Table of content

Journal of Engineering

مجلة الهندسة

ISSN: 17264073/25203339
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Engineering
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Journal Engineering was issued in 1986. It was Stopped from 1990 – 1997 because of the economic blockade. It restarted publication after the fourth scientific engineering conference for it published the papers that were accepted in the conference.
It is a scientific engineering journal refereed by specialized and qualified professors in most of the engineering fields and those Specialists in the issued by the college of Engineering university of Baghdad .It was serenely publibued , but from 2011 it has issued of monthly for the numerous papers submitted to the journal to publish their papers in this scientific journal in addition to some of the Arabs professors because the journal is considered one of the valued journals in the Arabic homelan .
Many professions were the head editor of the journal from its first issue. The first one was prof.dr. Laith Ismail Namiq then prof.dr. Mohammed A.Alawis ,prof.dr.Ali A Al – kilidar prof.dr. Abdul-Ilah Younis and currently Prof.dr.Qais S. Ismail.

AIMS AND SCOPE

The Journal of Engineering is an open access, monthly, refereed, peer-reviewed journal. It focuses on the different disciplines of engineering.

Its scope is to cover almost all the aspects of engineering and technology and their related topics. The Journal of Engineering tries to emphasize on publishing high-quality papers with an acceptable, professional and considerable background.

The submitted papers undergo plagiarism, a double-blind peer review by professionals in the paper specific specialty. This process is accomplished according to the Journal criteria of evaluation, where the manuscript, contents, and organization of the paper are to be checked. The papers will be available online for the readers.

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Contact info

Jadriyah, Baghdad
Iraq
Mobile:+964 7714076860
Email: info@jcoeng.edu.iq
https://www.jcoeng.edu.iq

Table of content: 2017 volume:23 issue:8

Article
Effect of New Urban Transformations at Townscape of Historical Cities Urban Study of Alnajaf Historical City Center
اثر التحولات العمرانية الحديثة على المشهد الحضري لمراكز المدن التاريخية دراسة عمرانية للمركز التاريخي لمدينة النجف الأشرف

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Abstract

This paper deals with the subject of modern urban transformations in the townscape of the centers of historical cities, bringing changes to these centers, which represents the research problem. The research aims to clarify the impact of changes in the physical urban scene and the importance of assimilation of urban transformations to create a good civilized image in the future of Alnajaf historical city center. The most important findings of the research show that what distinguishes the case of the historic center is a weakness in the panoramic installation urban scene, and the absence of regular unit that combines the installation because of the spaces between the high rises on one hand, and the absence of the true concept of urban renewing in the entire general context. So the search is stressed to the need to add functional activities taking into account the urban transformations and support the future of the historic center with the support of the moral and material heritage of the historic city center, and contribute to social sustainability and activate the environmental and economic environment of the urban side.


Article
Effects of Fuel Oil on the Geotechnical Properties of Clay Soil
تحري تأثيرات وقود النفط على الخواص الجيوتقنية للتربة الطينية

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Abstract

The present study highlights the effects of medium fuel oil (MFO) on the chemical, physical and mechanical properties of clay soil samples (disturbed and undisturbed) obtained from the site of the electrical power plant in the campus of the University of Baghdad at Al-Jadriah district in Baghdad/Iraq. The soil sample was classified according to the unified soil classification system (USCS) as CL and described as lean clay of low plasticity. The medium fuel oil is an industrial wastewater disposed as a byproduct from the fuel used in the electricity power plant. The soil samples are artificially contaminated with two percentages of medium fuel oil, 10 and 20 % related to the dry weight of soil. The soil samples were mixed with the contaminant (MFO) by hand and then left for 4 days for homogeneity. A series of laboratory tests are conducted on both natural and artificially contaminated soil samples to measure the effects of medium fuel oil on the chemical, physical and mechanical properties of soil samples. The results of tests showed that the medium fuel oil has significant impacts on some properties of soil and slight effects on the others. Increasing the percentage of contaminant causes a slight decrease in the liquid limit and particle size distribution; on the other hand, it causes a considerable increase in the consolidation parameters and decrease in shear strength parameters. Also, there is a slight change in the chemical composition of soil samples.


Article
Assessment of Water Clarity within Dokan Lake Using Remote Sensing Techniques
تقييم نقاوة المياه في بحيرة دوكان باستخدام تقنيات التحسس النائي

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Abstract

It is impractical to monitor lakes water quality by conventional field methods because of expense and time consuming. Satellite image is more convenient to be used to collect the required data for monitoring and assessing lakes water quality. This study aims to develop a water clarity estimation model based on remote sensing and GIS techniques to estimate and assess the water clarity within Dokan Lake in Kurdistan Region of Iraq. Twenty points in the lake were selected and studied at autumn and spring seasons. For assessing water clarity, the Secchi Disk Transparency (SDT) and the Trophic State Index (TSI) were used at these twenty stations in the lake. Multiple linear regressions are used to obtain mathematical models for estimating the water clarity depending on spectral reflectance of Landsat 8 OLI. In this study, the new band (coastal blue) of Landsat 8 OLI has been undertaken in developing of the monitoring models. Moreover, new Independent Component Analysis (ICA) and new 7 band ratios with 16 band combinations have been investigated. The obtained highest determination coefficient values for SDT and TSI were 0.98 and 0.87 for autumn season and 0.95 and 0.97 for spring season respectively. Generally, for spring season, the performance of all models is reduced due to seasonal change, variance of parameters and other factors. The developed models were used to map the water clarity distribution within Dokan Lake. The results of the developed SDT and TSI models showed that the correlation of all bands of Landsat 8 OLI is appropriate to monitor the water clarity. These models can be effectively used to monitor the water clarity within the lake with conservation of time efforts and cost.


Article
The Role of Partnership Approach in Facilitating Housing in Iraq
دور منهج الشراكة في تيسير الاسكان في العراق

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Abstract

Housing in Iraq became intractable problem, due to fragmental approach in treating and solutions. Mobilizing all abilities within collective frameworks is required; such as partnership approach. Research problem is the absence of clear vision for integration type between housing sectors that cause real difficulties of housing provision. Research aims to offer flexible formula integrating potential of various sectors in the framework of a comprehensive housing strategy. Hypothesis is: effective partnership is possible in light of the integration public sector as activating element with private sector as active element to produce driving force for housing process. It has reviewed most of concepts, patterns and formats of partnerships, in light of some developing countries experiences. There is no crystallized effective partnership formula in Iraq. Research proposed formula based on complementary integration of private sector, and (ngo), and users, under the roof of (public sector). This formula was tested in light of inquiry of five categories of those concerned with housing affairs. Results were often compatible with basic joints of the formula and relatively compliant with its mechanism details. Conclusion: partnership is possible in light of individual potentialities, activated by non-conventional means with legislative reforms.


Article
Thermo Elastic Analysis of Carbon Nanotube-Reinforced Composite Cylinder Utilizing Finite Element Method with the Theory of Elasticity
التحليل الحراري والمرن للانابيب المركبة والمقواة بالياف الكاربون المتناهية بالصغر باستخدام طريقة العناصر المحددة ونظرية المرونة

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Abstract

In this paper, the axisymmetric bending behavior of FG_CNTRC moderately thick cylinder under the effect of internal pressure and thermal load is investigated. Three kinds of distributions of a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) are utilized, that is uniform and two types of functionally graded distributions of CNTs through the radial direction of cylinder. The governing equations are derived based on the elasticity theory. The steady state heat conduction with convection heat transfer on the inner surface of cylinder and the thermo elastic equations are solved numerically by the finite element method. A computer program by Fortran95 (FTN95) has been built to obtain the temperature distribution and displacement field through the radial and longitudinal direction of the cylinder. In details, parametric studies have been achieved to show the effect of convection heat transfer coefficient and the kind of CNTs distributions on the bending response of the cylinder. It’s found that the percentage increasing in the radial displacement (Ur) is about (34%), when the value of conduction heat transfer coefficient increases from (hc=5 W/m2 K) to (hc=5 W/m2 K). Also, it’s found that, the value of (Ur = 0.15) for FG_V as compared with the value (Ur = 0.1) for the FG_X distribution. Moreover, the influence of various boundary conditions is also investigated. The accuracy of the current study is validated by comparative study with that available in the literature and found that the percentage error between two studies in the range of (0.022%, 0.042%, and 0.047%) for UD, FG_V and FG_X distribution respectively. So, there is a good agreement for the results.


Article
Production of Biofuels from Selected Cellulosic Waste materials
انتاج وقود حيوي من نفايات سليلوزية

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Abstract

In this study four types of cellulose-rich municipal solid wastes (residuals) of orange, banana peel, corn residues, and saw dust were used as raw materials. These cellulosic substrates usually have a lot of lignin content which prevents the process of saccharification by microorganisms. Thus pretreatment methods of enzymatic, acid or base with enzymatic treatment and dilute acid followed by autoclaving were necessary to dignify these wastes and to obtain higher reducing sugar yields and hence higher ethanol production. Dilute HCl acid of 1% followed by autoclaving at 121℃ for 30 min proved to give good result where significant amounts of reducing sugars were obtained at the end of the saccharification process. Orange peel proved to give the highest glucose concentration of an average of 6000 mg/l on day 4 of the saccharification process. Fermentation was carried out for the hydrolyzed samples using Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast. The amount of ethanol produced after fermentation was found to be the highest for orange peel having a value of 1300 mg/l after 96h of incubation. As science is proceeding, engineered microorganisms could help to produce sustainable fuels from cellulose-rich municipal solid wastes in the future.


Article
Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Hyper Composite Plate Structure under Thermal and Mechanical Loadings
دراسة عملية وعددية للصفائح المركبة الهجينة تحت تأثيرالاحمال الميكانيكية والحرارية

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Abstract

In this study eleven models of the rocket fins were made of hyper composite material with different values of volume fraction of components (70%, 60%,50% for polyester, 40%, 30%,25%,20%,10% for fibers and 0%, 5%, 10%, 20%, 30%,40%for powder) to produce an isotropic composite plate structure. The reinforcement of the matrix is done by mixing of the polyester resin with the carbon fiber and carbon powder. Mechanical and thermal properties were evaluated by conducting several tests. A concentrated load was applied on these models the effect of adding the carbon powder on the maximum deflection and the effect of temperature on this deflection were studied and discussed. The temperature range was suggested according to the matrix ability and applications. The experimental results were verified numerically using ANSYS finite element program. The results showed that the addition of carbon powder to the composite material composed of polyester and glass fiber leads to increase the value of Young’s Modulus (maximum value 6.36 GPa) and decrease the amount of maximum deflection. The maximum deflection was increased with the increasing of temperature. The lowest value of maximum deflection was occurred in the model composed of (50% polyester, 30%glass fiber and 20% powder) which reached to 1.56 mm. The comparison between experimental and numerical results showed a good agreement between them.


Article
Rigid Trunk Sewer Deterioration Prediction Models using Multiple Discriminant and Neural Network Models in Baghdad City, Iraq
نماذج تنبؤ تدهور المجاري الرئيسية الصلبة باستخدام نماذج متعددة التمايز والشبكات العصبية في مدينة بغداد،العراق

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Abstract

The deterioration of buried sewers during their lifetime can be affected by several factors leading to bad performance and can damage the infrastructure similar to other engineering structures. The Hydraulic deterioration of the buried sewers caused by sewer blockages while the structural deterioration caused by sewer collapses due to sewer specifications and the surrounding soil characteristics and the groundwater level. The main objective of this research is to develop deterioration models, which are used to predict changes in sewer condition that can provide assessment tools for determining the serviceability of sewer networks in Baghdad city. Two deterioration models were developed and tested using statistical software SPSS, the multiple discriminant model (MDM) and neural network model (NNM). Zublin trunk sewer in Baghdad city was selected as a case study. The deterioration model based on the NNDM provide the highest overall prediction efficiency which could be attributed to its inherent ability to model complex processes. The MDDM provided relatively low overall prediction efficiency, this may be due to the restrictive assumptions by this model. For the NNDM the confusion matrix gave overall prediction efficiency about 87.3% for model training and 70% for model validation, and the overall conclusion from these models may predict that Zublin trunk sewer is of a poor condition.


Article
Development of an On-Line Self-Tuning FPGA-PID-PWM Control Algorithm Design for DC-DC Buck Converter in Mobile Applications
تطوير لتصميم خوارزمية سيطرة (مصفوفة البوابات المنطقية القابلة للبرمجة – التناسبي التكاملي التفاضلي - تعديل عرض النبضة) تلقائية التنغيم وبشكل حي متصل لمحول خفض التيار المستمر في التطبيقات النقالة

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Abstract

This paper presents a new development of an on-line hybrid self-tuning control algorithm of the Field Programmable Gate Array - Proportional Integral Derivative - Pulse Width Modulation (FPGA-PID-PWM) controller for DC-DC buck converter which is used in battery operation of mobile applications. The main goal in this work is to propose structure of the hybrid Bees-PSO tuning control algorithm which has a capability of quickly and precisely searching in the global regions in order to obtain optimal gain parameters for the proposed controller to generate the best voltage control action to achieve the desired performance of the Buck converter output. Matlab simulation results and Xilinx development tool Integrated Software Environment (ISE) experimental work show the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed on-line hybrid Bees-PSO tuning control algorithm in terms of obtaining smooth and unsaturated state voltage control action and minimizing the tracking voltage error of the Buck converter output. Moreover, the fitness evaluation number is reduced.

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