Table of content

Journal of Engineering

مجلة الهندسة

ISSN: 17264073 25203339
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Engineering
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Journal Engineering was issued in 1986. It was Stopped from 1990 – 1997 because of the economic blockade. It restarted publication after the fourth scientific engineering conference for it published the papers that were accepted in the conference.
It is a scientific engineering journal refereed by specialized and qualified professors in most of the engineering fields and those Specialists in the issued by the college of Engineering university of Baghdad .It was serenely publibued , but from 2011 it has issued of monthly for the numerous papers submitted to the journal to publish their papers in this scientific journal in addition to some of the Arabs professors because the journal is considered one of the valued journals in the Arabic homelan .
Many professions were the head editor of the journal from its first issue. The first one was prof.dr. Laith Ismail Namiq then prof.dr. Mohammed A.Alawis ,prof.dr.Ali A Al – kilidar prof.dr. Abdul-Ilah Younis and currently Prof.dr.Qais S. Ismail.

AIMS AND SCOPE

The Journal of Engineering is an open access, monthly, refereed, peer-reviewed journal. It focuses on the different disciplines of engineering.

Its scope is to cover almost all the aspects of engineering and technology and their related topics. The Journal of Engineering tries to emphasize on publishing high-quality papers with an acceptable, professional and considerable background.

The submitted papers undergo plagiarism, a double-blind peer review by professionals in the paper specific specialty. This process is accomplished according to the Journal criteria of evaluation, where the manuscript, contents, and organization of the paper are to be checked. The papers will be available online for the readers.

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Contact info

Jadriyah, Baghdad
Iraq
Mobile:+964 7714076860
Email: info@jcoeng.edu.iq
https://www.jcoeng.edu.iq

Table of content: 2017 volume:23 issue:9

Article
Optimum Dimensions of Hydraulic Structures and Foundation Using Genetic Algorithm coupled with Artificial Neural Network
الأبعاد المثلى لتراكيب الحماية ولأرضية منشأت هيدروليكية بأستخدام مدمج خوارزمية جينية ونموذج شبكة عصبية اصطناعية

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Abstract

A model using the artificial neural networks and genetic algorithm technique is developed for obtaining optimum dimensions of the foundation length and protections of small hydraulic structures. The procedure involves optimizing an objective function comprising a weighted summation of the state variables. The decision variables considered in the optimization are the upstream and downstream cutoffs lengths and their angles of inclination, the foundation length, and the length of the downstream soil protection. These were obtained for a given maximum difference in head, depth of impervious layer and degree of anisotropy. The optimization carried out is subjected to constraints that ensure a safe structure against the uplift pressure force and sufficient protection length at the downstream side of the structure to overcome an excessive exit gradient. The Geo-studio software was used to analyze 1200 different cases. For each case the length of protection (L) and volume of structure (V) required to satisfy the safety factors mentioned previously were estimated for the input values, namely, the upstream cutoff depth (S1), the downstream cutoff depth (S2), the foundation width (B), the angle of inclination of the upstream cutoff (Ɵ1) and the angle of inclination of the downstream cutoff (Ɵ2), H (difference head), kr (degree of anisotropy) and D (depth of impervious layer). An ANN model was developed and verified using these cases input-output sets as its data base. A MatLAB code was written to perform a genetic algorithm optimization modeling coupled with this ANN model using a formulated optimization model. A sensitivity analysis was done for selecting the cross-over probability, the mutation probability and level, the number of population, the position of the crossover and the weights distribution for all the terms of the objective function. Results indicate that the most factors that affects the optimum solution is the number of population required. The minimum value that gives stable global optimum solution of this parameter is (30000) while other variables have little effect on the optimum solution.


Article
The Phenomenon of Division and Modification of The Individual Houses in Baghdad after 2003
ظاهرة تقسيم و تحوير المسكن المنفرد في بغداد بعد 2003

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Abstract

The Research deals with the negative phenomena which appeared in the urban scenes of the Iraqi cities after 2003, particularly trespassing the architectural design of the urban Individual houses. Many academic researchers , critics, and cultural circles, drawn attention to the impact of political and cultural variable change on such phenomena without detailed analysis . The research problem is set according to central questions : If the phenomena is the trespass , what are the sides which are being trespassed in the division of the individual house? , If the diagnosis of the phenomena denotes perceived repetition of the cases , So what's size of this transposes on the architectural design of the individual house? , and what are its connections socially and economically ? The research problem diagnosis by: The lack of knowledge about the impact of the phenomena of trespassing on the architectural design of the individual house specifically?. The research target is to explain the range of the spreading of trespass in these houses with objective , social , economical investigation, Then clarify the phenomena's impact on the architectural design of individual house in Baghdad. The theoretical frame is built to extract the research indicators ( economic, social and design) theoretically , then enhance them with the study of the development of the urban house in Baghdad along the 20th century. The indicators were applied on (12) samples were distributed on (2) residential districts, (Palestine Street, AL- Sadr City) which they are various in the residential areas and they different in the social and economic level of the their dwelling, and their houses have modifications and divisions, then find its impact on the designing level of the individual house in Baghdad after 2003. The results showed that both districts in Baghdad houses have this kind of illegal division and (non efficient , non functional relationship and some of them non ventilation) , the spread of the phenomenon reflects that there are special details in the methods of division and the modification of the houses ,That should be a widely reviewed to get to limit this Regulations in precedent phenomena and regain the residential cultural of the city.


Article
Experimental study on performance of laterally loaded plumb and battered piles in layered sand
دراسة مختبرية حول أداء الركائز المائلة و العمودية المحملة جانبيــــــــــا في تربة رملية متعددة الطبقات

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Abstract

This study introduces a series of single and pile group model tests subjected to lateral loads in multilayered sand from Karbala, Iraq. The aim of this study is to investigate: the performance of the pile groups subjected to lateral loads; in which the pile batter inclination angle is changed; the effect of pile spacing (s/d) ratio, the influence of using different number of piles and pile group configuration. Results revealed that the performance of single negative (Reverse) Battered piles with inclination of 10° and 20° show a gain of 32% and 76 % in the ultimate lateral capacity over the regular ones. For pile groups, the use of a combination of regular, negative and positive battered piles in different angles of inclination within the same group shows a significant increase in the ultimate lateral load carrying capacity. Increasing the spacing between piles in groups of the same category shows an increase in the group efficiency, also changing the piles number within the group by using different patterns will influence the ultimate lateral resistance of the pile group.


Article
Advertising Technology and Visual Attraction of Cities Centers
تكنولوجيا الإعلان والجذب البصري لمراكز المدن

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Abstract

Advertising technology represents a component of elements of the visual attraction in the urban scape, made its way transmission process of messages between the ends of the source of information (sender) and the Destination information (receiver) of the final recipient of the message, It serves as a social marked and a means of cultural expression, It is part of the inalienable in creating identity and determine the spatial relationships and also is a reflection of urban culture to the community. This technology has become an increasing feature of the present era, characterized as the era of the three revolutions: (the information revolution, the technology revolution, and the media revolution), Where it became an integral part of the visual system surrounding of urban our environment in which we live,, And it worked to change the contemporary urban experience through the attraction and love to stay and stimulating social interactions within a decade and urban spaces that contain the contemporary urban forms, and this is what it will focus the research. The research’s problem is determined by :there is no clear perception about the definition of advertisement technology and its impact on the urban scape of the city centers according the concept of visual attraction. And clarify the goal of research in : Definition advertising technology and determine the most important aspects and indicators according the concept of visual attraction of the city centers. To achieve this goal was adopted the following approach: building a conceptual framework for technology advertising through definition of the basic concepts of research and review the historical development of it within the framework of the urban scape, and then a study of the most important intellectual concepts associated represented by (communication theory) and built in investigating this technology (communication channel) aims to deliver a message or information from the sender to the receiver, and then a review of the most important spaces of the approved city centers on advertising technology in its design in the light of the theoretical framework found in the research. The research found the conclusions of the group summed up in the idea: that technology advertising is part of the urban scape of the centers of contemporary cities, aims to active urban spaces and create tourist landmarks and attractors elements ,It works to attract the attention of the public and increase understanding and awareness levels, in addition to its positive role in enhancing the image of the urban scape through several mechanisms: attractions characteristics by achieving factor: : (spatial dimension - dynamics content that is (interactively or expressions), and functional attract (marketing- tourist- social) and depending on a number of effects which :( effects of consumer culture, influences social, economic effects).


Article
Reactive Adsorption Desulfurization by Nanocrystalline ZnO/Zeolite A Molecular Sieves
ازالة الكبريت بواسطة الامتزاز التفاعلي باستخدام المناخل الجزيئية الزيولايتAالنانوي/ اوكسيد الخارصين

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Abstract

Nanocrystalline ZnO/Zeolite type A composite was prepared by simple method of operation by the precipitation of zinc oxide and loading on zeolite 5A in one step. Characterization was made by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence(XRF), N2 adsorption- desorption for BET surface area, and Atomic force microscopy (AFM). Results showed that zinc oxide was loaded on zeolite as noticed by the characteristic peaks and was of nano scale having an average diameter of 88.57nm. The percentage loading of ZnO on zeolite A was 28.37% and the surface area was 222m2/g. The activity of the prepared catalyst was examined in the desulfurization of double hydrogenated diesel fuel. The process was investigated in a controlled autoclave with temperature range studied 100-220oC. Results indicated an oxidation of thiophenic compounds on the surface of the catalyst coupled with adsorption. About 35% reduction was obtained and the capacity was 10.56 mg S/g catalyst.


Article
Optimal Indicators to Select the Engineering Consultancy Office For Higher Education Institutions in Iraq
المؤشرات المثلى لاختيارالمكتب الاستشاري الهندسي في مؤسسات التعليم العالي العراقية

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Abstract

Expansion the engineering consultancy offices in the universities of Iraq, about (14) offices, leading to increas the competition between them, especially after the great trends of Iraqi government agencies to use the academic experiences and their efficiencies in general, due to non-existence of the engineering qualification in the government institutions to do the engineering designs ,supervision of projects and other engineering works which are practicing by the engineering consultancy offices in order to get the best performance of the work.Within this serious competition, needing a specific approach to enable government agencies to choose the optimal and alternative consultancy office to meet specific project and not rely on cronyism and personal relationships that have become prevalent in Iraq and causing administrative corruption, which will not achieve the owner requirements and thus will affect the requirements needed in the project . The researcher used the descriptive analysis to describe and evaluate the results of the study using the sign test which is a non-parametric test, appropriate in ordinal data. Decision makers can use the final results to select the suitable engineering office, it can be regarded as an important database through the support of the basic criteria and subcriteria used in the analysis compiled by a researcher from the International and Arab refernces as well as a realistic local criteria in Iraq.


Article
Study and Analysis of Concentric Shell and Double Tube Heat Exchanger Using - Al2O3 Nanofluid
الدراسات والتحاليل للمبادل الحراري ذو القشرة والانابيب المتداخلة المتمركزة باستخدام مائع نانوي كاما اوكسيد الالمنيوم

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Abstract

Heat exchanger is an important device in the industry for cooling or heating process. To increase the efficiency of heat exchanger, nanofluids are used to enhance the convective heat transfer relative to the base fluid. - Al2O3/water nanofluid is used as cold stream in the shell and double concentric tube heat exchanger counter current to the hot stream basis oil. These nanoparticles were of particle size of 40 nm and it was mixed with a base fluid (water) at volume concentrations of 0.002% and 0.004%. The results showed that each of Nusselt number and overall heat transfer coefficient increased as nanofluid concentrations increased. The pressure drop of nanofluid increased slightly than the base fluid because of the low concentration used.


Article
Enhanced Performance of Consensus Wireless Sensor Controlled System via Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm
تحسين اداء منظومة مسيطرة للكشاف اللاسلكي الجمعي بواسطة خوارزمية حشد الجسيمات الامثلية

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Abstract

This paper describes the application of consensus optimization for Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) system. Consensus algorithm is usually conducted within a certain number of iterations for a given graph topology. Nevertheless, the best Number of Iterations (NOI) to reach consensus is varied in accordance with any change in number of nodes or other parameters of graph topology. As a result, a time consuming trial and error procedure will necessary be applied to obtain best NOI. The implementation of an intelligent optimization can effectively help to get the optimal NOI. The performance of the consensus algorithm has considerably been improved by the inclusion of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). As a case study, variable number of nodes in a network with a random graph topology has been considered. Simulation results show that significant reduction in the NOI and power consumption has been achieved, where it decreased the NOI about 40 iteration; when using PSO for different number of nodes in the specified network.


Article
Urban agriculture as one of the ecological applications of the regenerative city
الزراعة الحضرية احدى التطبيقات الايكولوجية للمدينة المنتجة

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Abstract

Recently, several concepts and expressions have emerged that have often preoccupied the world around the concept of environment and sustainability. This is due to the negative and irresponsible impact of man and his innovations in various industrial and technological fields that have damaged the natural environment. Architecture and cities at the broader level are some of the man made components that caused these negative impacts and in the same time affected by them. What distinguishes architectural and urban projects is the consumption of large quantities of natural resources and production larger amounts of waste and pollution, along the life of these projects. At the end of the twentieth century and the beginning of the twenty-first century, the developed countries presented new concepts and methods that were not previously familiar with the design and implementation of architectural projects to reflect the growing interest in urban sectors issues to protect the environment and reduce consumption to reach the optimal utilization of natural resources. This leads to develop a new term called the Regenerative City. Here appeared the general research problem concerning the regenerative city and its objectives and the special research problem concerning urban agriculture and its relationship with the regenerative city, besides how urban agriculture will affect the city. The hypothesis of the research is that urban agriculture in its various forms (horizontal or vertical) is an essential and integral part of the regenerative city, and it will affect the city planning, this will require including this usage in the city master plan as a new form of land use. The research aims to show the possibilities of using urban agriculture in its different forms within the urban fabric.


Article
Finite Element Analysis of UHPC Corbels
التحليل بطريقة العناصر المحددة للكتائف الخرسانية عالية الكفاءة

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Abstract

Finite element method is the most widely numerical technique used in engineering field. Through the study of behavior of concrete material properties, various concrete constitutive laws and failure criteria have been developed to model the behavior of concrete. A feature of the Finite Element program (ATENA) is used in this study to model the behavior of UHPC corbel under concentrated load only. The Finite Element (FE) model is followed by verification against experimental results. Some variable effects on the shear capacity of the UHPC corbels are also demonstrated in a parametric study. A proposed design equation of shear strength of UHPC corbel was presented and checked with numerical results.


Article
Energy Analysis of Solar Collector With perforated Absorber Plate
تحليل الطاقة لمجمع شمسي ذو صفيحة امتصاص مثقبة

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Abstract

The thermal performance of three solar collectors with 3, 6 mm holes and without perforation absorber plate was experimentally assessed. The experimental tests were implemented in Baghdad during January and February 2017. Five values of airflow rates range between 0.01 – 0.1 m3/s were used through the test with a constant airflow rate during the test day. The variation of the following parameters was recorded every 15 minutes air temperature difference, useful energy, absorber plate temperature, and collector efficiency. The experimental data reported that the number of absorber plate perforations with a small diameters is more efficient than increasing the hole diameters of the absorber plate with decreasing the perforation numbers. The maximum air temperature difference throughout the solar collector with 3, 6 mm perforations and without perforations were 17, 15, and 12 oC, respectively. Also, it can be conclude that the energy gained from the solar collector with 3 mm perforation absorber plate is 28.2 % higher than the energy gained from solar collector without holes per day for 0.1 m3/s airflow rate. The maximum values of the thermal performance curves were 67 %, 64 %, and 56 % for the solar collector with 3, 6 mm, and without perforations, respectively.

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