Table of content

Iraqi Journal of Science

المجلة العراقية للعلوم

ISSN: 00672904
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Science
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi journal of science is a quarterly specified scientific journal issued by the Faculty of Science at the University of Baghdad. The members of the Editorial Board representing the Departments of Eight Scientific departments, college of science/ Baghdad University and its related units of research, all are professors, scientists with extensive experience and considerable skills in their field of science, as well as an advisory board in support composed of professors and scientists with great reputation in their field of science from other Colleges, universities, or research institutes. The specialty of publication includes the following fields:

1.Pure and Applied Physics.
2.Mathematical Sciences.
3.Computer Science and Information Technology.
4.Science of chemistry.
5.Bio-Science technologies.
6.Earth Sciences, geo-physics, and remote sensing.
7.Astronomy, Space Sciences, and Remote Sensing Unit.
8.Science and Research of tropical area

The visions, goals, and the mechanisms of the Iraqi Journal of Science is to publish scientific research sober in the areas of Applied and Pure Sciences and instructive Iraqi society, scientific research, scientific interest large to contribute to the development of various disciplines, which provides significant support to researchers in all scientific facilities to continue to support the development plans in Iraq.

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Contact info

Baghdad University
College of Science
Baghdad
Iraq
ijs@scbaghdad.edu.iq
07903375590
http://ijs.scbaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2017 volume:58 issue:3A

Article
A Study Medicinal and Nutritional Effects of Thyme on Hematological Changes in Male Albino Rats
دراسة التأثيرات الطبية والغذائية للزعتر على المتغيرات الدموية في ذكور الجرذان

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Abstract

The increase in the use of thyme in Iraq and neighboring countries, which may be result in serious side effects necessitate the demand for testing different concentrations of thyme extract (500,750,1000) mg/kg of body weight on rats to be given either by injection or feeding grinded dried thyme leaves added to pellets (50,100,150) g /kg of pellet in of different periods , (10,20,30) days for injection and feeding 2 times weekly. Thyme extracts leaves effects on RBCs, WBCs and Differential WBCs counts were measured. statistical analysis showed significance increase difference (P≤0.05) in RBCs, WBCs and Lymphocyte, Nutrophile and Monocyte counts and decrease in Eosinphil counts in rats treated with 1000 mg of thyme /kg of body weight and 150 g/kg of pellet in 10 days, in 20 days treatment group was showed highly significance increase difference (P≤0.01) compared to control group in RBCs, WBCs, Lymphocyte, Nutrophile and Monocyte counts and decrease in Eosinphil counts in rats treated with thyme extract by (750,1000) mg/kg of body weight and (100,150) g/kg of pellet and in 30 days thyme extract cause highly significance increase difference (P≤0.001) in RBCs, WBCs, Lymphocyte, Nutrophile and Monocyte counts and decrease in Eosinphil counts in rats treated with thyme by (500-750–1000) mg/kg of body weight comparing with the negative and positive controls and (50-100–150) g/kg of pellet comparing with the negative control for feeding .


Article
The Antimicrobial Activity of Lactobacillus Acidophilus Against Intestinal and Foodborne Pathogens
تأثير Lactobacillus acidophilus ضد مسببات الأمراض المعوية والتسمم الغذائي

Authors: Luma Yousif Mehdi لمى يوسف مهدي
Pages: 1189-1197
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Abstract

In this study, isolated of Lactobacillus acidophilus were evaluated for their anti-pathogenic bacterial activity. The antibacterial activity of the three isolated against intestinal and food borne pathogenic bacteria in vitro was determined by Well's Diffusion method, a total of three isolates of Lactobacillus acidophilus isolated from ten different brands of traditional yoghurts showed a various antibacterial activity against tested pathogenic bacterium, Cronobacter sakazakii isolated from stool samples was more sensitive to the inhibition(23mm)inhibtion zone than were Helicobacter pylori that isolated from stool samples (16mm) inhibtion zone and Clostridium perfringens that isolated from stool samples (15mm). These results may provide a basis for support therapies for the treatment of intestinal and foodborne pathogens.


Article
The Characterization of Radioactive Waste Drums Using Nondestructive Scanning Gamma Ray System
وصف حاويات النفايات المشعة بأستخدام منظومة مسح اشعة كاماغيرالإتلافية

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Abstract

A non-destructive assay (NDA) for radioactive waste drum has been studied using a local manufacturing gamma scanning system. The gamma system has been designed and implemented using scanning system contains a high efficiency portable HPGe detector for characterization and surveying the radioactive waste drums at Al-Tuwaitha site- Baghdad. To achieve identification with non-homogenous radioactive waste drum, six parallel plastic pipes (2cm in diameter) were inserted inside the cement type Portland contain radioactive sources and located at different distances from the outer diameter of the drum. The efficiency calibration is measured by conventional technique, using five miscellaneous radio nuclides with drum. The efficiency trend effected strongly with distance between detector and hot spot (location of radionuclide inside drum) due to attenuation factor and geometry effects. The NDA procedure becomes more acceptable in radioprotection demands dealing with the management and inspection of radio-waste drums.


Article
Morphological and Optical Properties of CdS Quantum Dots Synthesized with different pH values
الخواص المورفولوجية والبصرية لكبريتيد الكادميوم نقاط كمية المحضرة بقيم مختلفة من الاس الهيدروجيني

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Abstract

Quantum dots (QDs) of cadmium sulfide (CdS) was prepared by chemical reaction method with different potential of hydrogen (pH) values. The morphological and optical measurements of cadmium sulfide QDs were considered by atomic force microscopy (AFM), ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS.) and photoluminescence (PL) spectrometer respectively. The energy gap (Eg) was calculated from photoluminescence spectra were found to be about 2.7, 2.6 and 2.5 eV at pH values 8, 10 and 12 respectively for CdS QDs. The decreasing of energy gaps is rises from the effect the pH solution increases, which in turn leads to the shifted of the PL spectrum toward red shifted, which creates the energy bands at surface states are shallow bands. Fabrication of EL-device from CdS QDs with pH=8 was effective in efficient white light generation and intensity.

Keywords

Quantum dots --- CdS --- Luminescence --- pH


Article
The Effect of the Non-Thermal Plasma Needle on Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Bacteria
تأثير البلازما غير الحرارية على بكتيريا سيدوموناس ايروجينوسا

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Abstract

The development in the field of medical physics has led to the use of devices that are manufactured under normal conditions to make tremendous progress in the world of development in medical treatment by using these devices with modern techniques by reducing the use of antibiotics and relying on these tools and devices that link between physics and modern therapeutic medicine. In this research, a non-thermal plasma system for argon gas operated at normal atmospheric pressure was designed, this system was applied on Pseudomonas Aeruginosa bacteria isolated from burn patients from Yarmouk Teaching Hospital. These bacteria were exposed to this system, the results showed that these bacteria were killed at time (5 min) and (8kV) where the argon gas flow rate was (5l/min).


Article
The Sedimentology and Facies Analysis of the Cretaceous Oceanic Red Beds (CORBs) in the Shiranish Formation, Northern of Iraq
رسوبية و تحليل سحنات الطبقات المحيطية الحمراء للطباشيري في تكوين الشيرانش، شمال العراق

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Abstract

Upper Cretaceous Oceanic Red Beds (CORBs) are pelagic sediment deposits that deposited in the Upper Cretaceous basin, with widespread in part of the world as well as in Iraq. This research investigates the deposition of cyclic marl and marly limestone CORBs of six selected sections at the active southern margin of the Tethys during the Late Campanian - Maastrichtian with petrography, microfacies, and depositional environment. As this study was not a consideration in the past, so decided to visit and identify all exposure areas of the Upper Cretaceous period rocks are visited. This study involved two fields touring reconnaissance extended from Darbandikhan city in the east south to Shiranish Village in the west north. Six lithological sections covering the studied area, four sections represent Cretaceous Oceanic Red Beds (CORBs) and two sections without (CORBs) for the purpose of comparison between them. The sections are described in detail and 250 samples were collected from all studied sections. For the petrography and microfacies analysis 149 thin sections were studied. The microfacies analysis showing two major successions with Red Bed and Non-Red Bed marl and marly limestone, occasionally interbedded with thinly beds of shale, sandstone and siltstone. These comprised of five microfacies are Oligostegina Marly Limestone, Globotruncana Marly Limestone, Marlstone with Microfossils, Red Marlstone, and Red to Variegated Calcareous Sandstone with Radiolarian (Debrise Flow) Making 20 thin sections from Gendilly section(GS) (the typical section of this study) for microscopic study of minute fossils (nannofossils) examination, for this study proved that the Cretaceous Oceanic Red Beds (CORBs) dating is Mastrichtian age. The Microfossils and nannofossils tests proved the presence of Danian Age in studied area. This study has proved that the carbonate content in red limestone beds ranged between 53.5-100.0 %, while this percentage ranged in red marly rocks between 20.5-50.0 %, But in the rocks that do not contain red beds, Carbonate content in limestone rocks ranged between 52.0-100.0 %, and in marl rocks this ratio ranged between 27.5-49.5 %.


Article
The Deep Faults in Kut-Hai and Surrounding Area Inferred From Gravity and Magnetic Data
الفوالق العميقة َلمنطقة الكوت-الحي والمناطق المحيطة بها والمستنبطة من المعلومات الجذبية والمغناطيسية

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Abstract

Gravity and magnetic data are used to study the tectonic situation of Al-Kut- Al-Hai and surrounding areas in central Iraq. The study included application of many processing and interpretation programs. The window method with different spacing was used to separate the residual from regional anomalies for gravity and magnetic data. The Total Horizontal Derivative (THDR) techniques used to identify the fault trends in the basement and sedimentary cover rocks depending upon gravity and magnetic data. The identified faults in the study area show (NW-SE), (NE-SW) (N-S) and (E-W) trends. It is believed that these faults extending from the basement to the upper most layer of the sedimentary cover rocks

Keywords

Deep faults --- Kut --- gravity --- magnetic --- THDR


Article
Climatic Analysis and Climatic Water Balance Determination for Al-Yusufiyah Area, Southern Baghdad, Iraq
التحليل المناخي وتعيين الموازنة المائية المناخية لمنطقة اليوسفية - جنوب بغداد – العراق

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Abstract

The Climatic parameters for the years (1985-2015) were collected from Baghdad meteorological station and then were applied to evaluate the climatic conditions for the Al-Yusufyiah area south Baghdad. The total annual rainfall is (119.65 mm), while the total annual evaporation is (3201.7 mm), relative humidity is (43.62%), sunshine (8.76 h/day), temperature (23.28 C◦) and wind speed (3.06 m/sec). Climate of the study area is described as an arid according to classification of (Kettaneh and Gangopadhyaya, 1974), (Mather, 1973), and (Al-Kubaisi, 2004). Mean monthly water surplus for the period (1985-2015) was recorded in the study area about (4.7 mm) in November, (11.67 mm) in December, (20.56 mm) in January and (6.51mm) in February of the whole amount of Rainfall and equivalent to (119.65 mm).


Article
Heavy Metals Pollution Assessment of the Water in Al-Quds Power Plant in Baghdad
تقييم تلوث الفلزات الثقيلة للمياه في محطة كهرباء القدس في بغداد

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Sixteen water samples were collected from the operation units of the Al-Quds power plant, north Baghdad city and the surrounding trocars, surface and groundwater, and analyzed to assess the resulting pollution. The samples were analyzed for heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, U and Zn) by using inductively coupled plasma- mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results were compared with local and international and standard limits. Heavy metals analysis of the water samples shows that water of operation units and trocars have mean concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mo, Pb, Sb, Se, U and Zn were within or lower than the national and world limits, while Mn and Ni were higher than these limits. Concentrations of these elements in the surface water were within the safe limits. In the groundwater samples As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mo, Sb, Se, U and Zn were within the permissible limits while Ni, Mn and Pb were higher than the permissible limits indicating the effect of anthropogenic activities. The collected samples submitted to health risk assessment to evaluate the actual adverse effects of contaminants to humans, the results of HQs ingestion of all elements (except As for child) are smaller than 1, suggesting little hazard. In addition, HQs dermal in all studied elements for adult are below1, indicates no hazards for dermal absorption. Overall, HI of As and Mn for child exceeded 1. Comparison between values of HQ ing for adults and children shows that children are more susceptible to adverse to health effects than adults. These results necessitate a search of the means of treatment and reduce pollution with heavy metals in the industrial areas


Article
Petrophysical Properties and Reservoir Modeling of Mishrif Formation at Amara Oil Field, Southeast Iraq
الخصائص البتروفيزيائية والموديل المكمني لتكوين المشرف في حقل العمارة النفطي جنوب شرق العراق

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Abstract

Petrophysical properties of Mishrif Formation at Amara oil field is determined from interpretation of open log data of (Am-1, 2 ,3 ,4 ,5 ,6 ,7 ,8 ,9 ,10 ,11 ,12 and13) wells. These properties include the total, the effected and the secondary porosity, as well as the moveable and the residual oil saturation in the invaded and uninvaded zones. According to petrophysical properties it is possible to divided Mishrif Formation which has thickness of a proximately 400 m, into seven main reservoir units (MA, MB11, MB12, MB13, MB21, MC1, MC2) . MA is divided into four secondary reservoir units , MB11 is divided into five secondary reservoir units , MB12 is divided into two secondary reservoir units , MB13 is divided into two secondary reservoir units and MB21 is divided into five secondary reservoir units. The seve units are separated by seven cap rocks (Bar1,2,3,4,5,6 and 7).A three-dimensional reservoir model is created by using (Petrel, 2014) software for all reservoir unit. The results show that the first and the second reservoir units represent important reservoir units of Mishrif Formation. Variables of thickness and reservoir properties are consider of Amara oil field.


Article
Properties of Fuzzy Norm of fuzzy Bounded Operators
خواص القياس الضبابي لمؤثرات مقيدة ضبابيا

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Abstract

The principal aim of this research is to use the definition of fuzzy normed space to define fuzzy bounded operator as an introduction to define the fuzzy norm of a fuzzy bounded linear operator then we proved that the fuzzy normed space FB(X,Y) consisting of all fuzzy bounded linear operators from a fuzzy norm space X into a fuzzy norm space Y is fuzzy complete if Y is fuzzy complete. Also we introduce different types of fuzzy convergence of operators.


Article
A Proposed Background Modeling Algorithm for Moving Object Detection Using Statistical Measures
خوارزمية نمذجة خلفية مقترحة لكشف الأجسام المتحركة بأستخدام المقاييس الأحصائية

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Abstract

Extracting moving object from video sequence is one of the most important steps in the video-based analysis. Background subtraction is the most commonly used moving object detection methods in video, in which the extracted object will be feed to a higher-level process ( i.e. object localization, object tracking ). The main requirement of background subtraction method is to construct a stationary background model and then to compare every new coming frame with it in order to detect the moving object. Relied on the supposition that the background occurs with the higher appearance frequency, a proposed background reconstruction algorithm has been presented based on pixel intensity classification ( PIC ) approach. First, pixel intensity in a predetermined time period has been classified according to a proposed clustering method, second, pixels frequency of those clusters has been calculated, finally, the center of the cluster with the higher pixel frequency has been chosen as the background pixel intensity value. The efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm has been confirmed through comparing its results with those of the most common traditional methods, besides , the results of the proposed algorithm in a number of testing environment which are traffic monitoring and pedestrian surveillance shows that the proposed algorithm can save space and economize computation time and give good accuracy.


Article
Images Compression Using Bezier curve with Ridgelet Transform
ضغط الصور بأستخدام منحني بيزر مع التحويل القممي

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Abstract

The data compression is a very important process in order to reduce the size of a large data to be stored or transported, parametric curves such that Bezier curve is a suitable method to return gradual change and mutability of this data. Ridghelet transform solve the problems in the wavelet transform and it can compress the image well but when it uses with Bezier curve, the equality of compressed image become very well. In this paper, a new compression method is proposed by using Bezier curve with Ridgelet transform on RGB images. The results showed that the proposed method present good performance in both subjective and objective experiments. When the PSNR values equal to (34.2365, 33.4323 and 33.0987), they were increased in the proposed method to (37.9521, 37.9521and 36.0655) respectively.


Article
TOPSIS with Multiple Linear Regression for Multi-Document Text Summarization
مع الانحدار الخطي المتعدد لتلخيص النصوص المتعددهTopsis

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The huge amount of information in the internet makes rapid need of text summarization. Text summarization is the process of selecting important sentences from documents with keeping the main idea of the original documents. This paper proposes a method depends on Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS). The first step in our model is based on extracting seven features for each sentence in the documents set. Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) is then used to assign a weight for the selected features. Then TOPSIS method applied to rank the sentences. The sentences with high scores will be selected to be included in the generated summary. The proposed model is evaluated using dataset supplied by the Text Analysis Conference (TAC-2011) for English documents. The performance of the proposed model is evaluated using Recall-Oriented Understudy for Gisting Evaluation (ROUGE) metric. The obtained results support the effectiveness of the proposed model.


Article
3D Building Reconstruction Using DEM and Mosaic Model
تصميم بناية ثلاثية الابعاد باستخدام نموذج الارتفاع الرقمي والفسيفساء

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A digital elevation model (DEM) is a digital representation of ground surface topography or terrain. It can be represented as a raster (a grid of squares) and it is commonly estimated by utilizing remote sensing techniques, or from land surveying. In this research a 3D building of Baghdad university campus have been performed using DEM, where the easting, northing, and elevation of 400 locations have been obtained by field survey using global positioning system (GPS). The image of the investigated area has been extracted from QuickBird satellite sensor (with spatial resolution of 0.6 m). This image has been geo-referenced by selecting ground control points of the GPS. The rectification is running, using 1st order polynomial transformation. Estimation of the ground layer elevation is carried out by spline and IDW interpolation, the buildings have been delineated as polygons with given real heights in the second layer. The mosaic algorithm has then been applied between the two layers to perform the final DEM creation process. Finally, the estimated DEM have been used to constructing 3-D building.

Keywords

DEM --- IDW --- spline --- mosaic


Article
Metric Type II Bursts with and without Coronal Mass Ejection During 20 Years
النبضات الراديوية المترية من النوع الثاني خلال عشرون عام مع وبدون مقذوفات الهالة الكتلية

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Metric type II bursts are formed from shocks driven by CME or flares which is indicative of particles (SEPs) accelerated to high energies. This work aims to investigate the metric type II bursts, CMEs and flare for twenty years (1996-2016, inclusive) over two solar cycles 23 and 24. The total metric type II bursts was 1378 events divided into two groups: first group associated with CMEs regardless their properties and this group has (1147) events. The second group associated with flares which has (231) events. The interstice fraction of this research is the metric type II associated with CME is 83% whereas only 17% with flare where this very close to the previous study in 2005 which found 81% despite it was for only six years. This agreement between the two studies may lead to there are a regular emission of CMEs and flares over long periods.


Article
Study the Mechanism’s Glitches with Age for Neutron Stars
دراسة ميكانيكية عدم الانتظام الظاهري للنبضات مع عمر النجوم النيوترونية

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Glitches are sudden increases in the rotational frequency (ν) of a neutron star. Glitches usually occur as fractional increase in the frequency of the order of ∆ν⁄ν =〖10〗^(-11)- 〖10〗^(-5).In this work we study the glitch in normal and magnetar pulsar stars, glitches are small or absent in the millisecond pulsar star because it is old star whereas the weak glitch activity of young pulsars by the fact that their internal temperatures are still too high for the crust to store a large stress .The results showed that NART (pulsed emission only at infrared) normal pulsar has more glitches than AXP (Anomalous X-ray Pulsar) and HE (Spin-powered pulsar with pulsed emission from radio to infrared or higher frequencies) stars, as the same time HE stars have more glitches than AXP, in a good agreement with the previous studies. From the results can be conclude that study of neutron star glitches is a very important study in the evolution of neutron star as it helps in probing the neutron star interior.


Article
Study the Wet Region in Anbar Province by Use Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) Techniques
دراسة المناطق الرطبة في محافظة الانبار باستخدام تقنيات التحسس النائي ونظم المعلومات الجغرافية

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Abstract

Recently, in the last years, the world interested with Ecosystem is increased, and that is interrelation with global atmospherically, by the existence followed continuous animate variables, that is immediately influence at ecosystem nature by inspection systems process such as satellite imagery or aerial photographs, that can determination the wetland regions which aid fulfillment balance globe ecosystem. In this study a determination of wetland regions in IRAQ, was done for Anbar province, because many of regions Saturated with water or sponge and aquatic of plant, additionally, existence metrology factors that significant role were depended to be as important factor to define the wetland regions as temperatures, relative humidity, and rainfall. The ArcMap-GIS tools of interpolation tchniques of IDW type were applied to interpolate these metrology data exact interpolation. Also remote sensing is utilized exploitation Landsat satellite imagery production of 2007 year for March month, and it is processing by vegetables and (water, rainwater) regions determination, and it may processed variable factors measurements for metrology subject at regions by determined affirmative influence wetland activeness by using geographic information system (GIS).


Article
Detecting and Monitoring the Vegetal Cover of Karbala Province (Iraq) Using Change Detection Methods
كشف ومراقبة الغطاء النباتي لمحافظة كربلاء (العراق) باستخدام طرق كشف التغيرات

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Karbala province was one of the most important areas in Iraq and considered an economic resource of vegetation such as trees of fruits, sieve and other vegetation. This research aimed to utilize change detection for investigating the current vegetation cover at last three decay. The main objectives of this research are collect a group of studied area (Karbala province) satellite images in sequence time for the same area, these image captured by Landsat (TM 1995, ETM+ 2005 and Landsat 8 OLI (Operational Land Imager) 2015. Preprocessing such as atmosphere correction and rectification has been done. Mosaic model between the parts of studied area was performing. Gap filling consider being very important step has been implied on the defected image which captured in Landsat 2005. For monitoring the changes in the studied area, many image processing such as supervised classification using Maximum likelihood classifier and support vector machine classifier have been applied. Target detection using matching filter and change detection using subtractive method also have been used to detect the change in vegetal cover of the studied area. Many histogram and statistical properties were illustrated as well as the pixel count and the target area has been computed.


Article
Detection of Snow Cover using NDSI and False Color Methods
الكشف عن الغطاء الثلجي بأستخدام طرق الاختلاف المعياري لمؤشر الجليد واللون الكاذب

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Snowfall is one of the most important natural phenomena that can be seen in the winter which is considered as a rare phenomenon in the Middle East. Snow is covering parts of mountains in northern Iraq and neighboring countries in the first months of the year. In this research, the snow cover can be detected and monitored using pseudo color method, and the Normalized Difference Snow INDECES (NDSI). Snow cover is difficult to detect in true color satellite images because the white color of snow cover is the same color with the cloud cover. Modis sensors that carried by Terra and Equa satellites images have been used in different bands and different resolution and the case studied in 4/2/2017, 5/2/2017.

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