون الأقوى ( يُقلَب الصوت الضعيف إلى الصوت الأقوى ) معتمدًا على الكتابة الصوتية في تفسير ذلك، والغرض من هذا البحث هو الوقوف على جملة من القضايا في موضوع الإعلال الذي خلط فيها اللغويون القُدَماء ممّا أدّى إلى انعكاس ذلك الخلط على المسائل الصوتية والصرفية، وقمتُ بعرض آراء القُدَماء بصورة سريعة --- ومن ثَمَّ تطرقتُ إلى عرض آراء المُحدثين --- مُؤيدًا تارة --- ومُعارِضًا تارة أُخرى --- مع الإدلاء بجملة من آرائي المُستندة إلى أُسُسٍ علمية من أجل الوصول إلى جملة من القواعد الصوتية والصرفية في موضوع الإعلال . ومن جملة الأوهام أنّ الحركات الطويلة عندهم أحرف ساكنة وهذا مما لا وجود له في العربية إذ كيف تُسكّن تلك الأحرف وهي حركات ؟ أو أنّ هذه الحركات الطويلة تكون مسبوقة بحركة من جنسها فهذا يعني أنّ للصوت الصامت في المقطع الواحد قمتين وهذا أيضًا مما لا وجود له في العربية --- أو مسألة التقاء الساكنين وهي عندما يأتي بعد الحركات الطويلة صوت صامت ساكن حذفوها وعوضوا عنها بالحركة المناسبة لها وهذا أيضا لا وجود له في العربية --- ولذلك جاء الدرس الصوتي الحديث ليعالج هذه القضايا .


Article
دلالة الوقف المتعانق في القرآن الكريم

Authors: أحمد راضي جبر
Pages: 265-277
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Abstract

The researcher having cessation and the effective this on texts of Quran . This type' of cessation know by explainers . We can recognized it by two points . If the reader stops on one of them , he can't have the other one . This is from side , From the other side the researcher offered the ideas of Quran's keepers in tis postion . The numbers of this very little in holy Quran comparatively with others by count it .


Article
لفظة (شركائي) في القراءات القرآنية

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Between researcher and voice illness to delete a connecting (my partners), deletes odd, given that most of the scientists from the door of his enemy elongated Palace, between and spluttered in this. It seems for the researcher to delete Hamza was caused by something else, which is that these Hamza Animations unprecedented thousand, and requires mitigate that change J frictional, or to make a connecting between, and the faces of Thagalan; because replaced J requires being J broken, broken and Omega heavy, which increases the pronunciation difficulty three voices bug: (thousand, broken up a meeting, open AZ) as follows:ــًـ ي ــِـ ي ــَـ )) does not live up first and Tdgham per second; because it is unprecedented thousand, does not inhabit the second because it Mtheloh Bsakn, and making this view more stable in the soul lack of reading delete hamza in (our partners, and your partners, and their partners).


Article
الإنتاج الزراعي النباتي ودوره في تنمية الصناعات الزراعية في محافظة بابل(*)

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Economic activity is especially important farming activities prevailing in Babil province to the abundance of natural characteristics that are suitable in terms of soil and climate (temperature, humidity, wind, rain) as well as the availability of water resources of Shatt Al-Hillah and its ramifications, as these factors contributed to the emergence of the oldest agricultural villages and grew up in older urban centers. Agricultural sector is one of the most important productive sectors of manufacturing activity, being produced goods of food and raw materials for many of the food industry, the agro-industry sector is also important sectors in the economy of each country, as industries that contribute actively in human food, and greater self sufficiency of food products, the development of the agro-industrial sector is linked to the development of the agricultural and livestock sector being the main source of raw materials for the food industry as well as Coherence with the industrial branches such as paper and plastic packaging industry and glass and aluminum foil and packaging materials, as well as transportation and other sectors. . Key ward: Agriculture. Agricultural Industries. Babil.


Article
استعمالات الارض الحضرية في مدينة المشروع واتجاهاتها المستقبلية

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Urban land uses are of more complex operations in the field of planning and urbanism, integrates natural and human features Urban land uses are of more complex operations in the field of planning and urbanism, integrates natural and human features that lead us to see the reality of use and future directions, the diversity of urban land uses within the city resulted in the allocation of part of the city for each use and in the end form the general structure of the city. Al_mashroa city is Located in the city of Mahaweel, Almashroaa within eastern part spend and is the center of Al_mashroa area agricultural nature, the city began to emerge since 1960 where presidential decree was published in the US and founded the Chamber of agriculture, resources and police station, consisted of a few neighborhoods to six districts in 2015. that lead us to see the reality of use and future directions, the diversity of urban land uses within the city resulted in the allocation of part of the city for each use and in the end form the general structure of the city. Al_mashroa city is Located in the city of Mahaweel, Almashroaa within eastern part spend and is the center of Al_mashroa area agricultural nature, the city began to emerge since 1960 where presidential decree was published in the US and founded the Chamber of agriculture, resources and police station, consisted of a few neighborhoods to six districts in 2015.


Article
تقويم كفاءة قنوات الصرف(البزل) لمشروع الحلة – ديوانية في محافظة بابل

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The study of the irrigational status of the Hilla –Daywaniyah irrigation project in Babylon province significantly contributes to a more efficient use of irrigation water in the study area, especially when considering that the study area suffers from lack of irrigation water and are in need of every drop of water for the advancement of agriculture in the study area and in Babylon province in general. The Research discussed the efficiency of the drainage canals network in the project area and its discharge of accumulated salts from the soils by the end of the season through the comparison in the concentrations of salts such as (TDS, EC, pH, Ca, Mg, Na, K, So4, NO-3, Cl, and B) among drainage canals and its neighboring soils at the beginning and end of the season ,it has been shown that some of these drainage can alshave high efficiency in discharging salts from the soil at the end of the season, some other drainage can alshave only moderate efficiency, while other drainage can alsdo not operate efficiently.


Article
تحليل جغرافي لواقع الانشطة الصناعية الملوثة للهواء في مدينة الحلة وتأثيراتها البيئية

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The environmental pollution, especially caused by the industry attacked traveled by human on the environment and balance, which leads to deformation and remove appearances aesthetic where, as a result of the subtraction industrial pollutants harmful to the environment, which began threatening mid-air, the present study were (a geographical analysis of the reality of industrial activities contaminated the air in Hilla city), to demonstrate the ways of dealing with gaseous waste, ensuring minimized to the extent of the side effects caused by factories, knowing the extent of their impact on the ecological balance in the city of Hilla, where he found that most of the activities contaminated bio-system and seriously, and through an analysis and laboratory tests the air was found that most of the contaminated concentrations of industrial activities were off limits and that caused the disruption of the ecosystem and affects the last in the life of organisms


Article
التمثيل ألخرائطي لتوزيع السكان الجغرافي في محافظة بابل للأعوام(2015,2007,1997)باستعمال برنامج(ARC GIS 9.3).

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The geographic information systems at the present time of the most important areas of population mapping, to their importance in the economic and social planning, as developed methods of representation and out the final design with modern information and communication devices from satellites and computers to him and systems networks and software and other development, as well as provide spatial information such as aerial photographs and satellite visuals and digital maps that help you keep track of and implementation of environmental and urban and urban studies, as these systems has enormous capabilities in the design of maps and can accomplish a huge number of operations of difficulty accomplished manually and private statistical analysis operations and the process of linking the database map as well as the possibility of re the design of the map and the possibility of the database changed according to changes in the population data for being subject to change on an ongoing basis


Article
التنمية الزراعية في قضاء الهاشمية ((المشاكل والحلول))

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For the development of multiple concepts which it multi-dimensional concept that includes economic, social, cultural and political aspects and through the process of development as human interacts with the natural environment affects and is affected by them. Development is one of the important phenomena that man seeks to achieve so many competencies sought in science, including geography, economics, sociology to know it and calculate their rates and determine trends. As for agricultural development are all ways adopted to increase agricultural production. It has realized that most of the States of the importance of agriculture in the development of its economy being the agricultural states in the first place, thus becoming the agricultural development a priority in agricultural development plans of these countries. Alaanha not achieved tangible successes in agricultural production structure and that the lack of integrated rural development and attention to the rural rate low, therefore stability did not achieve the rural population, have shown us clearly in the most rural areas of Iraq, particularly in the central and southern regions of Iraq, which is the study a penalty which area . There are other concepts for agricultural development, including the increase Awalnmo administrative and planned, and can get on this growth by actions and measures taken by the authority


Article
الشيخ عبد الكريم الماشطة ونشاطه في منظمة أنصار السلام العالمي (1954 – 1959م)

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Study thinkers and represents an important cornerstone for the study of the history of peoples because of their direct relationship or indirect social, economic and political aspects. Historical studies have addressed a number of intellectuals who are destined to play important roles in making a lot of events, or participate in them. But few of them are meant in their efforts and interests warlords thought and opinion Tkona and Tencoh and role in the path of society and its developments, especially those who took up intellectually enlightening Tjdedea-reformer, Sheikh Abdul Karim hairdresser one of those flags discerning in regard of this during the monarchy, formed this Indeed motivation in choosing the first researcher to the subject of this message. The second motivation is ambiguous and wrong information that met him that character at the level of academic studies devoted to research in the life of a lot of political and social figures, the reason may be due foundation in it to severe censorship that was imposed by the previous government institutions and known to be of suppression and restriction of freedom of thought, conscience . As well as a glass in the mind of the researcher during the initial read on this subject of the message, it is a question and a question, it was the most important: Who is Sheikh Abdul Karim hairdresser? The composition of cognitive and intellectual channels? Plus for the question about the extent of the intellectual and social efforts? It was the processions of the era in which he lived? These questions and others developed a whole impetus of the researcher to carry out the task of studying the subject. Search consists of two axes The first topic is talking about Sheikh Abdul Karim hairdresser most prominent pioneers of the World Peace Council, had a role in the establishment of a branch in the city of Hilla, also participated in the conference, the Council conferences 0 The second topic is talking about the nomination of Sheikh and his participation in the parliamentary elections of 1954 elections strongly that the experiment proved that the size of the repression suffered by Sheikh by the authorities for fear of social heavyweights who owns Sheikh ornaments within the community and his position on the revolution of the twentieth Rely on many sources in the search, including a book Ahmed Naji, Sheikh Abdul Karim hairdresser, a historical study of the personality of Sheikh also adopted a message Ahmed al-Shammari of social life in the District of Hilla, informed me in some valuable information also relied on some newspapers, including the civilized dialogue advised me valuable information made it clear about the political role of the Council for peace


Article
الصراع السياسي في عهد هنري السادس حتى عام 1455

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We tried in this research To highlight the political struggle in England, which appeared after the death of King Henry V (1421-1471) who was succeeded by his infant son Henry VI the nine months age to inherit the throne , and place it under the Trusteeship Council until he became under the age of legal consent, that cause a political conflict between the cousins of the king to control of the government . this have study consisted of two sections first came under the title Trusteeship Council in England (1433-1437) and in the second section we dealt with the conflict between King Henry VI and Richard Duke of York, after the Kingb reaching the legal age, which led to the result of the outbreak of the war of the Roses in 1455 AD .


Article
الآراء التربوية والسياسية للأستاذ الدكتور صادق حسن السوداني

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DR .Sadik H. AL-Soudani Sudanese questioned these views educational and political task, which is the outcome of long service in the educational process first, and many readings in various fields of culture Second, and Masrth of many events III. These views represent the intellectual and ideological construction of the Sudanese. The views of these solutions to some of the problems of the educational institution in the country, either in terms of the political side he drew scathing criticism of the political class that ruled the country after 2003.


Article
التطور العمراني لمدينة كربلاء1749-1869 (دراسة تاريخية)

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Abstract

This research deals with urban planning for the city of Karbala, and how the emergence of the city by a factor of religion, and touched a researcher into the most important civil metropolises in Karbala, and was in the forefront of Mashhad Imam Hussein and Abba Fadl al Abbas (peace be upon them) and then took the urban gradually expanding around the shrine holy is pivotal, were focusing building homes proximity, and homes in Karbala differ from the rest of the houses in the cities of Iraq, the other they are generally described the east building and be of Square centrist exposed and surrounded by court rooms, and is the host at the entrance of the house, was also famous for the city of Karbala in this period in the presence of the public market pools, It is the most prominent of bath salt bath using the bathroom House of Representatives and others. The study Sur city of Karbala and alleys also addressed, Fssor city was Old construction as well as the construction was with bricks sun-dried (milk) and therefore observe the deterioration of the wall and continued on that course to the year 1802 when it was renovated building wall of Karbala, located shops Karbala housing inside the fence while surrounded fence palm groves dense, (and the number of shops Karbala are three: the Zhak and the winner and the Isa) and after the construction of the wall in 1802 the city became composed of several shops of the most prominent: the locality of the door of energy, and the locality of the door Alallop, and the locality of the door of Najaf, and the locality of the door of Khan. The streets of the city of Karbala and alleys suffer from tight slalom because of a lack of services and lack of attention to this aspect. And it characterized the city streets manifestations strands which buildings in an arc based on its sides overlooking the street and the role Absoha strand Za'farani .


Article
تطور التعليم النسوي في مصر 1952 – 1970

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Abstract

Egypt witnessed in the years after the revolution in 1952 , armor Rabble development in all aspects of social aspects of social life , including education , particularly Women's education . State focused on the education of Egyptian women in order to contribute effectively to the social development process and achieve the some as a human being, as well as a high percentage of women inside the University and become a women’s and a distinct presence in several interest to deploy education among the sons of the Egyptian people .


Article
بواكير التعليم في الكويت حتى عام 1911

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Abstract

The geographical position of Kuwait plays a great role in the living of the people there and the development of education. Besides the need to an education staff to lead trade and economy which was active in Kuwait because of trade, marine transportation and pearls collecting. The beginning of education in Kuwait depended on mosques for a long time, which later became a place to teach reading and to explain the rules of Islam. kattateb had a great role in teaching boys and girls reading and writing which created a base to find an educated generations to participate in leading the country and Society .


Article
التطورات الاقتصادية في بريطانيا خلال حكومة حزب العمال( 1945-1951)

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Abstract

The economic aspect is very important for many Countries all over the world of the world because it affects all its aspects, directly or indirectly, it is of the important tools country in order to achieve political and social her stability, through BY providing suitably for political policies in general to do the main tasks based which economic stability are based on.. Addressing the study of economic conditions is considered one of the threads which carries great significance privacy, especially in a country as Britain, which adopts liberalism ideas and capitalism represented ideology Conservative Party, and the ideas of socialism espoused by the Labor Party, and the lies the importance of the subject in the parties representing the two poles of politics in Britain's modern history The importance of the basis that most of the economic studies that focused on the British economy during the period before and after World War II (1939 - 1951), did not take it historically or analytical so it deductive remains unfruitful and constrained by traditional studies, In order this study to be more sedate and provisions, and more tenders and life, The Researcher that the researcher assigns divisions schedules and statistics, In order to then come out a suit in the final study (historic – economic).


Article
تقويم أداء البرنامج التدريبي لمدرسي ومدرسات المدارس الاعدادية والثانوية من وجهة نظر المتدربين

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The Major expansion Created preparatory and secondary schools and the diversity of specializations to accommodate the growing numbers of students to use large numbers of graduates of various disciplines who are no longer with the task of teaching or those who prepared the preparation is not enough, it is necessary to populate these qualified them to carry out their work best. Therefore became qualification and training of educational dire need of professional and educational urgency and necessity for professional knowledge and personal growth of teachers and teachers, especially in junior high and high schools for the advancement of the educational process to the highest levels to achieve the desired objectives. The current research aims to identify the extent to which the training program for teachers and junior high school teachers and secondary ** * while in service to their goals,and that by answering the following questions What positive aspects of the training program for teachers of junior high and high schools from the standpoint of view? What negative aspects of the training program for teachers of junior high and high schools from the point of view they are? The current research is limited to (teachers of junior high and high schools in the city of Derna center who enrolled in the training program for the year Aldrase2002-2003), the study sample included schools the following areas {East Coast, Bo Mansour, Maghar, Alajabilh


Article
أثر إستراتيجية مخططات التعارض المعرفي في تحصيل طلاب الصف الخامس الأدبي في مادة قواعد اللغة العربية

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Abstract

The aim of present research is know "the impact of incompatibility of cognitive schemes in the scores of fifth literary-grade students in Arabic grammar". In order to achieve the aim of the research, Scholar puts the following null hypothesis: "There is no difference a statistically significant at the level (0.05) between the average grades collectible the experimental group students whose studying Arabic language rules in the strategy of incompatibility of cognitive schemes, and the average scores of the control group students whose studying Arabic language rules in the usual way". The researcher adopted an experimental method ted , chose an experimental design of two groups and testing the achievement of posttest. The current Population comprised from literary fifth-stage students in junior high school and secondary schools daytime d which fall within the center of the city of Hilla. chosen The researcher adopted n random method Al Thoraa junior high school for boys to conduct his experience, in a manner of random drag chosen the Division of (a) to represent the experimental group which studied the Arabic language rules strategy incompatibility cognitive schemes, and the Division of (b) represent a control group which studied the same article by adopting the normal way, the research sample has concluded from (82) students (40) students in the experimental group and 42 students in the control group. The researcher conducted statistically equivalence between the two groups in the following variables: (degrees of Arabic language for the first chapter and the rules of the Arabic language of the first chapter too, also chronological age measured in months, the academic achievement of parents, academic achievement for mothers, profession of parents, career of mothers, and test language ability). The researcher selected the academic topics that will be examined during the probation period, and formulated the goals of behavior of these topics , were (101) behavioral goals. The researcher prepared plans for teaching the topics to be taught during the probation period, researcher has been studied two groups by himself throughout the duration of the experiment, which lasted an entire semester, a second semester of the academic year 2015-2016. The researcher developed an achievement posttest from multiple choice . The test was concluded from (30) checksums paragraph, and check the veracity of the test , its stability , the level of difficulty and the power coefficient to distinguish between the effectiveness of its alternatives error. The researcher used the following statistical methods in research procedures and access to the results: (T-Test) for two independent samples, the equation of Chi-square (X2), the Pearson correlation coefficient, the equation of Spearman - Brown, the equation difficulty coefficient, the equation of discrimination paragraph coefficient, and the equation of effectiveness of the Incorrect alternatives. After analyzing the data statistically , researcher reached to the following conclusion: Superiority of experimental group students who have studied the Arabic language rules (according conflict cognitive strategy schemes) on the control group students who have studied the Arabic language rules in the usual way in the achievement test posttest statistical terms. By the results shown by the current study, the researcher can be concluded the following: 1- The incompatibility cognitive strategy schemes help to increase students' motivation towards learning and increase the level of learning they have 2- The incompatibility cognitive strategy schemes work on continuing positive interaction, which in turn leads to ongoing cooperation between students and increase academic achievement. 3- incompatibility cognitive schemas strategy enable students to self-reliance in the perception incompatibility of knowledge as they read or hear from lessons especially studied Arabic rules. In the light of the result shown by the current research, the researcher recommended series of recommendations, including the following: 1- Arabic language teachers training in the use of cognitive incompatibility to article schemas strategy in their teaching. 2- Use the diversification of teaching in the teaching of Arabic grammar and the use of the strategy of incompatibility cognitive schemas in this diversity. 3- issuing booklet includes the most modern methods of teaching including incompatibility cognitive schemas strategy shows the importance of methods and steps the practical lessons to each other. Complementing the aspects of the research, the researcher suggested set of proposals complement of the current study, including the following: 1- conducting a similar study in incompatibility cognitive schemas strategy on male and female together in the preparatory stage and the Arabic language rules 2- conducting a similar study in incompatibility cognitive schemas strategy on the other branches of the Arabic language, such as speech or literature. 3- Undertake a similar study to know the impact of incompatibility on cognitive collection schemas strategy students or students in elementary or middle school and for a branch of the Arabic language.


Article
أثر التحليل الأسلوبي في تحصيل طلاب الصف الخامس الأدبي في مادة الأدب والنصوص

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The current research aims to: Know the impact of stylistic analysis in the collection of literary fifth grade students in the subject of literature and texts. To achieve the aim of the research chose the researcher randomly junior Revolution Boys, The research sample of (81) students, two sets experimental numbered 42 students and a control (39) students, the researcher conducted a parity between the two sets of research in chronological age variables for students measured in months, and academic achievement for parents and mothers, and degrees of the Arabic language in the previous year, and degrees of language ability test, then the researcher select the material that will be examined during the duration of the experiment, the researcher was coined behavioral objectives of the ten subjects were (130) behaviorally target.The researcher prepared plans for the topics to be taught during the duration of the experiment , has studied the researcher two sets of search himself during the duration of the experiment , which lasted 8 weeks , and after the end of the experiment researcher dish achievement test on the two sets of research students , and after analyzing the results statistically , the researcher suggested : that there difference between the experimental and control groups in the achievement test and for the benefit of the experimental group.In light of the findings, the researcher recommended the need to adopt the way of stylistic analysis in the teaching of literature and texts for students of the fifth literary , and put steps stylistic analysis at the beginning of the book of literature and texts And the need to separate the substance of literature and texts from other Arabic language sections, so the book becomes an independent literature curriculum titled (Iraqi literature) to be consolidating the Iraqi High values. Complementing aspects of the research suggested a researcher conducting a similar study to know the effect (stylistic analysis) in other variables, as Reading Comprehension, and creative thinking, and conduct a similar study of materials other than Arabic.


Article
أوامر التداول في سوق الأوراق المالية

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Abstract

The indirect investment considered one of the important matters nowadays And one of the mainelements for national economy And the dealing in securities it's The most prominent side in indirect investment And that’s being in Niche markets (Boerse) and Subject to special laws and special Systems control the Circulation process The Circulation in Boerse is not being direct between the seller and buyer but there are specialists persons doing that named "broker” Arise on the Circulation process multiple relationships the first one being between the buyer and the broker and second one between the broker and the seller and the third being between the brokers... The Circulation process begin in directing instructions from the agents whether seller or buyer to broker for sell or buy specific securities. So impossible imagine happening Circulation process if there is no order for Circulation

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